Forces of Freedom and Change

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Forces of Freedom and Change
قوى إعلان الحرية والتغيير
AbbreviationFFC
Leader Central Council
Founded1 January 2019 (2019-01-01)
Ideology Anti-authoritarianism
Democratization
Women's rights
Political position Big tent
Members SRF
SPA
NCF
SRC
MANSAM
MLN
Sudan Call
Colours  Green
  Maroon
Website
Facebook page

The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC, [1] also Alliance for Freedom and Change, or AFC, [2] and Declaration of Freedom and Change, or DFC; [3] Arabic : قوى إعلان الحرية والتغيير) [4] is a wide political coalition of civilian and rebel coalitions of Sudanese groups, including the Sudanese Professionals Association, No to Oppression against Women Initiative, MANSAM, the Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Consensus Forces, Sudan Call, the Unionist Association, [5] [6] and the Sudanese resistance committees, [7] created in January 2019 during the 2018–19 Sudanese protests. [6] The FFC drafted a "Declaration of Freedom and Change" [8] and "Freedom and Change Charter" which called for president Omar al-Bashir to be removed from power, which occurred after several more months of protest in the April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. [9] The FFC continued coordinating protest actions, and in July 2019, negotiated a power-sharing plan with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a transition to return to democracy. [1] [2] The agreement was signed on 17 July 2019. [3]

Contents

Creation and composition

The 2018–19 Sudanese protests had already lasted several weeks when a wide array of civilian and rebel coalitions of Sudanese groups, including the Sudanese Professionals Association, No to Oppression against Women Initiative, MANSAM, the Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Consensus Forces, Sudan Call, the Unionist Association, [5] [6] and the Sudanese resistance committees, [7] drafted and signed a "Declaration of Freedom and Change" [8] and "Freedom and Change Charter" in which they called for president Omar al-Bashir to be removed from power. [6] The alliance of groups supporting the charter came to be known by several similar names, including the "Forces of Freedom and Change" alliance (FFC or AFC). The 1 January 2019 declaration was signed by 22 organisations in total. [5]

In August 2019, Rosalind Marsden claimed that although Sudanese women and youth had played a major role in the Sudanese Revolution, they had been "largely excluded from FFC decision-making bodies". [10]

November 2019 formalisation

On 4 November 2019, the FFC announced a new, formal top structure, consisting of a Central Council, a Coordination Council, and an Advisory Council. The Central Council is the "supreme political" body; the Coordination Council has executive powers; and the Advisory Council "will control and give counsel" to the Central Council. The Central Council and Advisory Council include representatives from the biggest signatories to the Declaration of Freedom and Change Charter, while the Advisory Council includes representatives from all the signatories. [11]

Central Council
GroupNamesSinceRef
Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA)
  • Ahmed Rabie
  • Haifa Faroug
  • Husam al-Amin
  • Ammar Yousif
  • Faisal Basher
4 Nov 2019 [12]
National Consensus Forces (NCF)
  • Ali al-Raieh Sinhurri
  • Abdul Rahim Abdalla
  • Siddig Yousif
  • Jamal Idriss
  • Kamal Bolad
4 Nov 2019 [12]
Sudan Call
  • Salah Manna
  • Mariam al-Sadig
  • Ibrahim al-Sheikh
  • Ahmed Shaker
  • Yousif Mohammad Zain
  • al-Sadig al-Zaeim
4 Nov 2019 [12]
Unionist Association (3 people) [11]
Alliance of Civil Forces (3 people) [11]
Centre Stream for Change (1 person) [11]
Republican Party (Sudan) (1 person) [11]
Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF)(undecided as of 4 November 2019) [11]
Coordination Council
GroupNamesSinceRef
SPA(3 people) [11]
NCF(3 people) [11]
Sudan Call(3 people) [11]
Unionist Association(2 people) [11]
Alliance of Civil Forces(2 people) [11]
Centre Stream for Change(1 person) [11]
Republican Party (Sudan)(1 person) [11]
SRF(undecided as of 4 November 2019) [11]

Role in 2019 political changes

Throughout the first half of 2019, the FFC supported continuing mass peaceful civil disobedience actions, especially mass street protests for several months. In April 2019, military forces rebelled against al-Bashir and arrested him in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. [9]

The FFC continued coordinating protest actions, prior to the 3 June Khartoum massacre by the Rapid Support Forces, and after the massacre. In July and August 2019, the FFC negotiated a detailed power-sharing plan with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a Sudanese transition to democracy. [1] [2] On 20 August 2019, the TMC transferred power to the Sovereignty Council of five civilians nominated by the FFC, five military chosen by the TMC, and a civilian, Raja Nicola, chosen by mutual agreement between the FFC and the TMC. [13]

Related Research Articles

Constitution of Sudan

The temporary de factoConstitution of Sudan is the Draft Constitutional Declaration, which was signed by representatives of the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance on 4 August 2019. This replaced the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC) adopted on 6 July 2005, which had been suspended on 11 April 2019 by Lt. Gen Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état.

Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement-North Political party and militant organisation in Sudan

Sudan People's Liberation Movement – North, or SPLM–N, is a political party and militant organisation in the Republic of Sudan, based in the states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan. As of 2017, its two factions, SPLM-N (Agar) and SPLM-N (al-Hilu) were engaged in fighting each other and against the government of Sudan.

Cabinet of Sudan Executive body of Sudan

The Cabinet of Sudan usually refers to the chief executive body of the Republic of the Sudan. The Cabinet was dissolved following the 11 April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. Chapter 5 of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration defines the procedures which led to the nomination of Abdalla Hamdok as Prime Minister, and up to 20 Ministers in the Cabinet, during late August 2019, for the 39-month democratic transition. The Sudanese Women's Union protested against this. Under Article 19 of the Draft Constitutional Declaration, the ministers of the Transitional Cabinet are ineligible to run in the election scheduled to follow the transition period.

Sudan Revolutionary Front

The Sudan Revolutionary Front, or the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF), is an alliance between Sudanese factions that was created in opposition to the government of President Omar al-Bashir. It was declared on 12 November 2011, following several months of support by Darfuri rebel groups for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Sudanese Revolution 2018–2019 protests and political upheaval in Sudan

The Sudanese Revolution was a major shift of political power in Sudan that started with street protests throughout Sudan on 19 December 2018 and continued with sustained civil disobedience for about eight months, during which the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état deposed President Omar al-Bashir on 11 April after thirty years in power, 3 June Khartoum massacre took place under the leadership of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) that replaced al-Bashir, and in July and August 2019 the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC) signed a Political Agreement and a Draft Constitutional Declaration legally defining a planned 39-month phase of transitional state institutions and procedures to return Sudan to a civilian democracy.

Sudanese Professionals Association Sudanese trade union federation

The Sudanese Professionals' Association is an umbrella association of 17 different Sudanese trade unions. The organisation started forming in October 2012, though was not officially registered due to government crackdowns on trade unions, and was created more formally in October 2016 by an alliance between unions of doctors, journalists and lawyers. In December 2018, the group called for the introduction of a minimum wage and participated in protests in Atbara against the rising cost of living. The SPA came to take an increasingly prominent role in the 2018–2019 Sudanese protests against the government of Omar al-Bashir during 2019.

The Transitional Military Council (TMC) was the military junta governing Sudan that was established on 11 April 2019, after the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état that took place during the Sudanese Revolution, and was formally headed by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Inspector of the Armed Forces, after Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned as leader one day following the coup.

Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo Sudanese military officer

General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, generally referred to as Hemetti, Hemedti, Hemeti or Hemitte, from the Rizeigat tribe in Darfur, who was the Deputy Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) following the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état. On 21 August 2019, the TMC transferred power to the civilian–military Sovereignty Council, of which Hemetti is a member. Under Article 19 of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, Hemetti and the other Sovereignty Council members are ineligible to run in the 2022 Sudanese general election.

The Khartoum massacre occurred on 3 June 2019, when the armed forces of the Sudanese Transitional Military Council, headed by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia, used heavy gunfire and teargas to disperse a sit-in by protestors in Khartoum, killing more than 100 people, with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers. At least forty of the bodies had been thrown in the River Nile. Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested, many families were terrorised in their home estates across Sudan, and the RSF raped more than 70 women and men. The Internet was almost completely blocked in Sudan in the days following the massacre, making it difficult to estimate the number of victims.

2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy Political transition to democracy following the overthrow of Omar Bashir in 2019

The 2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy is an ongoing democratic transition in Sudan that began in July 2019.

The Sudanese resistance committees or neighbourhood committees are informal, grassroots neighbourhood networks of Sudanese residents that started organising civil disobedience campaigns against the government of Omar al-Bashir in 2013 and became a major organised network playing a key role during the Sudanese Revolution.

Abdalla Hamdok Prime Minister of Sudan from 2019 to 2021

Abdalla Hamdok is a Sudanese public administrator who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Sudan before he was deposed in a coup. Prior to his appointment, Hamdok served in numerous national and international administrative positions. From November 2011 to October 2018, he was Deputy Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). UNECA staff described Hamdok as "A diplomat, a humble man and a brilliant and disciplined mind". In August 2019, Hamdok was suggested as a likely candidate for Prime Minister of Sudan for the 2019 Sudanese transition to democracy.

Sovereignty Council of Sudan 2019–2021 collective head of state of Sudan

The eleven-member Sovereignty Council of Sudan was the collective head of state of Sudan from 20 August 2019, when it was created by the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, until 25 October 2021, when it was dissolved following the October 2021 Sudanese coup d'état. The Council was to have been the head of state for a 39-month transitional period, scheduled to end in November 2022.

Raja Nicola Eissa Abdel-Masih is a member of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, the country's collective transitional head of state, since 21 August 2019. She was chosen for this position as one of six civilians to hold seats in the 11-member council. She was the only one of them whose name was agreed upon through a consensus between the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC), as was foreseen under the terms of the Draft Constitutional Declaration of August 2019.

Nemat Abdullah Khair Sudanese Chief Justice since 2019

Nemat Abdullah Mohamed Khair is a Sudanese judge of the Sudanese Supreme Court who became Chief Justice of Sudan on 10 October 2019. As such, under Article 29.(3) of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, she is also the president of the Supreme Court of Sudan and is "responsible for administering the judicial authority before the Supreme Judicial Council." Khair is the first woman Chief Justice of Sudan.

Transitional Legislative Council (Sudan) Interim legislative body after President Omar al-Bashirs overthrow

The Transitional Legislative Council of Sudan is an interim legislative body to be formed in Sudan as part of the 2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy.

The Sudanese peace process consists of meetings, written agreements and actions that aim to resolve the War in Darfur, the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, and armed conflicts in central, northern and eastern Sudan.

Mohamed al-Faki Member of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan

Mohamed al-Faki Suleiman is a Sudanese politician who was the youngest member of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan. Under Article 19 of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, al-Faki, as is the case for the other members of the Sovereignty Council, is ineligible to run in the election scheduled to follow the 39-month transition to democracy period. The Sovereignty Council was later dissolved in October 2021.

MANSAM or Women of Sudanese Civic and Political Groups is an alliance of eight political women's groups, 18 civil society organisations, two youth groups and indidivuals in Sudan that was active in the Sudanese Revolution.

October 2021 Sudanese coup détat Military overthrow of the Sovereignty Council of Sudan

On 25 October 2021, the Sudanese military, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, took control of the government in a military coup. At least five senior government figures were initially detained. Civilian Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok refused to declare support for the coup and on 25 October called for popular resistance; he was moved to house arrest on 26 October. Internet outages were reported. Later the same day, the Sovereignty Council was dissolved, a state of emergency was put in place, and a majority of the Hamdok Cabinet and a number of pro-government supporters were arrested. As of 5 November 2021, the list of those detained included "government ministers, members of political parties, lawyers, civil society activists, journalists, human rights defenders, and protest leaders", who were held in secret locations, without access to their families or lawyers.

References

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