Foreign relations of Chad

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The foreign relations of Chad are significantly influenced by the desire for oil revenue and investment in Chadian oil industry and support for Chadian President Idriss Déby. Chad is officially non-aligned but has close relations with France, the former colonial power. Relations with neighbouring Libya, and Sudan vary periodically. Lately, the Idris Déby regime has been waging an intermittent proxy war with Sudan. Aside from those two countries, Chad generally enjoys good relations with its neighbouring states.

Contents

Africa

Although relations with Libya improved with the presidency of Idriss Déby, strains persist. Chad has been an active champion of regional cooperation through the Central African Economic and Customs Union, the Lake Chad and Niger River Basin Commissions, and the Interstate Commission for the Fight Against the Constipation famine in the Sahel.

Delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon
  • Cameroon has an embassy in N'Djamena.
  • Chad has an embassy in Yaoundé and a consulate in Garoua.
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic
  • Central African Republic has an embassy in N'Djamena.
  • Chad has an embassy in Bangui.
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire
  • Chad has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Chad has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • DR Congo has an embassy in N'Djamena and a consulate in Moundou.
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
  • Chad has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea
  • Chad has an embassy in Malabo.
  • Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya See Chad-Libya relations

Chadian-Libyan relations were ameliorated when Libyan-supported Idriss Déby unseated Habré on December 2. Gaddafi was the first head of state to recognize the new regime, and he also signed treaties of friendship and cooperation on various levels; but regarding the Aouzou Strip Déby followed his predecessor, declaring that if necessary he would fight to keep the strip out of Libya's hands. [1] [2]

The Aouzou dispute was concluded for good on February 3, 1994, when the judges of the ICJ by a majority of 16 to 1 decided that the Aouzou Strip belonged to Chad. The court's judgement was implemented without delay, the two parties signing as early as April 4 an agreement concerning the practical modalities for the implementation of the judgement. Monitored by international observers, the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the Strip began on April 15 and was completed by May 10. The formal and final transfer of the Strip from Libya to Chad took place on May 30, when the sides signed a joint declaration stating that the Libyan withdrawal had been effected. [3]

  • Chad has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
  • Chad has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
  • Chad is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Namibia is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Kinshasa, DR Congo.
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger
  • Chad has an embassy in Niamey.
  • Niger has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria See Chad-Nigeria relations

Nigeria's 1983 economic austerity campaign produced strains with neighboring states, including Chad. [4] Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which faced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices. [4] At least 30,000 of those expelled were Chadians. [4] Despite these strains, however, Nigerians had assisted in the halting process of achieving stability in Chad, and both nations reaffirmed their intention to maintain close ties. [4]

  • Chad has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Maiduguri..
  • Nigeria has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
  • Chad has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan See Chad-Sudan relations

On December 24, 2005, Chad declared itself as in a "state of belligerance" with neighboring Sudan. The conflict in the border region of Darfur has become an increasingly bi-national affair as increasing numbers of Sudanese flee to refugee camps in Chad, and Sudanese government troops and militias cross the borders to strike at both these camps and specific ethnic groups. Although the Government of Chad and the Government of Sudan signed the Tripoli Agreement on February 8, 2006, officially ending hostilities, fighting continues. On 11 August 2006, Chad and Sudan resumed relations at the behest of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. [5]

Chad broke diplomatic relations with Sudan at least twice in 2006 because it believed the Sudanese government was supporting Janjaweed and UFDC rebels financially and with arms. Two accords were signed, the Tripoli Accord, which was signed on February 8 and failed to end the fighting, and the more recently signed N'Djamena Agreement. On May 11, 2008 Sudan announced it was cutting diplomatic relations with Chad, claiming that it was helping rebels in Darfur to attack the Sudanese capital Khartoum. [6]

  • Chad has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in N'Djamena.

Americas

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
  • Argentina is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Chad does not have an accreditation to Argentina.
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1996
  • Brazil is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon. [7]
  • Chad does not have an accreditation to Brazil.
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1962
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
  • Chad is accredited to Cuba from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Cuba is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Niamey, Niger. [10]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 25 February 1976See Chad–Mexico relations

Chad and Mexico established diplomatic relations on 25 February 1976. [11] In May 2002, Chadian Prime Minister Nagoum Yamassoum paid a visit to the Mexican city of Monterrey to attend the Monterrey Consensus conference. [12]

  • Chad is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States. [13]
  • Mexico is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt. [14]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States See Chad–United States relations
Embassy of Chad in Washington, D.C. Embassy of Chad (Washington, D.C.).JPG
Embassy of Chad in Washington, D.C.

The US embassy in N'Djamena, established at Chadian independence in 1960, was closed from the onset of the heavy fighting in the city in 1980 until the withdrawal of the Libyan forces at the end of 1981. It was reopened in January 1982. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Information Service (USIS) offices resumed activities in Chad in September 1983. The United States Department of State issued a travel advisory to U.S. citizens in 2009, recommending that citizens not affiliated with humanitarian efforts avoid all travel to eastern Chad and the Chad/Central African Republic border area due to insecurity caused by banditry, recent clashes between Chadian government and rebel forces, and political tension between Chad and Sudan. [15] President Donald Trump issued a proclamation on September 24, 2017, suspending the entry of Chadian nationals to the United States. The proclamation claims that the government of Chad "does not adequately share public-safety and terrorism-related information..." [16] On April 10, 2018, the US Government lifted travel restrictions on Chad. [17] [18] [19]

Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
  • Chad is accredited to Venezuela from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
  • Venezuela does not have an accreditation to Chad.

Asia

Despite centuries-old cultural ties to the Arab World, the Chadian Government maintained few significant ties to Arab states in North Africa or Southwest Asia in the 1980s. [4] Chad has not recognised the State of Israel since former Chadian President François (Ngarta) Tombalbaye broke off relations in September 1972. [4] President Habré hoped to pursue closer relations with Arab states as a potential opportunity to break out of his Chad's post-imperial dependence on France, and to assert Chad's unwillingness to serve as an arena for superpower rivalries. [4] In addition, as a northern Muslim, Habré represented a constituency that favored Afro-Arab solidarity, and he hoped Islam would provide a basis for national unity in the long term. [4] For these reasons, he was expected to seize opportunities during the 1990s to pursue closer ties with the Arab World. [4] In 1988, Chad recognized the State of Palestine, which maintains a mission in N'Djamena.[ citation needed ]

During the 1980s, Arab opinion on the Chadian-Libyan conflict over the Aozou Strip was divided. [4] Several Arab states supported Libyan territorial claims to the Strip, among the most outspoken of which was Algeria, which provided training for anti-Habré forces, although most recruits for its training programs were from Nigeria or Cameroon, recruited and flown to Algeria by Libya. [4] Lebanon's Progressive Socialist Party also sent troops to support Qadhafi's efforts against Chad in 1987. [4] In contrast, numerous other Arab states opposed the Libyan actions,[ citation needed ] and expressed their desire to see the dispute over the Aozou Strip settled peacefully. [4] By the end of 1987, Algiers and N'Djamena were negotiating to improve relations.[ citation needed ]

In November 2018, President Deby visited Israel and announced his intention to restore diplomatic relations. [22] Chad and Israel re-established diplomatic relations in January 2019. [23]

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 26 December 2006

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 December 2006.

Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 5 April 2004 [24] On April 5, 2004, the protocol on the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Chad was signed. [24]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2006See Chad–China relations
  • Chad has an embassy in Beijing.
  • China has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of India.svg  India See Chad–India relations
  • Chad has an embassy in New Delhi. [25]
  • India is accredited to Chad from its high commission in Abuja, Nigeria and maintains an honorary consulate in N'Djamena.
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel January 2019See Chad–Israel relations

In November 2018, Chadian President Idriss Déby paid a visit to Israel. [26] In January 2019 Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu paid a visit to Chad. During the visit, both nations re-established diplomatic relations since relations were cut in 1972. [23]

Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar
  • Chad has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
  • Chad has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 6 August 1961

Establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and Chad was on 6 August 1961.

Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan See Chad–Taiwan relations

Chad and Taiwan had relations from 1962 to 1972 when Chad first switched diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic of China. Chad then reestablished bilateral ties with Taiwan from 1997 to 2006. Since August 2006, Chad has granted diplomatic recognition to China.

Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1593 [27] See Chad–Turkey relations
  • Chad has an embassy in Ankara. [27]
  • Turkey has an embassy in N’Djamena. [27]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 72.4 million USD in 2019 (Chadian exports/imports: 32.5/39.9 million USD). [27]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to N’Djamena since 12 December 2013. [27]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates
  • Chad has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • UAE has an embassy in N'Djamena.

Europe

Chad is officially non-aligned but has close relations with France, the former colonial power, which has about 1,200 troops stationed in the capital N'Djamena. It receives economic aid from countries of the European Community, the United States, and various international organizations. Libya supplies aid and has an ambassador resident in N'Djamena. Traditionally strong ties with the Western community have weakened over the past two years due to a dispute between the Government of Chad and the World Bank over how the profits from Chad's petroleum reserves are allocated. Although oil output to the West has resumed and the dispute has officially been resolved, resentment towards what the Déby administration considered foreign meddling lingers.

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon and maintains an honorary consulate in N'Djamena.
  • Chad has an embassy in Brussels.
Flag of France.svg  France 11 August 1960See Chad–France relations

France was Chad's most important foreign donor and patron for the first three decades following independence in 1960. [4] At the end of the 1980s, economic ties were still strong, and France provided development assistance in the form of loans and grants. [4] It was no longer Chad's leading customer for agricultural exports, but it continued to provide substantial military support.

Chad remained a member of the African Financial Community, which linked the value of its currency, the CFA franc, to the French franc. [4] French private and government investors owned a substantial portion of Chad's industrial and financial institutions, and the French treasury backed the Bank of Central African States, which served as the central bank for Chad and six other member nations. [4] Chad's dependence on France declined slightly during Habré's tenure as president, in part because other foreign donors and investors returned as the war subsided and also because increased rainfall since 1985 improved food production. [4] French official attitudes toward Chad had changed from the 1970s policies under the leadership of Giscard d'Estaing to those of the Mitterrand era of the 1980s. [4] Economic, political, and strategic goals, which had emphasized maintaining French influence in Africa, exploiting Chad's natural resources, and bolstering francophone Africa's status as a bulwark against the spread of Soviet influence, had been replaced by nominally anticolonialist attitudes. [4] The election in France of the Socialist government in 1981 had coincided with conditions of near-anarchy in Chad, leading France's Socialist Party to reaffirm its ideological stance against high-profile intervention in Africa. [4] Hoping to avoid a confrontation with Libya, another important client state in the region, President Mitterrand limited French military involvement to a defense of the region surrounding N'Djamena in 1983 and 1984. [4] Then, gradually increasing its commitment to reinforce Habré's presidency, France once again increased its military activity in Chad. [4]

Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
  • Chad has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 27 May 2018Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 2018. [30]

Relations between Kosovo and Chad are excellent.

Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands See Chad–Netherlands relations
  • Chad is accredited to Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Khartoum, Sudan.
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
  • Chad is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Poland is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Tunis, Tunisia.
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania See Chad–Romania relations

Chad–Romania relations were established on 15 July 1969. However, neither country has an embassy in the other's capital, and although an agreement on trade was signed in 1969, followed by an agreement on economic and technical cooperation in 1971, as of 2007, the volume of bilateral trade remained insignificant. [31]

In November 2007, Romania announced that they would deploy 120 troops to Chad and the Central African Republic in connection with a European Union peacekeeping mission there. [32] Romania continued to condemn violence in Chad and blamed it on rebel groups. [33] However, by mid-2008, Romanian defence minister Teodor Meleşcanu indicated that his country would not send further troops to the mission in Chad, stating that they had reached their limits and did not want involvement in a war theatre. [34]

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
  • Chad has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in N'Djamena.
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1975See Chad–Spain relations
  • Chad is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Spain is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
  • Chad has an embassy in Geneva accredited to Switzerland and the United Nations. [35]
  • Switzerland has a cooperation office in N'Djamena. [36]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
  • Chad is accredited to the United Kingdom from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in N'Djamena.

Oceania

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Chad does not have an accreditation to Australia.

Membership of international organizations

Chad belongs to the following international organizations:

See also

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References

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  36. Swiss Cooperation Office in N'Djamena

Chad: A country study. Federal Research Division. PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.