Forest gardening

Last updated
Robert Hart's forest garden in Shropshire Forestgarden2.jpg
Robert Hart's forest garden in Shropshire

Forest gardening is a low-maintenance, sustainable, plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers to build a woodland habitat. Forest gardening is a prehistoric method of securing food in tropical areas. In the 1980s, Robert Hart coined the term "forest gardening" after adapting the principles and applying them to temperate climates. [1]

Contents

History

Since prehistoric times hunter-gatherers might have influenced forests, for instance in Europe by Mesolithic people bringing favored plants like hazel with them. [2] Forest gardens are probably the world's oldest form of land use and most resilient agroecosystem. [3] :124 [4] They originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified, protected and improved whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior foreign species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. [5] First Nation villages in Alaska with forest gardens, that were filled with nuts, stone fruit, berries, and herbs, were noted by an archeologist from the Smithsonian in the 1930s. [6]

Forest gardens are still common in the tropics and known by various names such as: home gardens in Kerala in South India, Nepal, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania; Kandyan forest gardens in Sri Lanka; [7] huertos familiares, the "family orchards" of Mexico. [8] These are also called agroforests and, where the wood components are short-statured, the term shrub garden is employed. Forest gardens have been shown to be a significant source of income and food security for local populations. [9]

Robert Hart adapted forest gardening for the United Kingdom's temperate climate during the 1980s. [1] His theories were later developed by Martin Crawford from the Agroforestry Research Trust and various permaculturalists such as Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke and Geoff Lawton.

In temperate climates

Robert Hart, forest gardening pioneer Robert Hart (horticulturist).jpg
Robert Hart, forest gardening pioneer

Hart began farming at Wenlock Edge in Shropshire with the intention of providing a healthy and therapeutic environment for himself and his brother Lacon. [10] Starting as relatively conventional smallholders, Hart soon discovered that maintaining large annual vegetable beds, rearing livestock and taking care of an orchard were tasks beyond their strength. However, a small bed of perennial vegetables and herbs he planted was looking after itself with little intervention.

Following Hart's adoption of a raw vegan diet for health and personal reasons, he replaced his farm animals with plants. The three main products from a forest garden are fruit, nuts and green leafy vegetables. [11] He created a model forest garden from a 0.12 acre (500 m2) orchard on his farm and intended naming his gardening method ecological horticulture or ecocultivation. [3] :45 Hart later dropped these terms once he became aware that agroforestry and forest gardens were already being used to describe similar systems in other parts of the world. [3] :28,43 He was inspired by the forest farming methods of Toyohiko Kagawa and James Sholto Douglas, and the productivity of the Keralan home gardens as Hart explains: "From the agroforestry point of view, perhaps the world's most advanced country is the Indian state of Kerala, which boasts no fewer than three and a half million forest gardens ... As an example of the extraordinary intensity of cultivation of some forest gardens, one plot of only 0.12 hectares (0.30 acres) was found by a study group to have twenty-three young coconut palms, twelve cloves, fifty-six bananas, and forty-nine pineapples, with thirty pepper vines trained up its trees. In addition, the smallholder grew fodder for his house-cow." [3] :4–5

Seven-layer system

The seven layers of the forest garden Forgard2-003.gif
The seven layers of the forest garden

Robert Hart pioneered a system based on the observation that the natural forest can be divided into distinct levels.

He used intercropping to develop an existing small orchard of apples and pears into an edible polyculture landscape consisting of the following layers:

  1. Canopy layer consisting of the original mature fruit trees.
  2. Low-tree layer of smaller nut and fruit trees on dwarfing rootstocks.
  3. Shrub layer of fruit bushes such as currants and berries.
  4. Herbaceous layer of perennial vegetables and herbs.
  5. Rhizosphere or ‘underground’ dimension of plants grown for their roots and tubers.
  6. Ground cover layer of edible plants that spread horizontally.
  7. ‘Vertical layer’ of vines and climbers.

A key component of the seven-layer system was the plants he selected. Most of the traditional vegetable crops grown today, such as carrots, are sun-loving plants not well selected for the more shady forest garden system. Hart favored shade-tolerant perennial vegetables.

Further development

The Agroforestry Research Trust, managed by Martin Crawford, runs experimental forest gardening projects on a number of plots in Devon, United Kingdom. [12] Crawford describes a forest garden as a low-maintenance way of sustainably producing food and other household products. [13]

Ken Fern had the idea that for a successful temperate forest garden a wider range of edible shade tolerant plants would need to be used. To this end, Fern created the organisation Plants for a Future which compiled a plant database suitable for such a system. Fern used the term woodland gardening, rather than forest gardening, in his book Plants for a Future. [14] [15]

Kathleen Jannaway, the cofounder of Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) with her husband Jack, [16] wrote a book outlining a sustainable vegan future called Abundant Living in the Coming Age of the Tree in 1991. The MCL promotes forest gardening and other types of vegan organic gardening. In 2009 it provided a grant of £1,000 to the Bangor Forest Garden project in Gwynedd, North West Wales. [17]

Kevin Bradley in the US called his property and nursery "Edible Forest" in 1985, which combined trees and field crops. Today, his business and the 2005 book Edible Forest Gardens have spawned little "edible forests" all over the world.

Permaculture

Bill Mollison, who coined the term permaculture , visited Robert Hart at his forest garden in Wenlock Edge in October 1990. [3] :149 Hart's seven-layer system has since been adopted as a common permaculture design element.

Numerous permaculturalists are proponents of forest gardens, or food forests, such as Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke, Eric Toensmeier and Geoff Lawton. [18] Bell started building his forest garden in 1991 and wrote the book The Permaculture Garden in 1995, Whitefield wrote the book How to Make a Forest Garden in 2002, Jacke and Toensmeier co-authored the two volume book set Edible Forest Gardens in 2005, and Lawton presented the film Establishing a Food Forest in 2008. [19] [20] [21]

In tropical climates

Forest gardens, or home gardens, are common in the tropics, using intercropping to cultivate trees, crops, and livestock on the same land. In Kerala in south India as well as in northeastern India, the home garden is the most common form of land use and is also found in Indonesia. One example combines coconut, black pepper, cocoa and pineapple. These gardens exemplify polyculture, and conserve much crop genetic diversity and heirloom plants that are not found in monocultures. Forest gardens have been loosely compared to the religious concept of the Garden of Eden. [22]

Americas

The BBC's Unnatural Histories claimed that the Amazon rainforest, rather than being a pristine wilderness, has been shaped by humans for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta . [23] Since the 1970s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land in the Amazon rainforest, furthering the evidence of Pre-Columbian civilizations. [24] [25]

On the Yucatán Peninsula, much of the Maya food supply was grown in "orchard gardens", known as pet kot. [26] The system takes its name from the low wall of stones (pet meaning 'circular' and kot, 'wall of loose stones') that characteristically surrounds the gardens. [27]

Africa

In many African countries, for example Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania, gardens are widespread in rural, periurban, and urban areas and they play an essential role in establishing food security. Most well known are the Chaga or Chagga gardens on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. These are an example of an agroforestry system. In many countries, women are the main actors in home gardening and food is mainly produced for subsistence. In North Africa, oasis-layered gardening with palm trees, fruit trees, and vegetables is a traditional type of forest garden.

Plants

Some plants, such as wild yam, work as both a root plant and a vine. Ground covers: Low-growing edible 'forest garden plants help keep weeds in control and provide a great way to utilize areas that would otherwise be unused. [28]

Plants

Project

El Pilar on the BelizeGuatemala border features a forest garden to demonstrate traditional Maya agricultural practices. [29] [30] A further one acre model forest garden, called Känan K’aax (meaning 'well-tended garden' in Mayan), is funded by the National Geographic Society and developed at Santa Familia Primary School in Cayo. [31]

In the United States, the largest known food forest on public land is believed to be the seven acre Beacon Food Forest in Seattle, Washington. [32] Other forest garden projects include those at the central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute in Basalt, Colorado and Montview Neighborhood farm in Northampton, Massachusetts. [33] [34] The Boston Food Forest Coalition promotes local forest gardens. [35] [36] [37] [38]

In Canada Richard Walker has been developing and maintaining food forests in British Columbia for over 30 years. He developed a three acre food forest that at maturity provided raw materials for a plant nursery and herbal business as well as food for his family. [39] The Living Centre has developed various forest garden projects in Ontario. [40]

In the United Kingdom, other than those run by the Agroforestry Research Trust (ART), there are numerous forest garden projects such as the Bangor Forest Garden in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. [41] Martin Crawford from ART administers the Forest Garden Network, an informal network of people and organisations who are cultivating forest gardens. [42] [43]

Since 2014, Gisela Mir and Mark Biffen have been developing a small-scale Edible Forest Garden ("Verger" in Catalan) in Cardedeu, a village near Barcelona, Catalunya. During their previous years of Permaculture training they were introduced to various Edible Forest Garden projects in Wales and other parts of the UK. It is intended as a space for experimentation and demonstration: "...we want to learn and test what it means to have an orchard in an area with a Mediterranean climate: which species grow well here; how to manage limiting aspects, such as water; and, above all, what design implications there are due to the characteristics of our climate and our latitude [44] ."  In April 2021, they published in Spanish the book "Food forests and edible gardens" (Bosques y jardines de alimentos) where they draw on their first experimental progresses and experiences, delving into the particularities of the Mediterranean climate through a book adapted to that climate and to those species. It is one of the first works on this subject not written in English.

A forest garden plays a significant role in the Video Read-Opera "Marisette's Voice," where it is the object of political machinations between two candidates for city council in the fictional city of Augusta, CY. It is also used as a metaphor for one type of society. [45] [46]

See also

France Loiret La Bussiere Potager 05.jpg   Gardeningportal

Notes

  1. 1 2 Crawford, Martin (2010). Creating a Forest Garden. Green Books. p. 18.
  2. Paschall, Max (2020-07-22). "The Lost Forest Gardens of Europe". Shelterwood Forest Farm. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Hart, Robert (1996). Forest Gardening: Cultivating an Edible Landscape (2nd ed.). White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green. ISBN   9781603580502.
  4. McConnell, Douglas John (2 March 2017). The forest farms of Kandy : and other gardens of complete design. ISBN   978-1-351-88963-6. OCLC   976441721. Forest gardens are probably the world's oldest form of land use and most resilient agroecosystem. They originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. ... Robert Hart adapted forest gardening for the United Kingdom's temperate climate during the 1980s.
  5. McConnell, Douglas John (1992). The Forest-Garden Farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka. p. 1. ISBN   9789251028988.
  6. Coan, K.E.D. (2021-05-18). "Indigenous forest gardens remain productive and diverse for over a century". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  7. Jacob, V. J.; Alles, W. S. (1987). "Kandyan gardens of Sri Lanka". Agroforestry Systems. 5 (2): 123. doi:10.1007/BF00047517. S2CID   40793796.
  8. "Inspector Gadget's green fingers and politics". Times Higher Education (THE). January 2, 2004. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012.
  9. McConnell, Douglas John (1973). The economic structure of Kandyan forest-garden farms.
  10. Burnett, Graham. "Seven Storeys of Abundance; A visit to Robert Hart's Forest Garden". Archived from the original on 2011-11-17.
  11. Whitefield, Patrick (2002). How to Make a Forest Garden. p. 5. ISBN   9781856230087.
  12. "Agroforestry Research Trust". Archived from the original on 2011-11-08.
  13. "Forest gardening". Agroforestry Research Trust. Archived from the original on 2013-02-11. Retrieved 13 Feb 2013.
  14. "Woodland Gardening". Archived from the original on 2011-11-28.
  15. "Plants for a Future - The book". Archived from the original on 2011-11-28.
  16. "Vegan Views 96 - Kathleen Jannaway 1915-2003: A Life Well Lived". www.veganviews.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-10-28.
  17. "Bangor Forest Garden" (PDF). The Movement for Compassionate Living - New Leaves (issue no.93). 2009: 6–8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-18.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. "About". Paradise Lot. 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2021-11-04.
  19. "Graham Bell's Forest Garden". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08.
  20. "Edible Forest Gardening". Archived from the original on 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  21. "Establishing a Food Forest review". Archived from the original on 2016-05-22.
  22. Bell, Graham (2004). The permaculture garden. Sarah Bunker. East Meon, Hampshire, U.K.: Permanent Publications. ISBN   1-85623-027-9. OCLC   60454349.
  23. "Unnatural Histories - Amazon". BBC Four. Archived from the original on 2015-12-29.
  24. Romero, Simon (January 14, 2012). "Once Hidden by Forest, Carvings in Land Attest to Amazon's Lost World". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016.
  25. Pärssinen, Martti; Schaan, Denise; Ranzi, Alceu (2009). "Pre-Columbian geometric earthworks in the upper Purús: a complex society in western Amazonia". Antiquity. 83 (322): 1084–1095. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00099373. S2CID   55741813.
  26. Smith, Michael Ernest; Masson, Marilyn A. (2000). The Ancient Civilizations of Mesoamerica. p. 127. ISBN   9780631211167.
  27. Lentz, David L., ed. (2000). Imperfect Balance: Landscape Transformations in the Precolumbian Americas. p. 212. ISBN   9780231111577.
  28. "How to Grow Plants from Seeds Step by Step - Webgardener - Gardening and Landscaping Made Simple".
  29. Ford, Anabel (May 2, 2009). "El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna". The Guatemala Times. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  30. Ford, Anabel (December 15, 2010). "Legacy of the Ancient Maya: The Maya Forest Garden". Popular Archaeology. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012.
  31. "National Geographic Society Funds Mayan Garden". Archived from the original on 2011-12-23.
  32. Mellinger, Robert (16 February 2012). "Nation's Largest Food Forest takes root on Beacon Hill". Crosscut. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  33. "The Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute". Archived from the original on 2013-05-24.
  34. "Montview Neighborhood farm". Archived from the original on 2008-10-24.
  35. Bukowski, Catherine; Munsell, John (2018). The Community Food Forest Handbook: How to Plan, Organize, & Nurture Edible Gathering Places. ISBN   9781603586443. Archived from the original on 2008-10-24.
  36. "Boston Food Forest". tell New England.
  37. "He's on a mission to turn Boston into a collection of food forests". Dorchester Reporter.
  38. "Community engagement sprouts fresh ideas and nonprofit leadership". GMA Foundations. May 10, 2018.
  39. "Richard Walker". Archived from the original on 2011-09-10.
  40. "Forest Gardening". Archived from the original on 2013-05-26.
  41. "Bangor Forest Garden". Archived from the original on 2013-08-01.
  42. "The Agroforestry and Forest Garden Network". Archived from the original on 2012-08-18.
  43. Crawford, Martin (2014). "List of visitable forest garden and agroforestry projects in the UK, Europe and North America". Agroforestry Research Trust.
  44. "El verger de Phoenicurus, un bosc comestible mediterrani". phoenicurus (in Catalan). 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  45. Buckwalter, Matthew (2020-11-18). "Marisette's Voice Act III". Youtube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 2020-11-20.
  46. Buckwalter, Matthew (2020-11-02). "Marisette's Voice Act II". Youtube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 2020-11-20.

Related Research Articles

Gardening Practice of growing and cultivating plants

Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture. In gardens, ornamental plants are often grown for their flowers, foliage, or overall appearance; useful plants, such as root vegetables, leaf vegetables, fruits, and herbs, are grown for consumption, for use as dyes, or for medicinal or cosmetic use.

Permaculture Agriculture practices using few energy resources and human intervention

Permaculture is an approach to land management and settlement design that adopts arrangements observed in flourishing natural ecosystems. It includes a set of design principles derived using whole systems thinking. It applies these principles in fields such as regenerative agriculture, town planning, rewilding, and community resilience. Permaculture originally came from "permanent agriculture", but was later adjusted to mean "permanent culture", incorporating social aspects. The term was coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978, who formulated the concept in opposition to Western industrialized methods and in congruence with Indigenous or traditional knowledge.

Orchard Intentionally planted trees or shrubs that are maintained for food production

An orchard is an intentional plantation of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are generally grown for commercial production. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale and may emphasize berry shrubs in preference to fruit trees. Most temperate-zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy.

Robert Hart (horticulturist) British gardener

Robert Adrian de Jauralde Hart was an English pioneer of forest gardening in temperate zones. He created a model forest garden from a 0.12 acre (500 m²) orchard on his farm. He credits the inspiration for his work to an article by James Sholto Douglas, which was in turn inspired by the work of Toyohiko Kagawa.(page 41)

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainable agriculture:

Outline of organic gardening and farming Overview of and topical guide to organic gardening and farming

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic gardening and farming:

Vegan organicagriculture is the organic production of food and other crops with minimal animal inputs. Vegan organic agriculture is the organic form of animal-free agriculture.

Mulch Layer of material applied to the surface of soil

A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil. Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture, improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and enhancing the visual appeal of the area.

Agroforestry Land use management system

Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This diversification of the farming system initiates an agroecological succession, like that in natural ecosystems, and so starts a chain of events that enhance the functionality and sustainability of the farming system. Trees also produce a wide range of useful and marketable products from fruits/nuts, medicines, wood products, etc. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has multiple benefits, such as greatly enhanced yields from staple food crops, enhanced farmer livelihoods from income generation, increased biodiversity, improved soil structure and health, reduced erosion, and carbon sequestration. Agroforestry practices are highly beneficial in the tropics, especially in subsistence smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa and have been found to be beneficial in Europe and the United States.

Plants For A Future (PFAF) is an online not for profit resource for those interested in edible and useful plants, with a focus on temperate regions. The organization's emphasis is on perennial plants.

Martin Crawford is a British author who is the founder and director of the Agroforestry Research Trust.

Forest farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under a forest canopy that is intentionally modified or maintained to provide shade levels and habitat that favor growth and enhance production levels. Forest farming encompasses a range of cultivated systems from introducing plants into the understory of a timber stand to modifying forest stands to enhance the marketability and sustainable production of existing plants.

Natural farming

Natural farming, also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "do-nothing farming", is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka (1913–2008). Fukuoka, a Japanese farmer and philosopher, introduced the term in his 1975 book The One-Straw Revolution. The title refers not to lack of effort, but to the avoidance of manufactured inputs and equipment. Natural farming is related to fertility farming, organic farming, sustainable agriculture, agroecology, agroforestry, ecoagriculture and permaculture, but should be distinguished from biodynamic agriculture.

The Agroforestry Research Trust (ART) is a British charitable incorporated organisation that researches temperate agroforestry and all aspects of plant cropping and uses, with a focus on tree, shrub and perennial crops. It produces several publications and a quarterly journal, and sells plants and seeds from its forest gardens.

Foodscaping

Foodscaping is a modern term for the practice of integrating edible plants into ornamental landscapes. It is also referred to as edible landscaping and has been described as a crossbreed between landscaping and farming. As an ideology, foodscaping aims to show that edible plants are not only consumable but can also be appreciated for their aesthetic qualities. Foodscaping spaces are seen as multi-functional landscapes which are visually attractive and also provide edible returns.

Climate-friendly gardening

Climate-friendly gardening is gardening in ways which reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from gardens and encourage the absorption of carbon dioxide by soils and plants in order to aid the reduction of global warming. To be a climate-friendly gardener means considering both what happens in a garden and the materials brought into it and the impact they have on land use and climate. It can also include garden features or activities in the garden that help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions elsewhere.

Community orchard

A community orchard is a collection of fruit trees shared by communities and growing in publicly accessible areas such as public greenspaces, parks, schools, churchyards, allotments or, in the US, abandoned lots. Such orchards are a shared resource and not managed for personal or business profit. Income may be generated to sustain the orchard as a charity, community interest company, or other non-profit structure. What they have in common is that they are cared for by a community of people.

<i>Rubus tricolor</i> Species of evergreen prostrate shrub native to southwestern China

Rubus tricolor is an evergreen prostrate shrub, native to southwestern China. Leaves are dark green above, pale green below, and stems have red bristles. It has white flowers in summer, and edible red fruit. It grows approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) high and usually forming a vigorously spreading, dense mat. In cultivation it is mainly used as groundcover. Common names include Chinese bramble, groundcover bramble, creeping bramble, Korean raspberry, Himalayan bramble, Groundcover Raspberry. In Chinese it is called 三色莓.


Eric Toensmeier is an author of several books focused on climate change, biodiversity, and nutrition. He is also a lecturer at Yale University and a Senior Biosequestration Fellow at Project Drawdown.

References