Forlì

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Forlì

Furlè  (Romagnol)
Comune di Forlì
Piazza Saffi al tramonto.JPG
Piazza Saffi
Forli-Stemma.png
Coat of arms
Location of Forlì
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
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Forlì
Location of Forlì in Italy
Italy Emilia-Romagna location map.svg
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Forlì
Forlì (Emilia-Romagna)
Coordinates: 44°14′N12°03′E / 44.233°N 12.050°E / 44.233; 12.050 Coordinates: 44°14′N12°03′E / 44.233°N 12.050°E / 44.233; 12.050
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Forlì-Cesena (FC)
Frazioni see list
Government
  Mayor Gian Luca Zattini (LN)
Area
[1]
  Total228.2 km2 (88.1 sq mi)
Elevation
34 m (112 ft)
Population
 (31 August 2017) [2]
  Total117,627
  Density520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Forlivesi
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
47121-47122
Dialing code 0543
Patron saintBeata Vergine del Fuoco
Saint dayFebruary 4
Website Official website

Forlì ( /fɔːrˈl/ for-LEE, Italian:  [forˈli] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Romagnol : Furlè [furˈlɛ] ; Latin : Forum Livii) is a comune (municipality) and city in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna.

Contents

The city is situated along the Via Emilia, to the right of the Montone river, and is an important agricultural centre. [3] The city hosts some of Italy's culturally and artistically significant landmarks; it is also notable as the birthplace of painters Melozzo da Forlì and Marco Palmezzano, humanist historian Flavio Biondo, physicians Geronimo Mercuriali and Giovanni Battista Morgagni. The University Campus of Forlì (part of the University of Bologna) is specialized in Economics, Engineering, Political Sciences as well as the Advanced school of Modern Languages for Interpreters and Translators (SSLMIT).

Climate

The climate of the area is humid subtropical (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification) with Mediterranean features, fairly mitigated by the relative closeness of the city to the sea.

Forlì is characterized by hot and sunny summers, with temperatures that can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) and even reach 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest weeks of the year.

Winters are cool and moist, with frequent fog. Occasionally the warm Sirocco wind blows from the south, bringing warmer temperatures for brief periods.

History

Ancient era

The surroundings of Forlì have been inhabited since the Paleolithic: a site, Ca' Belvedere of Monte Poggiolo, has revealed thousands of chipped flints in strata dated 800,000 years before the present era, which indicates a flint-knapping industry producing sharp-edged tools in a pre-Acheulean phase of the Paleolithic.

Forlì was founded after the Roman conquest of the remaining Gallic villages, about the time the Via Aemilia was built. With no clear evidence, the exact date this occurred is still under debate, though some historians believe that the first settlement of the ancient Roman Forum was built in approximately 188 BC by consul Gaius Livius Salinator (the same that fought Hasdrubal Barca and vanquished him at the banks of the Metaurus River in 207 BC), who gave it the Latin name Forum Livii, meaning "the place of the gens Livia". Others argue the town may have been founded later, during the time of Julius Caesar. [4] In 88 BC, the city was destroyed during the civil wars of Gaius Marius and Sulla, but later rebuilt by the praetor Livius Clodius. [5]

Middle Ages

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the city was incorporated into the realms of Odoacer and of the Ostrogothic Kingdom. From the end of the 6th century to 751, Forlì was an outlying part of the Byzantine power in Italy known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. During this time the Germanic Lombards repeatedly took the city – in 665, 728, and 742. It was finally incorporated with the Papal States in 757, as part of the Donation of Pepin. [5]

By the 9th century the commune had taken control from its bishops, and Forlì was established as an independent Italian city-state, alongside the other communes that signalled the first revival of urban life in Italy. Forlì became a republic for the first time in 889. At this time the city was allied with the Ghibelline factions in the medieval struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, partly as a means of preserving its independence – and the city supported all the Holy Roman Emperors in their campaigns in Italy. [4]

Local competition was involved in the loyalties: in 1241, during Frederick II's struggles with Pope Gregory IX the people of Forlì offered their support to Frederick II during the capture of the rival city, Faenza, and in gratitude, they were granted an addition to their coat-of-arms -the Hohenstaufen eagle. [4]

With the collapse of Hohenstaufen power in 1257, imperial lieutenant Guido I da Montefeltro was forced to take refuge in Forlì, the only remaining Ghibelline stronghold in Italy. He accepted the position of capitano del popolo ("Captain of the People") and led Forlì to notable victories: against the Bolognesi at the Ponte di San Proculo, on 15 June 1275; [6] against a Guelph allied force, including Florentine troops, at Civitella on 14 November 1276; and at Forlì itself against a powerful French contingent sent by Pope Martin IV, on 15 May 1282, in a battle cited by Dante Alighieri (who was hosted in the city in 1303 by Scarpetta Ordelaffi), Inferno 27. In 1282, Forlì's forces were led by Guido da Montefeltro, while the French were under Jean d'Eppe. The astrologer Guido Bonatti (advisor of Emperor Frederick II) was one of his advisors.

The following year the city's exhausted Senate was forced to cede to papal power and asked Guido to take his leave. The commune soon submitted to a local condottiere rather than accept a representative of direct papal control, and Simone Mestaguerra had himself proclaimed Lord of Forlì. He did not succeed in leaving the new signory peacefully to an heir, however, and Forlì passed to Maghinardo Pagano, then to Uguccione della Faggiuola (1297), and to others, until in 1302 the Ordelaffi came into power.

Local factions with papal support ousted the family in 1327–29 and again in 1359–75, and at other turns of events the bishops were expelled by the Ordelaffi. Until the Renaissance the Ordelaffi strived to maintain the possession of the city and its countryside, especially against Papal attempts to assert back their authority. Often civil wars between members of the family occurred. They also fought as condottieri for other states to earn themselves money to protect or embellish Forlì.

Porta Schiavonia. Porta schiavonia.JPG
Porta Schiavonia.

Modern age

The most renowned of the Ordelaffi was Pino III, who held the Signiory of Forlì from 1466 to 1480. Pino was a ruthless lord; nevertheless he enriched the city with new walls and buildings and was a sponsor of the arts. When he died aged 40, under suspicion of poisoning, the situation of Forlì was weakened as factions of Ordelaffi fought one another, until Pope Sixtus IV claimed the signory for his nephew Girolamo Riario. Riario was married to Caterina Sforza, the indomitable Lady of Forlì whose name is associated with the city's last independent history. Forlì was seized in 1488 by the Visconti and in 1499 by Cesare Borgia, after whose death it became more directly subject to the pope than ever before (apart from a short-lived return of the Ordelaffi in 1503–1504). [4]

Church and convent of the Corpus Domini, photograph by Paolo Monti, 1971. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC. Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico (Forli, 1971) - BEIC 6357796.jpg
Church and convent of the Corpus Domini, photograph by Paolo Monti, 1971. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.

In June 1796, during the French Revolution, Jacobin French troops entered the city — with Napoleon arriving on 4 February 1797. The French General recruited local officials and soldiers, resulting in political turmoil between 1820 and 1830, with risings in 1821 —including the revolutionary movement of the Carbonari in 1831 and 1848. [4] Napoléon Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon I's nephew who was involved with the Carbonari, died there in 1831.

In the 19th century, Forlì was part of the Italian unification (or "the Risorgimento"), a political and social movement that agglomerated the different states of the Italian Peninsula into the single state of Italy. The citizens of Forlì were particularly inspired by military figure Giuseppe Garibaldi, who at this time was a commander. However, the city and its farmers had difficulty adapting to agrarian reform under the unification, thus lending rise to republican and socialist parties. [4]

Forlì participated considerably during World War I, resulting in it being awarded the "Fulcieri Paolucci De' Calboli  [ it ]" gold medal. Afterwards in the 1920s, Benito Mussolini became actively involved in the local politics, before becoming dictator of Italy — a situation that remained for 20 years before the start of World War II. The war left the city with destroyed monuments and artistic losses, such as the Church of San Biagio  [ it ], which included frescoes by Melozzo da Forlì. After the war, however, the city experienced a quick economic recovery, entering a new stage of democratic life. [4]

Economy

Forlì is a prosperous agricultural and industrial centre, with manufacture primarily focused on silk, rayon, clothing, machinery, metals, and household appliances.

Government

Main sights

Abbey of San Mercuriale. Abbazia di San Mercuriale.jpg
Abbey of San Mercuriale.

Forlì is the location of various buildings of architectural, artistic and historical significance, that include frescoes as part of their decorations. At the heart of the city sits the Piazza Aurelio Saffi, which includes a statue of Italian politician Aurelio Saffi – who was an important figure in the radical republican current within the Risorgimento movement, headed by Giuseppe Mazzini in the 19th century. The Piazza Saffi also includes the Abbey of San Mercuriale (named after Saint Mercurialis, a bishop of the city who died in the 5th century), which is the main religious building in the city; and contains the famed Sepulchre of Barbara Manfredi. Also of note is the Dominican Church of San Giacomo Apostolo; better known as the Church of San Domenico – a late medieval church built in the 13th century in the southern part of the town.

Other medieval buildings include the Rocca di Ravaldino, a fortress enlarged in the 14th century by the Ordelaffi and Gil de Albornoz, and later in the 15th century.

The city hosts the Palazzo Hercolani, with decorations dating from the 19th century; containing the artwork La Beata Vergine del Fuoco con i Santi Mercuriale, Pellegrino, Marcolino e Valeriano by Italian painter Pompeo Randi  [ it ]. The Palazzo del Podestà  [ it ] is a civic building which was frescoed by Adolfo de Carolis in the 20th century.

Forlì has parks located in green areas, including the Parco della Resistenza ("Resistance Park") city park, and the Parco di Via Dragoni – which provides performance facilities alongside standard amenities. The Teatro Diego Fabbri is a theatre which opened in September 2000.

People

The most well-known painter of the comune was Melozzo da Forlì, who worked in Rome and other Italian cities during the brief years of the High Renaissance. Other Forlivese painters were: Ansuino da Forlì, Marco Palmezzano, Francesco Menzocchi, and Livio Agresti. Together, they formed the Forlì painting school. Carlo Cignani was not born in Forlì (but near Forlì), but painted important works there.

Other notable Forlivese people are:

Territorial subdivisions

Forlì is divided into territorial subdivisions, or Frazione .

Villafranca di Forlì

Landing field in Villafranca di Forli, with hamlet in the background. Immagine 10408e.jpg
Landing field in Villafranca di Forlì, with hamlet in the background.

Villafranca di Forlì is a hamlet which a dependency of the municipality of Forlì, located on the north side of the main town, and spans over a territory sided on the west side by the River Montone. The hamlet was the birthplace of Benito Mussolini's mother, Rosa. [8]

An aerodrome, with a runway approximately 800 metres (2,600 ft) long and 29 metres (95 ft) wide, is close to the hamlet; it is used as a landing field for ULM and R/C model aircraft. It is the seat of the Flight School Ali Soccorso belonging to the Civil Defence. [9] This recreational aerodrome is complementary to Forlì's main airport, south of the city.

Other frazioni

  • Bagnolo
  • Barisano
  • Borgo Sisa
  • Branzolino
  • Carpena
  • Carpinello
  • Casemurate
  • Caserma
  • Castiglione
  • Ca'Ossi
  • Cava
  • Collina
  • Coriano
  • Durazzanino
  • Forniolo
  • Grisignano
  • Ladino
  • Magliano
  • Malmissole
  • Massa
  • Ospedaletto
  • Para
  • Pescaccia
  • Petrignone
  • Pianta
  • Pieve Acquedotto
  • Pievequinta
  • Poggio
  • Ponte Vico
  • Quattro
  • Ravaldino in Monte
  • Romiti
  • Roncadello
  • Ronco
  • Rotta
  • Rovere
  • San Giorgio
  • San Leonardo in Schiova
  • San Lorenzo in Noceto
  • San Martino in Strada
  • San Martino in Villafranca
  • San Tomé
  • San Varano
  • Vecchiazzano
  • Villa Rovere
  • Villa Selva
  • Villagrappa
  • Villanova

Transport

Forlì railway station is on the Bologna–Ancona line. Opened for use in 1926, it replaced the original station, which had been in use since 1861. The passenger building of the original station still stands, about 100 metres (330 ft) west of the present station.

Forlì Airport was closed on 29 March 2013 due to bankruptcy of the company that ran it. The nearest airports operated by commercial airlines are currently Federico Fellini International Airport near Rimini and Bologna Guglielmo Marconi Airport near Bologna.

Twin towns

Forlì is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Cesena Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Cesena is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region, served by Autostrada A14, and located near the Apennine Mountains, about 15 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea. The total population is 97,137.

Romagna Italian historical region

Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west. The region's major cities include Cesena, Faenza, Forlì, Imola, Ravenna, Rimini and City of San Marino. The region has been recently formally expanded with the transfer of seven comuni from the Marche region, which are a small number of comuni where Romagnolo dialect is spoken.

Riario noble family

The House of Riario, sometimes referred to as Riario-Sforza is an Italian noble family from Savona, near Genoa. Closely associated with the Papal States, the family gained control over several signorie ("lordships"), such as Bologna and Forlì.

Imola Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Imola is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The city is traditionally considered the western entrance to the historical region Romagna.

Province of Forlì-Cesena Province of Italy

The province of Forlì-Cesena is a province in the Emilia–Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Forlì. The province has a population of 394,273 as of 2016 over an area of 2,378.4 square kilometres (918.3 sq mi). It contains 30 comuni and the provincial president is Davide Drei. Although located close to the independent Republic of San Marino, Forlì-Cesena does not share a land border with the sovereign state.

Forlimpopoli Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Forlimpopoli is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, north-eastern Italy. It is located on the Via Emilia between Cesena and Forlì.

Caterina Sforza Lady of Imola and Countess of Forlì

Caterina Sforza was an Italian noblewoman along with the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola, firstly with her husband Girolamo Riario, and after his death as a regent of her son Ottaviano.

Melozzo da Forlì Influential Italian Renaissance painter and architect

Melozzo da Forlì was an Italian Renaissance painter and architect. His fresco paintings are notable for the use of foreshortening. He was the most important member of the Forlì painting school.

House of Ordelaffi

The House of Ordelaffi was a noble family that ruled the lower Romagna from the 13th century to 1504, with some interregnums.

Girolamo Riario Lord of Italy

Girolamo Riario was Lord of Imola and Forlì. He served as Captain General of the Church under his uncle Pope Sixtus IV. He took part in the 1478 Pazzi Conspiracy against the Medici, and was assassinated 10 years later by members of the Forlivese Orsi family.

Aurelio Saffi Italian politician

Aurelio Saffi was an Italian politician, active during the period of Italian unification. He was an important figure in the radical republican current within the Risorgimento movement and close to its leader and chief inspiration, Giuseppe Mazzini.

Abbey of San Mercuriale, Forlì church

The Basilica Abbey of San Mercuriale is the main religious building in Forlì, in Romagna ; the rather smaller cathedral was largely destroyed by fire in the 19th century.

Maghinardo Paganiof Susinana was an Italian condottiero and statesman living in the 13th-14th centuries. He was seignior of Faenza and Imola, and attempted unsuccessfully to conquer also Forlì.

Pino III Ordelaffi was an Italian condottiero and lord of Forlì. He was a member of the Ordelaffi family.

Francesco II Ordelaffi, also known as Cecco II, was a lord of Forlì, the son of Sinibaldo Ordelaffi and Orestina Calboli, and the grandson of Teobaldo I Ordelaffi.

The Pinacoteca Civica of Forlì, one of the civic museums of Forlì and currently based in the Musei di San Domenico, is an Italian art gallery. Artists whose work the gallery exhibits include:

Ottaviano Riario Italian noble

Ottaviano Riario was an Italian condottiero and Lord of Imola and Forlì. Despite his nominal leadership, the real power lay with his mother Caterina Sforza.

Guglielmo da Forli, called Guglielmo degli Organi, was an Italian painter active in Forlì in the 14th century.

Giacomo Feo, was the second husband of Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì. He was born and died in Forlì.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Forlì in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

References

  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. Population data from Istat
  3. "Forlì (FC) – Emilia Romagna, Italy" . Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Forlì and its historical background" . Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  5. 1 2 "Forlì". New Advent. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  6. The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam , translated by Joseph L. Biard (Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1986). Excerpted in "Warfare between Bologna and Faenza (1275)". De Re Militari. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  7. Beer, Moses. "ALEXANDER DE FRANCISCIS, HEBRÆUS" . Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  8. Mussolini, Romano (2006). My Father, Il Duce: A Memoir by Mussolini's Son (trans. Ana Stojanovic). Carlsbad, CA: Kales Press. p. 65. ISBN   0-9670076-8-2 . Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  9. "VOLA a Forlì – al Flight Simulator Show, la più grande fiera evento dedicata al volo simulato in Italia" (in Italian). Comunicati.net. 30 April 2004. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  10. Hinkle, David (22 January 2010). "Assassin's Creed 2 DLC 'Battle of Forli' available Jan. 28". Engadget . Oath Tech Network Aol Tech . Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  11. Totilo, Stephen (29 January 2010). "Assassin's Creed II: The Battle of Forli Micro-Review: An Un-Machiavellian Plan". Kotaku . Gizmodo Media Group . Retrieved 26 May 2018.

Bibliography