Formannskapsdistrikt (Urban East Norwegian: [ˈfɔ̂rmɑnskɑːpsdɪˌstrɪkt] ) is the name for Norwegian local self-government districts that were legally enacted on 1 January 1838. This system of municipalities was created in a bill approved by the Parliament of Norway and signed into law by King Carl Johan on 14 January 1837. The formannskaps law, which fulfilled an express requirement of the Constitution of Norway, required that every parish (Norwegian : prestegjeld) form a formannsskapsdistrikt (municipality) on 1 January 1838. In this way, the parishes of the state Church of Norway became worldly, administrative districts as well. (Although some parishes were divided into two or three municipalities.) In total, 396 formannsskapsdistrikts were created under this law, and different types of formannskapsdistrikts were created, also:
|Type of district|
|3||City/town with a surrounding rural district|
|12||Lading places (ladested)|
|1||Rural district consisting of two (very small) seaports|
|3||Rural districts with dependent small seaports|
|1||Port and naval base|
|1||Rural district with dependent mining town|
|See below for a list of all districts, broken down by county.|
The introduction of self government in rural districts was a major political change. The Norwegian farm culture (bondekultur) that emerged came to serve as a symbol of nationalistic resistance to the forced union with Sweden. The legislation of 1837 gave both the towns and the rural areas the same institutions: a minor change for the town, but a major advance for the rural communities. The significance of this legislation is hailed by a nationalistic historian, Ernst Sars:
In 1853, the land registration law superseded the formannsskapsdistrikt by introduction of a new designation, the municipality (Norwegian : herred). Two forms of municipality were created: "rural municipality" and "city" (or "market town"). Each district was to elect a body of selectmen of no less than 12 and no more than 48 members. This body selected a quarter of their members as a committee, which together with the local magistrate, established taxes to be levied and improvements to be performed in the district. The local chairman also represented the municipality at the county level.
Almost one century later in 1936, a local self-government district law was enacted which created 682 rural municipalities (landkommuner) and 65 city municipalities (bykommuner) in Norway. Among the city municipalities, 43 had the status of town (kjøpstad) and 22 were recognized harbors for export/import (ladested). Norway included a subordinate category to the market town, the "small seaport" (lossested or ladested), which was a port or harbor with a monopoly to import and export goods and materials in both the port and for a surrounding outlying district. Typically, these were locations for exporting timber and importing grain and goods. Local farm goods and timber sales were all required to pass through merchants at either a lading place or a market town prior to export. This incentive ensured that local trading went through local merchants, a technique which was so effective in limiting smuggling that customs revenues increased from less than 30% of the total tax revenues in 1600 to more than 50% of the total taxes by 1700.
During the last half of the 20th century, the distinction between the different types of municipalities was decreased, and in 1992, legislation eliminated all distinctions. Now, all municipalities (Norwegian : kommuner) are simply municipalities.
This is a list of the districts that were initially created on 1 January 1838. The original spellings have been used (many spellings have changed since that time. For a present list of current municipalities, see the List of municipalities of Norway.
|Amt (County)||City or town||Lading place||Rural district||Total|
|Smaalehnenes Amt|| Frederiksstad,|
|–||Aremark, Askim, Berg, Borge, Eidsberg, Glemminge, Haabøl, Hvaler, Id, Mosse Landdistrict, Onsø, Rakkestad, Rygge, Rødenæs, Raade, Skiptvet, Skjeberg, Spydeberg, Trygstad, Tune, Vaaler||24|
|Agershuus Amt||–|| Drøbak,|
Soon og Hølen
|Aker, Asker, Urskog, Bærum, Eidsvold, Enebak, Fet, Frogn, Gjerdrum, Hurdalen, Høland, Kraakstad, Nannestad, Næs, Næsodden, Nitedal, Skedsmo, Sørum, Ullensaker, Vestby with Hvidsteen, Aas||23|
|Hedemarkens Amt||–||–||Elverum, Grue, Hof, Kvikne, Løiten, Næs, Nordre Odalen, Rendalen, Ringsaker, Romedal, Stange, Store Elvedalen, Søndre Odalen, Tolgen, Trysil, Tønsæt, Vang, Vinger, Aamot||19|
|Christians Amt||Lillehammer||–||Birid, Fron, Faaberg, Gausdal, Gran, Jævnaker, Land, Lesje, Lom, Nordre Aurdal, Ringebu, Slidre, Søndre Aurdal, Vang, Vardal, Vestre Toten, Vaage, Østre Toten, Øier||20|
|Budskeruds Amt|| Drammen,|
|–||Eker, Flesberg, Gol, Hole, Hurum, Lier, Modum, Næs, Norderhov, Rollag, Røken, Sandsvær, Sigdal, Aal||16|
|Jarlsberg og Laurvigs Amt|| Holmestrand,|
|Sandefjord, Aasgaardstrand||Anneboe, Borre, Botne, Brunlagnæs, Hedrum, Hof, Laurdal, Nøtterøe, Ramnæs, Sandeherred, Sande, Sæm, Skouger, Frederiksværn, Stokke, Strømmen, Strømsgodset, Tjølling, Tjømø, Vaale||25|
|Bratsbergs Amt|| Kragerøe,|
|Bamble with Stathelle, Bø, Drangedal, Eidanger, Gjerpen, Hitterdal, Hjerdal, Holden, Hvidesøe, Laurdal, Mo, Moland, Nissedal, Sannikedal, Seufde, Sillejord, Slemdal, Solum, Tind, Vinje||25|
|Nedenæs og Raabygdelaugets Amt|| Arendal,|
|Birkenæs, Bygland, Dybvaag, Eide, Evje og Veigusdal, Gjerrestad, Heirefos, Holt, Hordnæs og Iveland, Landvig, Søndeløv, Valle, Vegaardsheien, Vestre Moland, Østre Moland, Øiestad, Omlid, Aaseral||23|
|Lister og Mandals Amt||Christianssand|| Farsund,|
|Bjelland og Grindem, Finsland, Fjotland, Gyland, Mandals Landdistrict, Herod, Holme, Hegebostad, Lyngdal, Nedre Qvinnesdal, Næs og Hitterø, Oddernæs, Søgne, Tved, Undal, Vandsøe, Østre Bakke, Øvrebøe, Øslebø og Løvdal||23|
|Stavanger Amt||Stavanger||Egersund||Avaldsnæs, Birkrem, Egersund landdistrikt, Finnø, Gjæsdal, Helleland, Heskestad, Hetland, Hjelmeland, Høiland, Haa, Haaland, Jælse, Klep, Lunde, Nærstrand, Rennesø, Skjold, Skudesnæs, Soggendal with Sogndalstrand, Strand, Suledal, Time, Torvestad, Vestre Bakke, Vikedal||28|
|Søndre Bergenhuus Amt||–||–||Askøen, Bergens Landdistrict, Eid, Etne, Fanøe, Findaas, Fjeld, Fjeldberg, Graven, Hammer, Hosanger, Hougs, Kingservig, Lindaas, Manger, Ous, Qvindherred, Røldal, Skaanevig, Storøen, Strandebarm, Sund, Tysnæs, Vigøer, Voss, Aarstad||26|
|Nordre Bergenhuus Amt||–||–||Askevold, Davigen, Eid, Evindvig, Førde, Gloppen, Hafsloe, Indre Holmedal Indvigen, Justedal, Jølster, Kind, Ladvig, Leganger, Leirdal, Lyster, Selløe, Sogndal, Urland, Vefring, Viig, Yttre Holmedal||22|
|Romsdals Amt|| Christianssund,|
|Aalesund||Agerøe, Bolsøe, Borgund, Boe, Edøen, Fredøe, Grytten, Halse, Haram, Herrøe, Jørringfjord, Næsset, Nordalen, Oure, Qvernæs, Stangvig, Strand, Sunddalen, Sundelven, Surendal, Thingvold, Ulfsteen, Vandelven, Vestnæs, Vedøe, Volden, Øre, Ørskoug||31|
|Søndre Throndhjems Amt||Throndhjem||–||Bjørnøer, Bynæsset, Børsen, Hevne, Hitteren, Holtaalen, Klæboe, Leenstranden, Meldal, Melhuus, Opdal, Ørkedal, Røraas, Sælboe, Stadsbygden, Strinden, Støren, Ørland, Aafjorden||20|
|Nordre Throndhjems Amt||Levanger||–||Bedstaden, Fosnæs, Frosten, Grogn, Inderøen, Kolvereid, Lexvigen, Nummedalseidet, Nærøen, Overhalden, Skogn, Snaasen, Sparboen, Størdal, Stod, Vemundvig, Værdalen, Ytterøen, Aasen||21|
|Nordlands Amt||Bodøe||–||Alstahoug, Bodøe Landdistrict, Borge, Brønøe, Buxnæs, Bøe, Dverberg, Flakstad, Folden, Gilleskaal, Hassel, Hammerøe, Lurøe, Lødingen, Næsne, Ofoden, Ranen, Rødøe, Saltdalen, Skjærstad, Stegen, Vefsen, Vægøe, Værøe, Vaagen, Øxnæs||28|
|Tromsøe Amt||Tromsøe||–||Berg, Ibbestad, Karlsøe, Qvæfjord, Lenvig, Lyngen, Sand, Skjervøe, Tranøe, Tromsøe Landdistrict, Trondenæs||12|
|Finmarkens Amt|| Hammerfest, |
|–||Alten, Lebesbye, Loppen, Maasø, Kistrand||8|
|Grand totals||25 + 3||12 + 1||350 + 3 + 1 + 1||396|
Skudenes is a former municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. It was part of the traditional district of Haugaland. The municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1965. The administrative centre was the town of Skudeneshavn. The municipality originally encompassed land that is now part of the municipalities of Bokn and Karmøy. It included the southern part of the island of Karmøy and the three islands to the east: Vestre Bokn, Austre Bokn, and Ognøya. In 1849, the three smaller islands were separated to form Bokn municipality.
Vestre Moland is a former municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Møglestu where the Vestre Moland Church is located. The 103-square-kilometre (40 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until 1962 when it was merged into the municipality of Lillesand. Today, the area of Vestre Moland covers the northern part of the present-day municipality of Lillesand.
Bodin is a parish and former municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 672-square-kilometre (259 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1968. It was a large municipality encompassing all of the mainland area around the town of Bodø and part of the land on the southern shore of the Saltfjorden. The municipality also included over 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) of islands, notably the islands of Helligvær, Landegode, Bliksvær, and Givær plus numerous others. In all there were over 700 islands, islets, and skerries in Bodin Municipality. All of what was Bodin Municipality now lies entirely inside the present-day Bodø Municipality.
Herad is a former municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The 85-square-kilometre (33 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1965. The municipality encompassed the area northeast of the lake Framvaren inside the present-day municipality of Farsund. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Sande where the Herad Church is located.
Nord-Rana is a former municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 3,980-square-kilometre (1,540 sq mi) municipality existed from 1839 until its dissolution in 1964. From 1839 until 1844, it was named Nord-Ranen, from 1844 until 1923, it was called Mo, and then from 1923 until 1964 it was named Nord-Rana. The former municipality was located at the innermost part of the Ranfjorden. It encompassed the eastern 90% of what is now Rana Municipality. The administrative centre was the village of Ytteren, just north of the town of Mo i Rana.
Landvik is a former municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. The 190.7-square-kilometre (73.6 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1971. The municipality's area is now located in the western and central part of the present-day municipality of Grimstad. The administrative centre was the village of Roresanden, just up the hill from the Landvik Church. Other villages in Landvik include Molland, Reddal, Skiftenes, Tjore, and Østerhus. Today, the name Landvik is still used to designate the westernmost part of the town of Grimstad, near the Prestegårdskogen housing development.
Sogndal is a former municipality and small seaport (ladested) in Rogaland county, Norway. The municipality is located on the coast in the traditional district of Dalane. The small municipality existed from 1845 until its dissolution in 1944 when it was merged into the municipality of Sokndal. It comprised the two harbor villages of Sogndalsstranda and Rægefjord. The river Sogndalselva reaches the ocean at Songdalsstranda.
Bergen landdistrikt is a former municipality in the old Hordaland county in Norway. The municipality existed from 1838 until 1877 when it was merged into the neighboring city of Bergen. Bergen landdistrikt encompassed about 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) of land surrounding the city of Bergen, including the present neighborhoods of Møhlenpris, Nygård, Kalfaret, Sandviken, and Ytre Sandviken as well as the mountains Fløyfjellet and Sandviksfjellet.
Høyland is a former municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. The municipality was located at the innermost end of the Gandsfjorden in the western part of the present-day municipality of Sandnes. The municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1965. The main church for the municipality was Høyland Church.
Øyestad is a former municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. The municipality existed from 1838 until 1992 when it was merged into the present-day municipality of Arendal. At the time of its dissolution, the 96-square-kilometre (37 sq mi) municipality of Øyestad encompassed most of the coastline between the towns of Grimstad and Arendal, along with the forested areas along the Nidelva river heading inland. Back in 1838, however, the municipality was far larger in size. The administrative centre was the village of Bjorbekk near the Bjorbekk Church.
Trondenes is an old parish and former municipality in Troms county in Norway. The 186-square-kilometre (72 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1964. It was located along the western shore of the Vågsfjorden in what is now Harstad Municipality. Trondenes included the majority of the island of Grytøya and part of the eastern coast of the island of Hinnøya as well as some smaller islands. Located just north of the town of Harstad, the village of Trondenes was the administrative centre of the municipality. That village is also the site of the historic Trondenes Church, the northernmost medieval stone church in Norway. The Trondenes Historical Center was built in 1997 near the church to teach about the history of the area. Trondenes Fort is also located on the Trondenes peninsula.
A kjøpstad is an old Scandinavian term for a "market town" that was used in the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway for several hundred years. The name comes from the Old Norse: kaupstaðr. Kjøpstads were places of trade and exporting materials. Towns were given the "dignity" or rank of being referred to as a kjøpstad when they reached a certain population and had established means of industry and other notable items such as dock yards, steam mills, iron works, churches, grammar schools. The citizens of a kjøpstad were able to buy and sell goods and conduct other economic activities.
Sogndalsstranda or Sogndalstrand is a harbor village in Sokndal municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. The village is located at the mouth of the river Sokno, about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south of the municipal centre of Hauge and also about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) southeast of the village of Rekefjord. The Jøssingfjorden lies about 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) southeast of the village.
Rekefjord is a harbour village in the municipality of Sokndal in Rogaland county, Norway. The village is located around the Rekefjorden, about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) west of the municipal centre of Hauge i Dalane. The village of Sogndalsstranda lies about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) southeast of Rekefjord.
Røldal is a former municipality in the southeastern corner of the old Hordaland county, Norway. The 719-square-kilometre (278 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until 1964 and it was located in the southeastern part of the present-day Ullensvang Municipality. The administrative centre was the village of Røldal, where the Røldal Stave Church is located. The municipality encompassed the Røldalen valley and some small side valleys, as well as a large area up on the vast Hardangervidda plateau. Historically, Røldal was an important trade and transportation route between Eastern and Western Norway.
Lillesand is the administrative centre of Lillesand municipality in Agder county, Norway. The town is located along the Skaggerak coast, about 18 kilometres (11 mi) southwest of the town of Grimstad and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of the city of Kristiansand. The 5.03-square-kilometre (1,240-acre) town has a population (2016) of 7,530 which gives the town a population density of 1,497 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,880/sq mi).
Grimstad is a town in Grimstad municipality in Agder county, Norway. The town is also the administrative centre of the municipality. It is located on the Skaggerak coast in Southern Norway along the Groosefjorden, between the towns of Arendal and Kristiansand. The 9.41-square-kilometre (3.63 sq mi) town has a population (2016) of 12,552 which gives the town a population density of 1,331 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,450/sq mi).
Tvedestrand is a town and the administrative centre of Tvedestrand municipality in Agder county, Norway. The town is located at the northern end of the Tvedestrandfjorden at the intersection of the Norwegian County Road 411 and Norwegian County Road 410. The 1.93-square-kilometre (480-acre) town has a population (2017) of 2,503 which gives the town a population density of 1,297 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,360/sq mi). The Tvedestrand Church is located in the central part of the town.
Vemundvik is a former municipality in the old Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. The 247-square-kilometre (95 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1964. By 1964, the municipality roughly corresponded to the mainland areas north of the river Namsen in what is now the municipality of Namsos in Trøndelag county. From 1838 until about 1942, the administrative centre was the village of Vemundvik where Vemundvik Church is located. After 1941, the municipal offices and administration was headquartered in the town of Namsos.
Grip is a former municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. With a land area of only 0.48 square kilometres and a population of 104, Grip was the smallest municipality in Norway during its existence from 1897 until it merged with Kristiansund in 1964. Grip municipality included all the islands in the Grip archipelago. The administrative centre of the municipality was the one fishing village in the municipality, known as Gripholmen, where the historic Grip Stave Church is located.