Former Yan (前燕)
Former Yan in 338 AD
Former Yan in 350 AD
|Capital|| Jicheng (棘城) (337–341)|
Jicheng (薊城) (350–357)
• Murong Huang's claim of princely title
|23 November 337 337|
• Murong Jun's claim of imperial title
|4 January 353|
• Fall of Yecheng
|11 December 370|
|Today part of||China|
The Former Yan (Chinese :前燕; pinyin :Qián Yān; 337–370) was a dynastic state ruled by the Xianbei during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
Initially, Murong Huang and his son Murong Jun claimed the Jin dynasty-created title "Prince of Yan," but subsequently, in 352, after seizing most of the former Later Zhao territory, Murong Jun would declare himself emperor, and after that point, the rulers of the Former Yan declared themselves "emperors".
During the winter of 342, the Xianbei of Former Yan, ruled by the Murong clan, attacked and destroyed Goguryeo's capital, Hwando, capturing 50,000 Goguryeo men and women to use as slave labor in addition to taking the queen mother and queen prisoner,and forced King Gogukwon to flee for a while. The Xianbei also devastated Buyeo in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula.
Their capital was Yan (Beijing) in 350, then Yecheng in 357, and finally Luoyang in 364.
|Temple names||Posthumous names||Family names and given name||Durations of reigns||Era names and their according durations|
|Chinese convention: use family and given names|
|Taizu (太祖 Taìzǔ)||Wenming (文明 Wénmíng)||慕容皝 Mùróng Huǎng||337–348||Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 337–348|
|Liezong (烈宗 Lièzōng)||Jingzhao (景昭 Jǐngzhāo)||慕容儁 Mùróng Jùn||348–360||Yanwang (燕王 Yànwáng) 348–353|
Yuanxi (元璽 Yuánxǐ) 353–357
Guangshou (光壽 Guāngshoù) 357–360
|Did not exist||You (幽 Yōu)||慕容暐 Mùróng Wěi||360–370||Jianxi (建熙 Jiànxī) 360–370|
Goguryeo, also called Goryeo, was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. At its peak of power, Goguryeo controlled most of the Korean peninsula, large parts of Manchuria and parts of eastern Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.
The Later Yan was a Murong–Xianbei state, located in modern-day northeast China, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
The Northern Yan, also known in some historical texts as the Eastern Yan, was a dynastic state during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China. Some historians consider Gao Yun, a member of the Goguryeo royal family, to be the first Northern Yan monarch, while others consider Feng Ba of Han Chinese ethnicity to be the founder.
The Western Yan was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It was founded by Murong Hong in 384 in the aftermaths of Former Qin's defeat by Jin dynasty (266–420) at the Battle of Fei River, with the stated intent of permitting the Xianbei, whom Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān had relocated to Former Qin's capital region after destroying Former Yan in 370. It initially also was intended to rescue the last Former Yan emperor Murong Wei, until he was executed by Fu Jiān in 385. It was a state that was characterized by extreme political instability and internal fighting, as all seven of its rulers died of unnatural causes. After eviscerating Former Qin, the people of the state abandoned the Guanzhong region and headed east back toward their homeland, but eventually settled down in modern Shanxi. It was destroyed in 394 as Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui wanted to reunite the people formerly of Yan and conquered it.
King Gogugwon of Goguryeo was the 16th king of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the son of King Micheon and Lady Ju.
Yuan Zhao (元釗), also known in history as Youzhu, was briefly an emperor of the Xianbei-led Chinese Northern Wei dynasty.
Lingyan Pavilion was a small tower beside Sanqing Hall (三清殿) in the southwest of Taiji Palace (太極宮), Chang'an, the capital of the Tang dynasty. Its location in modern China is roughly in the north of Xi'an, Shaanxi.
Hwando is a mountain fortress of the ancient Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, built to protect Goguryeo's second capital, Gungnae. It is located in present-day Ji'an city of the province of Jilin, China.
Jiang Ke (姜恪), formally the Duke of Yong'an (永安公), was an official and general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor for several years during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Xin Maojiang (辛茂將) was a Chinese general and politician of the Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor for about a year during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Ren Yaxiang was a Chinese military general and politician during the Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Lai Heng (來恆) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Shi Wuzi (史務滋) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving briefly as chancellor during Wu Zetian's reign.
Gu Cong (顧琮) was an official of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, China, briefly serving as chancellor.
Battle of Canhe Slope refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.
Li Lin (李璘), né Li Ze (李澤), formally the Prince of Yong (永王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was a son of Emperor Xuanzong, and after the general An Lushan had rebelled against Emperor Xuanzong's rule in 755, Li Lin tried to occupy the region south of the Yangtze River and establish a separate regime, but was defeated and killed.
Empress Dowager Wang, formally Empress Zhuangxian, was an empress dowager of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. She was the mother of Emperor Xianzong.
Li Qi (李錡) was a military governor (Jiedushi) of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, governing Zhenhai Circuit. In 807, he rebelled against the authority of Emperor Xianzong, but he was quickly defeated and captured by his own subordinates who turned against him, and he was delivered to the capital Chang'an and executed.
Li Cunzhang (李存璋) was a military general in imperial China's Tang dynasty, and later the Jin territory in the ensuing Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period after Tang's collapse. He served the Shatuo leaders Li Keyong — who adopted him as a son — and Li Keyong's biological son and successor Li Cunxu.
Li Cunjin (李存進), originally Sun Chongjin (孫重進), was a military general in imperial China's Tang Dynasty, and later the Jin territory in the ensuing Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period after Tang's collapse. He served the Shatuo leaders Li Keyong — who adopted him as a son — and Li Keyong's biological son and successor Li Cunxu. He died in the battles against Zhang Chujin.
Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provide cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon rebuild its walls and continue to expand.