Forty-Fourth Army (Japan)

Last updated
Japanese Fortieth-Fourth Army
Manchuria 1945.PNG
Position of the 44th Army in 1945
ActiveJanuary 12, 1945 – August 15, 1945 
Country Empire of Japan
Branch Imperial Japanese Army
Type Infantry
Role Corps
Garrison/HQ Mukden, Manchukuo
Nickname(s)Ensei(遠征,expeditionary)
Engagements Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese 44th Army(第44軍,Dai-yonjyū yon gun) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

Corps military unit size

Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such in 1805.

Imperial Japanese Army Official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1868 to 1945

The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

History

The Japanese 44th Army was initially raised in July 1941 as the Kwangtung Defense Army(関東防衛軍,Kanto boei gun), an auxiliary force of the Kwantung Army based in the Manchukuo capital of Hsinking for public security and training. As the war situation on the Pacific front grew increasingly desperate for Japan, the Imperial Japanese Army transferred more and more experienced divisions and their equipment out of Manchukuo to other fronts. By early 1945, the vaunted Kwantung Army was largely hollowed out, and indications of a buildup of Soviet Red Army forces on the borders on Mengjiang and Manchukuo were alarming. The Kwantung Defense Army was renamed the Japanese 44th Army on May 30, 1945 and assigned to the Japanese Third Area Army, based in southern Manchukuo. It saw combat against the Soviet Army in Soviet invasion of Manchuria, with combat operations continuing into September, even after the official surrender of Japan. It was officially disbanded at Mukden, with many of its surviving troops becoming Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union.

Kwantung Army military unit

The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century. It became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA. Many of its personnel, such as Chiefs of staff Seishirō Itagaki and Hideki Tōjō, were promoted to high positions in both the military and civil government in the Empire of Japan and it was largely responsible for the creation of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Manchuria. In August 1945, the army group, around 713,000 men at the time, was defeated by and surrendered to Soviet troops as a result of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation.

Manchukuo former Japan puppet state in China

Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic, but in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. It had limited international recognition and was under the de facto control of Japan.

Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.

List of Commanders

Commanding Officer

NameFromTo
1General Tomoyuki Yamashita 17 July 19416 November 1941
2Lieutenant General Tatsumi Kusaba 6 November 194121 December 1942
3Lieutenant General Satoshi Kinoshita 21 December 19427 December 1943
4Lieutenant General Shin Yoshida [1] [2] [3] 7 December 19431 March 1945
5Lieutenant General Yoshio Hongo [4] 1 March 1945September 1945

Chief of Staff

NameFromTo
1Lieutenant General Yasunori Yoshioka 17 July 19411 July 1942
2Major General Senichi Tasaka 1 July 194216 May 1944
3Major General Hiroshi Tamura 16 May 19442 October 1944
4Major General Nobuyoshi Obata 2 October 1944September 1945

Related Research Articles

Otozō Yamada Japanese general

Otozō Yamada was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

Japanese Korean Army

The Japanese Korean Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army that formed a garrison force in Korea under Japanese rule. The Korean Army consisted of roughly 350,000 troops in 1914.

Manchukuo Imperial Guards

The Manchukuo Imperial Guards were an elite unit of the Manchukuo armed forces created in 1933. It was charged with the protection of the Kangde Emperor, the royal household, and senior members of the Manchukuo civil government. Their garrison and headquarters were situated in the capital of Xinjing, adjacent to the Imperial Palace.

Organization of the Kwantung Army of Japan

Manchukuo Imperial Navy navy

The Manchukuo Imperial Navy was the navy of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

First Army (Japan)

The Japanese 1st Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was raised and demobilized on three separate occasions.

The Mongolia Garrison Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

Jun Ushiroku Japanese general

Jun Ushiroku was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

The Japanese First Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, based in northern Manchukuo and active in combat against the Soviet Union in the closing stages of the war.

Japanese Seventeenth Area Army military unit

The Japanese Seventeenth Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

The Japanese 5th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo from the Russo-Japanese War until the end of World War II. During World War II it was under the overall command of the Kwantung Army.

Thirtieth Army (Japan)

The Japanese 30th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final days of World War II.

The Japanese Second Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

The Japanese 4th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo from the Russo-Japanese War until the end of World War II.

Sixth Army (Japan)

The Japanese 6th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army initially based in Manchukuo as a garrison force under the overall command of the Kwantung Army. At the end of World War II it was active in east China.

Third Army (Japan) military unit

The Japanese 3rd Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army based in Manchukuo as a garrison force under the overall command of the Kwantung Army during World War II, but its history dates to the Russo-Japanese War.

The Japanese 19th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final days of World War II.

The Japanese 34th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final stages of World War II.

The Japanese Third Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, based in southern Manchukuo and active in combat against the Soviet Union in the very final stages of the war.

References

  1. Yoshio Hongo (see below) was married to Shin Yoshida's wife's aunt. Source: Reiko Sugita, living descendant.
  2. Lieutenant General Shin Yoshida commanded the "Mechanized Army" with headquarters at Ssupingchieh, starting on July 4, 1942 or possibly as early as April 1941. http://www.tanks-encyclopedia.com/ww2/jap/ww2_IJN_Tanks.php.
  3. Yoshida became President of Manchuria Telecommunication and Telephone after retiring from the army after this posting. Source: http://www.tanks-encyclopedia.com/ww2/jap/ww2_IJN_Tanks.php
  4. Yoshio Hongo (see above) was married to Shin Yoshida's wife's aunt. Source: Reiko Sugita, living descendant.

Sources

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.