The Four Wangs (Chinese :四王; pinyin :Sì Wáng; Wade–Giles :Ssŭ Wang) were four Chinese landscape painters in the 17th century, all with the surname Wang. They are best known for their accomplishments in shan shui painting.
They were Wang Shimin (1592–1680), Wang Jian (1598–1677), Wang Hui (1632–1717) and Wang Yuanqi (1642–1715).They were members of the group known as the Six Masters of the early Qing period.
The Four Wangs represented the so-called "orthodox school" of painting at the time. The school was based on the teachings of Dong Qichang (1555-1636). It was “orthodox” in the Confucian sense of continuing traditional modes.
Ink wash painting is a type of East Asian brush painting that uses the same black ink used in East Asian calligraphy in different concentrations. Emerging in Tang dynasty China (618–907), it overturned earlier, more realistic techniques. It is typically monochrome, using only shades of black, with a great emphasis on virtuoso brushwork and conveying the perceived "spirit" or "essence" of a subject over the direct imitation. It flourished from the Song dynasty in China (960–1279) onwards, as well as in Japan after it was introduced by Zen Buddhist monks in the 14th century. Somewhat later, it became important in Korean painting.
Dong Yuan was a Chinese painter.
Guo Xi was a Chinese landscape painter from Henan Province who lived during the Northern Song dynasty. One text entitled "The Lofty Message of Forest and Streams" is attributed to him. The work covers a variety of themes centered on the appropriate way of painting a landscape. He was a court professional, a literatus, well-educated painter who developed an incredibly detailed system of idiomatic brushstrokes which became important for later painters. One of his most famous works is Early Spring, dated 1072. The work demonstrates his innovative techniques for producing multiple perspectives which he called "the angle of totality." This type of visual representation is also called "Floating Perspective", a technique which displaces the static eye of the viewer and highlights the differences between Chinese and Western modes of spatial representation.
Qiu Ying was a Chinese painter who specialized in the gongbi brush technique.
Wang Hui was a Chinese landscape painter, one of the Four Wangs. He, and the three other Wangs, dominated orthodox art in China throughout the late Ming and early Qing periods. Of the Four Wangs, Wang Hui is considered the best-known today.
Ni Zan was a Chinese painter during the Yuan and early Ming periods. Along with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, and Wang Meng, he is considered to be one of the Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty.
Dai Xi was a Chinese painter of the 19th century and representative of the academic manner. His sobriquet was Chunshi (醇士) or “Pure-Minded Scholar” and his pen name was Yu'an (榆庵） or “Elm Retreat”, among others.
Jiāo Bǐngzhēn, 1689–1726) was a native of Jining, Shandong who became a noted painter and astronomer. In painting he is noteworthy as one of the first Qing dynasty painters to be influenced by the West. He is also among the more significant portrait and miniature painters in the early Qing. He was skilled in painting people, landscapes, and buildings.
Qian Xuan courtesy name Shun Ju (舜举), pseudonyms Yu Tan, Xi Lan Weng (习嬾翁), and Zha Chuan Weng (霅川翁) ) was a Chinese painter from Hu Zhou (湖州) during the late Song dynasty and early Yuan dynasty.
The Six Masters of the early Qing period were a group of major Chinese artists who worked in the 17th and early 18th centuries. Also known as orthodox masters, they continued the tradition of the scholar-painter, following the injunctions of the artist-critic Dong Qichang late in the Ming Dynasty.
Xu Daoning was a Chinese painter of the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279) from Chang'an or Hejian. He started out life by selling medicine prescriptions in Kaifeng. While selling prescriptions, he also began painting nature scenes in the style of Li Cheng. After gaining popularity he took up painting murals for Chinese nobles. His most notable work is Fishermen's Evening Song.
Zhao Yuan is a noted Chinese painter in late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty. His birth and death years are unknown. His courtesy name was Shanzhang (善长), and sobriquet Danlin （丹林）. He was born in Ying Cheng (营城). He resided in Suzhou. His painting style most closely resembled that of Wang Meng. Existing works include 晴川送别 and 合溪草堂.
Wang Fu ; ca. 1362-1416 was a Chinese landscape painter, calligrapher, and poet during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
Lu Guang ; was a Chinese landscape painter and poet during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). His specific birth and death dates are not known.
Wang Yuan ; was a Chinese landscape painter during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). His specific dates of birth and death are not known.
Wang Zhenpeng ; was a Chinese landscape painter who worked in the imperial court during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). His specific dates of birth and death are not known, though he was active 1280-1329.
Mei Qing was a Chinese landscape painter, calligrapher and poet active during the Qing Dynasty.
Wang Jian ; c. 1598–1677 was a Chinese landscape painter during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and Qing dynasty (1636–1912).
Juran was a Chinese landscape painter of the late Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and early Northern Song periods.
Li Song was a Chinese imperial court painter in the Song Dynasty.