Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt

Last updated
Egypt
ca. 1725 BC–ca. 1650 BC
Capital Avaris
Common languages Egyptian language
Religion
ancient Egyptian religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Historical era Bronze Age
 Established
ca. 1725 BC
 Disestablished
ca. 1650 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt Blank.png

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt. It lasted between 75 (c. 17251650 BC) and 155 years (c. 18051650 BC), depending on the scholar. The capital of the dynasty was probably Avaris. [1] The 14th dynasty existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. The rulers of the 14th dynasty are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite (Semitic) descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes, like Ipqu (West Semitic for "grace"), Yakbim ("ia-ak-bi-im", an Amorite name), Qareh (West Semitic for "the bald one"), or Yaqub-Har. [1] Names in relation with Nubia are also recorded in two cases, king Nehesy ("The Nubian") and queen Tati.

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt period of Ancient Egyptian history

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Nile Delta Delta produced by the Nile River at its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Lower Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

Avaris Archaeological site in Egypt

Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a in the northeastern region of the Nile Delta, at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes. As the main course of the Nile migrated eastward, its position at the hub of Egypt's delta emporia made it a major administrative capital of the Hyksos and other traders. It was occupied from about 1783 to 1550 BC, or from the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt through the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt until its destruction by Ahmose I, the first Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. The name in the Egyptian language of the 2nd millennium BC was probably pronounced *Ḥaʔat-Wūrat 'Great House' and denotes the capital of an administrative division of the land. Today, the name Hawara survives, referring to the site at the entrance to Faiyum. Alternatively, Clement of Alexandria referred to the name of this city as "Athyria".

Contents

Chronology

The 14th dynasty is sometimes combined with the 11th, 12th and 13th dynasties in the period Middle Kingdom of Egypt , though the 14th dynasty overlaps at least partially with either (or both of) the 13th dynasty and the 15th dynasty. More commonly, the 14th dynasty is grouped with the 13th, 15th, 16th and 17th in the Second Intermediate Period.

The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a well-attested group of rulers. Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes in Upper Egypt.

Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.

Such are the gaps in the knowledge of the 14th dynasty, that its absolute chronological position is debated and varies by as much as 75 years among authorities. Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that the 14th dynasty emerged during the late 12th dynasty, c. 1805 BC, during or shortly after Sobekneferu's rule. He contends that the local Canaanite population residing in the eastern Delta declared its independence and staved off possible attempts from the 13th dynasty Memphite kings to recover the Delta. According to Ryholt, the 14th dynasty thus lasted from 1805 BC until its demise under the Hyksos 15th dynasty, c. 1650 BC, i.e. lasting 155 years.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Sobekneferu Egyptian queen regnant

Sobekneferu reigned as pharaoh of Egypt after the death of her brother Amenemhat IV. She was the last ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and governed Egypt for almost four years from 1806 to 1802 BC. Her name means "the beauty of Sobek."

Hyksos Asian invaders of Egypt, established 15th dynasty

The Hyksos were a people of diverse origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" refers to people native to areas east of Egypt.

This hypothesis is not shared by some Egyptologists such as Manfred Bietak, Daphna Ben Tor and James and Susan Allen, who argue that the 14th dynasty cannot have emerged before the mid 13th dynasty, c. 1720 BC, after the reign of Sobekhotep IV. [2] [3] In particular, they argue that the evidence from the strata levels in which 14th dynasty seals were discovered conclusively establishes that the 14th dynasty was only contemporary with the 13th dynasty in the last half century of the latter's existence, i.e. after c. 1700 BC. Additionally, Manfred Bietak has dated the inscriptions and monuments of Nehesy, possibly the second ruler of the dynasty, to around 1700 BC as well. [4]

Manfred Bietak is an Austrian archaeologist. He is professor emeritus of Egyptology at the University of Vienna, working as the Principal investigator for an ERC Advanced Grant Project “The Hyksos Enigma” and Editor in Chief of the Journal “Egypt and the Levant” and of four series of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental and European Archaeology (2016–2020).

James Peter Allen American egyptologist

James Peter Allen is an American Egyptologist, specializing in language and religion. He was curator of Egyptian Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art from 1990 to 2006. In 2007, he became the Charles Edwin Wilbour Professor of Egyptology at Brown University. In 2008, he was elected president of the International Association of Egyptologists. A graduate of Saint Meinrad Seminary and School of Theology, he received his PhD from the University of Chicago.

Sobekhotep IV Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty

Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned at least eight years. His brothers, Neferhotep I and Sihathor, were his predecessors on the throne, the latter having only ruled as coregent for a few months.

Following the very short reign of Nehesy, most scholars–among them, Manfred Bietak and Kim Ryholt–agree that the Delta region was struck by a prolonged famine and perhaps a plague lasting until the end of the 14th dynasty. [1] [5] The same famine may have affected the 13th dynasty, which also exhibits instability and numerous ephemeral kings in its last 50 years of existence, from c. 1700 BC until 1650 BC. The weakened state of both kingdoms may explain, in part, why they fell rapidly to the emerging Hyksos power c. 1650 BC. [1]

Seat of power

The Manethonian tradition credits the fourteenth dynasty with as many as 76 kings ruling from Xois rather than Avaris. However, Egyptologist Kim Ryholt notes that the Turin canon mentions only c. 56 kings and does not have enough space to have recorded over 70 kings. Ryholt also points to excavations at Avaris which revealed the existence of a large royal palace dating to the second intermediate period. One of its courtyards housed a statue of a king or high-ranking official, over twice life-sized, and wearing non-Egyptian attributes. For these reasons, Ryholt and most Egyptologists share the view that Avaris rather than Xois was the seat of power of the 14th dynasty. [1]

Manetho Egyptian historian and priest from Ancient Egypt

Manetho is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his work during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos, but no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.

Xois Place in Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt

Xois was a town of great antiquity and considerable size. It was located nearly in the center of the Nile Delta in Egypt, and is identified as the ancient Egyptian city of Khasut.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Extent of rule and foreign relations

In orange, the territory possibly under control of the 14th dynasty according to Ryholt. 14th dynasty territory.png
In orange, the territory possibly under control of the 14th dynasty according to Ryholt.

The precise borders of the 14th dynasty state are not known due to the general scarcity of monuments left by this dynasty. In his study of the second intermediate period however, the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt concludes that the territory directly controlled by the 14th dynasty roughly consisted of the Nile delta, with its border located around Athribis in the western Delta and Bubastis in the east. [1]

Seals attributable to the 14th dynasty have been found in Middle and Upper-Egypt, then 13th dynasty territory, and as far south as Dongola, beyond the third cataract. To the north, seals have been found in the southern Levant, principally along the Mediterranean coast and as far north as Tell Kabri, in modern-day Israel. [1] This indicates the existence of an important trade with the 13th dynasty, Canaanite city-states, and Nubia. [1] Ryholt further proposes that king Sheshi, whom he sees as a 14th dynasty ruler, married a Nubian princess, queen Tati, to strengthen relations with the Kushite kingdom. [1]

Rulers

The order of rulers for this dynasty is established by the Turin canon and is widely accepted, except for the first five rulers, which are given below after Ryholt. [1] The names of these rulers is not given on the Turin canon, except possibly for one, and Ryholt proposes that they were mentioned as wsf in the list, which denotes a lacuna in the original document from which the list was copied in the Ramesside period. [1] Rather, Ryholt identifies the first five kings thanks to a seriation of their seals. His conclusions are debated however in Ben Tor's study of the strata levels in which seals attributed to the first five kings have been found. Ben Tor concludes that Sheshi's, 'Ammu's and Yakbim's reigns date to the second half of the Hyksos 15th dynasty and are not contemporary with the 13th dynasty. Thus according to Ben Tor, these kings were most likely minor vassal rulers of the Hyksos kings reigning in the Nile Delta. [2]

Dynasty XIV pharaohs of Egypt (contested)
Name of KingDatesComments
Yakbim Sekhaenre
1805 BC - 1780 BC or after 1650 BC
Chronological position is contested, maybe a vassal of the 15th dynasty
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
1780 BC - 1770 BC
Chronological position is contested
Qareh Khawoserre
1770 BC - 1760 BC
Chronological position is contested
'Ammu Ahotepre
1760 - 1745 BC or after 1650 BC
Chronological position is contested, maybe a vassal of the 15th dynasty
Sheshi Maaibre
1745 BC - 1705 BC or after 1650 BC
Attested by over 300 scarab-seals, possibly married to queen Tati who was a Kushite. Chronological position is contested, maybe a vassal of the 15th dynasty

The following rulers are not controversial, being established by the Turin canon as well as, for a few of them, by contemporary sources:

Dynasty XIV pharaohs of Egypt
Name of KingDatesComments
Nehesy Aasehre
1705 BC
Best attested king of the dynasty, he left his name on two monuments at Avaris. His name means "The Nubian". [6]
Khakherewre
1705 BC
-
Nebefawre
1704 BC
Turin canon: reigned 1 year, 5 months, 15 days
Sehebre
Turin canon: reigned 3 years [lost] months, 1 day
Merdjefare
ending 1699 BC
Attested by a single stela from Saft el-Hinna, in the Delta [7]
Sewadjkare III
Turin canon: reigned 1 year
Nebdjefare
ending 1694 BC
-
Webenre
-
Unknown
Lost in the Turin kinglist
[...]djefare
-
[...]webenre
ending 1690 BC
-
Awibre II
-
Heribre
-
Nebsenre
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen. At least 5 months of reign.
Unknown
wsf in the Turin kinglist, indicating a lacuna in the document from which the list was copied
[...]re
Sekheperenre
With Nehesy, Nebsenre and Merdjefare, only undisputed king known from contemporary sources
Djedkherewre
-
Sankhibre II
-
Nefertum[...]re
-
Sekhem[...]re
-
Kakemure
-
Neferibre
-
I[...]re
-
Khakare
-
Akare
-
Hapu[...] Semenenre
-
Anati Djedkare
-
Babnum [...]kare
-
Unknown
Eight lines lost in the Turin kinglist
Senefer...re
-
Men[...]re
-
Djed[...]re
-
Unknown
Three lines lost in the Turin kinglist
Ink [...]
-
'A[...]
-
Apophis I (?)
-
Unknown
Five lines lost in the Turin kinglist

Finally, several rulers attested by contemporary artefacts and otherwise unknown from the Turin canon may be dated to the 14th [1] or 15th dynasty. [8] Their identities and chronological position remain unclear:

Possible dynasty XIV pharaohs of Egypt (unclear)
Name of KingAttestations
Nuya
1 scarab-seal
Sheneh
3 scarab-seals
Shenshek
1 scarab-seal
Wazad
5 scarab-seals
Khamure
2 scarab-seals
Yakareb
2 scarab-seals
Merwoserre Yaqub-Har
27 scarab-seals

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Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt

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Anat-her Egyptian pharaoh

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Khamudi Egyptian pharaoh

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Sheshi Egyptian pharaoh

Maaibre Sheshi was a ruler of areas of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. The dynasty, chronological position, duration and extent of his reign are uncertain and subject to ongoing debate. The difficulty of identification is mirrored by problems in determining events from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the arrival of the Hyksos in Egypt. Nonetheless, Sheshi is, in terms of the number of artifacts attributed to him, the best-attested king of the period spanning the end of the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate period; roughly from c. 1800 BC until 1550 BC. Hundreds of scaraboid seals bearing his name have been found throughout Canaan, Egypt, Nubia, and as far away as Carthage, where some were still in use 1500 years after his death.

Amenemhet VI Egyptian pharaoh

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Nehesy Egyptian pharaoh

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Merdjefare Egyptian pharaoh

Merdjefare was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th Dynasty, Merdjefare would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Wazad Egyptian pharaoh

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Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty

Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, he was the sixteenth king of the dynasty, reigning for 3 years, from 1775 BC until 1772 BC. Thomas Schneider, on the other hand, places his reign from 1752 BC until 1746 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the third king of the dynasty. As a ruler of the early 13th Dynasty, Khabaw would have ruled from Memphis to Aswan and possibly over the western Nile Delta.

Sewadjkare III was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1700 BC. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sewadjkare III would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

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Sekheperenre Egyptian pharaoh

Sekheperenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Sekheperenre was the twenty-second king of the dynasty; alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the seventeenth ruler. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sekheperenre would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Sehebre was a ruler of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt ruling for 3 to 4 years c. 1700 BC during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the 5th king of the dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well.

Shenshek Egyptian pharaoh

Shenshek was a ruler of some part of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, possibly during the 17th century BC, and likely belonging to the 14th Dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well. His chronological position and identity are unclear.

Bebnum is a poorly known ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, reigning in the early or mid 17th century BC.

Apepi Egyptian pharaoh

'Apepi was a ruler of some part of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1650 BC. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, 'Apepi was the fifty-first ruler of the 14th Dynasty. As such he would have ruled from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the Western Delta as well. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees 'Apepi as a member of the late 16th Dynasty and a vassal of the Hyksos rulers of the 15th Dynasty.

Nebsenre Egyptian pharaoh

Nebsenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Nebsenre reigned for a least five months over the Eastern and possibly Western Nile Delta, some time during the first half of the 17th century BCE. As such Nebsenre was a contemporary of the Memphis based 13th Dynasty.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997)
  2. 1 2 Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315, 1999, pp.47-73.
  3. Janine Bourriau, "The Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC)" in Ian Shaw (ed.) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, 2000. pp.192 & 194
  4. Bourriau, "The Second Intermediate Period," pp.178-179, 181
  5. Manfred Bietak, "Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age," BASOR, 281 (1991), pp. 21-72, esp. p. 38, available online
  6. Darrell D. Baker, The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 277
  7. Kenneth Kitchen: Ramesside Inscriptions, Blackwell Publishing 1993, ISBN   0631184279, p.546
  8. Daphna Ben-Tor: Scarabs, Chronology, and Interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period, Volume 27 of Orbis biblicus et orientalis / Series archaeologica: Series archaeologica, Academic Press Fribourg 2007, ISBN   978-3-7278-1593-5, excerpts available online

Bibliography

Preceded by
Thirteenth Dynasty
Dynasty of Egypt
1725−1650 BC
Succeeded by
Fifteenth Dynasty