Fowey

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Fowey
Fowey, Town Quay - geograph.org.uk - 47111.jpg
Fowey, Town Quay
Cornwall UK mainland location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fowey
Location within Cornwall
Population2,315 (United Kingdom Census 2011)
OS grid reference SX126516
Civil parish
  • Fowey
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town FOWEY
Postcode district PL23
Dialling code 01726
Police Devon and Cornwall
Fire Cornwall
Ambulance South Western
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Cornwall
50°20′02″N4°37′59″W / 50.334°N 4.633°W / 50.334; -4.633 Coordinates: 50°20′02″N4°37′59″W / 50.334°N 4.633°W / 50.334; -4.633

Fowey ( /ˈfɔɪ/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) FOY; Cornish : Fowydh, meaning 'Beech Trees' [1] ) is a port town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Fowey in south Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The town has been in existence since well before the Norman invasion, with the local church first established some time in the 7th century; the estuary of the River Fowey forms a natural harbour which enabled the town to become an important trading centre. Privateers also made use of the sheltered harbourage. The Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway brought China clay here for export.

Contents

History

Early history

The Domesday Book survey at the end of the 11th century records manors at Penventinue and Trenant, and a priory was soon established nearby at Tywardreath. c.1300 the prior granted a charter to people living in Fowey itself. This medieval town ran from a north gate near Boddinick Passage to a south gate at what is now Lostwithiel Street; the town extended a little way up the hillside and was bounded on the other side by the river where merchants had their houses backing onto the waterfront. The natural harbour allowed trade to develop with Europe and local ship owners often hired their vessels to the king to support various wars, although the town also developed a reputation for piracy, as did many others at this time. A group of privateers known as the 'Fowey Gallants' were given licence to seize enemy vessels during the Hundred Years' War. In the 14th century the harbour was defended by 160 archers; after these were withdrawn, two blockhouses were built, one on each side of the harbour entrance. Despite these defences the town was attacked by Breton pirates in 1457. [2] Place House, by the church, was successfully defended against the French but subsequently strengthened. This building still exists, but much remodelled. A small castle was built on St Catherine's Point, the western side of the harbour entrance, around 1540. The defences proved their worth when a Dutch attack was beaten off in 1667. [3]

The people of Fowey generally sided with the Royalists during the English Civil War, but in 1644 the Earl of Essex brought a Parliamentarian army to Lostwithiel and occupied the peninsula around Fowey. In August, a Royalist army surrounded Essex's troops and King Charles I himself viewed Fowey from Hall Walk above Polruan, where he came close to being killed by a musket shot. On 31 August, the Parliamentarian cavalry forced their way through the Royalist lines and retreated towards Saltash, leaving the foot soldiers to be evacuated by sea from Fowey. Essex and some officers did indeed escape, but the majority of the force surrendered a few days later near Golant and were then marched to Poole, but most died before reaching there. [3]

Later history

Fowey Harbour Fowey - geograph.org.uk - 2745.jpg
Fowey Harbour
Fowey view Fowey1.JPG
Fowey view

The fortunes of the harbour became much reduced, with trade going to Plymouth and elsewhere instead. Fishing became more important, but local merchants were often appointed as privateers and did some smuggling on the side. Tin, copper and iron mines, along with quarries and china clay pits became important industries in the area, which led to improvements at rival harbours. West Polmear beach was dug out to become Charlestown harbour circa 1800, as was Pentewan in 1826. [4] Joseph Austen shipped copper from Caffa Mill Pill above Fowey for a while before starting work on the new Par harbour in 1829. [5] Fowey had to wait another forty years before it saw equivalent development, but its natural deep-water anchorage and a rail link soon gave it an advantage over the shallow artificial harbours nearer to the mines and china clay works. Meanwhile, a beacon tower was erected on the Gribben Head by Trinity House to improve navigation into Fowey and around Par bay. [4]

Loading china clay circa 1904 (jetty number 1 in foreground) Fowey jetties.jpg
Loading china clay circa 1904 (jetty number 1 in foreground)

The Fowey Harbour Commissioners were established by an Act of Parliament in 1869, to develop and improve the harbour. [4] On 1 June in that year, the 7 ft (2,134 mm) broad gauge Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway was opened to new jetties situated above Carne Point, and in 1873, the 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge Cornwall Minerals Railway (CMR) opened a line from Newquay and Par to further jetties between Caffa Mill Pill and Carne Point. Both of these railways initially carried just goods, but on 20 June 1876, a passenger station was opened on the CMR on land reclaimed from Caffa Mill Pill. The Lostwithiel line closed at the end of 1879 but was reopened by the CMR as a standard gauge line in 1895, and the short gap between the two lines at Carne Point was eliminated. Passenger trains from Par were withdrawn after 1934 and from Lostwithiel in 1965. The Par line was subsequently converted to a dedicated roadway for lorries bringing china clay from Par after which all trains had to run via Lostwithiel. [6]

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution established Fowey Lifeboat Station near the Town Quay in 1922 to replace an earlier station at Polkerris. This was replaced in 1997, by a new facility in Passage Street. [7] Two lifeboats are stationed at Fowey: Maurice and Joyce Hardy, a Trent Class all weather boat that is kept afloat opposite the lifeboat station, and Olive Two, an IB1 inshore lifeboat kept inside the station and launched by davit. [8]

Fowey was the main port for loading ammunition for the US 29th Division that landed on Omaha Beach on D Day during the Second World War. [9] There was a munitions siding at Woodgate Pill just north of Fowey, originally built for the Great War conflict. [10]

Governance

Bodinnick ferry, Fowey, Cornwall (1889). Bodinnick ferry, Fowey, Cornwall (1889).jpg
Bodinnick ferry, Fowey, Cornwall (1889).

The seal of the borough of Fowey was On a shield a ship of three masts on the sea her topsail furled with the legend "Sigillum oppidi de Fowy Anno Dom. 1702". [11]

Fowey elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons until the Reform Act 1832 stripped it of its representation as a rotten borough, it having lost its borough corporation a few years before. [12] It was restored as a municipal borough in 1913, and then was merged with the nearby and much larger St Austell in 1968 to form the borough of St Austell with Fowey. This was itself in 1974 replaced with the Restormel Borough, which was replaced by Cornwall Council in 2009. [13]

In local government terms, Fowey is now a civil parish with a town council and a mayor. Local government responsibilities are shared by the town council and Cornwall Council. Besides the town of Fowey itself, the parish includes the coastal area between the mouth of the River Fowey and St Austell Bay, including Gribben Head and the small settlements of Menabilly, Polkerris, Polmear and Readymoney. [13] [14] [15]

The parish of Fowey lies within the St Austell and Newquay constituency of the United Kingdom Parliament. Prior to Brexit in 2020, it was in the South West England constituency of the European Parliament. [15]

Geography

Fowey Harbour panorama Fowey-Harbour-Cornwall-UK.jpg
Fowey Harbour panorama

Fowey is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey in south Cornwall, England. It is at the entrance to a large flooded valley created after the last ice age by the melt waters that caused the sea level to rise dramatically, creating a large natural harbour which is navigable for its last seven miles. [16] [17]

Fowey is in the South Coast (Eastern Section) of the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It lies at the end of the Saints' Way and has ferries across the river to Polruan (foot) and Bodinnick (vehicle). There are many historic buildings in the town, including the ruins of St Catherine's Castle, while Readymoney Cove possesses a local beach.

At the time of the 2001 census, Fowey had a population of 2,273. This had increased slightly at the 2011 census to 2,395 [18] The Fowey electoral ward had a population of 4,690 in 2011. [19]

Religious sites

Fowey Parish Church Fowey, parish church of St. Finbarrus - geograph.org.uk - 571426.jpg
Fowey Parish Church

Popular legend has it that Jesus visited Fowey as a child, along with Joseph of Arimathea who was a merchant visiting local tin mines in which he had a commercial interest.[ citation needed ] At the entrance to the River, on the eastern side below the cliffs to the south-west of St Saviour's Point, there is a cross to commemorate this supposed visit. This cross is marked on very early charts and was maintained by monks from Tywardreath. The cross is known locally as "Punches Cross", supposedly derived from the name of Pontius Pilate.

One hundred yards west of the lighthouse on the west of the harbour entrance, about thirty feet below the top of the cliff edge and broadly concealed, is a small grass area known as "Johnny May's Chapel". This name is believed to be that of a Methodist preacher at the time when Nonconformism was persecuted.

Fowey Parish Church

The church is dedicated to Saint Finbarr and is listed Grade I. It was built in the early 14th century and rededicated in 1336, replacing a previous Norman church. The church was damaged by the French in 1457, and repaired in 1460 by the Earl of Warwick, when the clerestory and the north and south aisles were rebuilt. There is a nave and two aisles with a clerestory, and the aisles are unusually wide; the aisles and the clerestory may be additions of the 15th century. The tower, of the 16th century, is of four stages and has buttresses and bands of ornament. There is an exceptionally fine 15th-century carved wagon roof. The south porch has open arches to the west and east and an eight-ribbed vaulted roof. The font is Norman, of Catacleuze stone, and similar to those of Ladock, Feock and St Mewan. The hexagonal pulpit was made in 1601. The monuments include two brasses of the mid 15th century and those of John Rashleigh, 1582, and Alice Rashleigh, 1602. The most interesting are two later Rashleigh monuments: John Rashleigh, c. 1610, and another of 1683. [20] The church was used as a town hall for a period up to 1684. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch is buried in the churchyard.

Economy

Loading china clay at Carne Point Tonne Fowey P8272189-1.JPG
Loading china clay at Carne Point

Fowey has thrived as a port for hundreds of years, initially as a trading and naval town, then as the centre for china clay exports. Today Fowey is busy with trawlers and yachts. Tourism is also an important source of income, contributing £14m to the local economy and accounting for more than half of the jobs in the town. [21]

Transport

Although Fowey railway station closed to passengers in 1965, the Lostwithiel to Fowey branch line remains open for goods traffic, carrying bulk china clay to the jetties at Carne Point. The nearest passenger station is at Par, whence there are trains to Penzance, Newquay, Plymouth, Bristol and London Paddington. First Kernow operate regular bus services, numbered 24 and Transport for Cornwall operate services numbered 25 (also service 24 early, late and Sundays), between Fowey, Par station and St Austell. The combined frequency varies from one bus per 1.5 hour on Sundays to two buses per hour on weekdays. From St Austell bus station connecting buses operate to other places in Cornwall. Town Bus is a frequent and regular service running from outside the church in the town centre to the main car park on Hanson Drive. [22]

Both vehicle and foot ferry services cross the river to Bodinnick and Polruan. A ship to shore water taxi service operates from Easter until the end of October and a foot ferry to the fishing village of Mevagissey runs from 1 May to 1 October, weather permitting. [23]

Education

Fowey has two schools: Fowey Primary School and Fowey River Academy, both of which are in Windmill Road. Fowey Grammar School, for which its architect Silvanus Trevail received a silver medal, was demolished in 1999. [24]

Culture

Fowey has been the inspiration for many authors, including Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch ('Q'), Daphne du Maurier, Leo Walmsley and Kenneth Grahame.[ citation needed ] Michael Corrigan's novel, Brewer's Odyssey, 2019, has a few scenes set in Fowey, including the ghostly presence of Daphne du Maurier.[ citation needed ] ' Fowey was Quiller-Couch's main residence from 1892 onwards, and a number of his stories are set in 'Troy Town', a thinly disguised Fowey.[ citation needed ] The du Maurier Festival Society runs the Fowey Festival of Arts and Literature each May, [25] the month of her birth.

Various visual artists have had close connection with Fowey and lived there, including Fred Yates (painter), [26] Andrew Litten [27] Amanda Hoskin who primarily paints the local coastline. [28] and Mabel Lucie Attwell. Fowey holds an annual Christmas craft market. [29]

Sports

The surrounding coastline of Fowey is popular with fishermen and spear-fishermen. Many sea creatures can be seen all around the Cornish shoreline, including mullet, bass, mackerel, lobsters and cuttlefish. [30] Many of the species can be seen in the Fowey Aquarium in the heart of the town, which includes a very rare Albino Bull Huss. [31]

The Royal Fowey Yacht Club is based on the harbour front. [32] A Pilot Gig Rowing Club races in and around Cornwall, with an event at Fowey being held the same week as the Regatta. The club launches from Caffa Mill slip. [33] Fowey Golf Club was founded in 1894 and continued until the late 1940s. [34]

Public services

A doctors' surgery called the 'Fowey River Practice' is situated in Rawlings Lane, and is part of a group including two other surgeries in the Fowey River Practice group, which are situated at Par and Polruan. [35]

Notable people

A number of entertainers have primary and secondary residences around the town including: Richard Madeley and Judy Finnigan, Dawn French, Gloria Hunniford, and former Blue Peter presenter Janet Ellis. [43] [44]

Related Research Articles

Polruan Human settlement in England

Polruan is a small fishing village in the parish of Lanteglos-by-Fowey in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is bounded on three sides by water: to the north by Pont Creek, to the west by the River Fowey and to the south by the English Channel and neighbours village Bodinnick to the north, connected by a 4-mile walk along the hill tops. Polruan is very steep and well protected from the prevailing winds and Polruan Pool is a haven for small boats.

River Fowey River in Cornwall, England

The River Fowey is a river in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

St Austell Human settlement in England

St Austell is a town in Cornwall, England, UK, 10 miles (16 km) south of Bodmin and 30 miles (48 km) west of the border with Devon.

Lostwithiel Human settlement in England

Lostwithiel is a civil parish and small town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom at the head of the estuary of the River Fowey. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,739, increasing to 2,899 at the 2011 census. The Lostwithiel electoral ward had a population of 4,639 at the 2011 census. The name Lostwithiel comes from the Cornish "lostwydhyel" which means "tail of a wooded area".

Charlestown, Cornwall Human settlement in England

Charlestown is a village and port on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom, and in the civil parish of St Austell Bay. It is situated approximately 2 miles (3 km) south east of St Austell town centre.

Atlantic Coast Line, Cornwall Railway line in Cornwall, UK

The Atlantic Coast Line is a 20+34-mile (33 km) Network Rail branch line which includes a community railway service in Cornwall, England. The line runs from the English Channel at Par, to the Atlantic Ocean at Newquay.

Par, Cornwall Village on the south coast of Cornwall, England

Par is a village and fishing port with a harbour on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is situated in the civil parish of Tywardreath and Par, although West Par and the docks lie in the parish of St Blaise.

Par railway station Railway station in Cornwall, England

Par railway station serves the villages of Par, Tywardreath and St Blazey, Cornwall, England. The station is 282 miles (454 km) from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads. It is the junction for the Atlantic Coast Line to Newquay.

The Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway opened in 1869 as a broad gauge railway linking the port of Fowey in Cornwall with the Cornish Main Line at Lostwithiel. Its main traffic was china clay. The company ran into financial difficulties and closed in 1880, but the line was purchased by the Cornwall Minerals Railway and reopened in 1895.

The Newquay and Cornwall Junction Railway was a 7 ft broad gauge railway intended to link the Cornwall Railway with the horse-worked Newquay Railway. It opened a short section to Nanpean in 1869, the remainder being built by the Cornwall Minerals Railway who took over the company in 1874. Its main traffic has always been china clay.

Fowey railway station Railway station in Cornwall

Fowey railway station was a station in Fowey, Cornwall from 1874 until 1965. The rail connection to the docks at Carne Point remains open for china clay traffic.

Polkerris Human settlement in England

Polkerris is a small village on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It forms part of the civil parish of Fowey.

Cornish Main Line Railway line in Cornwall, England

The Cornish Main Line is a railway line in Cornwall and Devon in the United Kingdom. It runs from Penzance to Plymouth, crossing from Cornwall into Devon over the famous Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash.

Cornwall Minerals Railway

The Cornwall Minerals Railway owned and operated a network of 45 miles (72 km) of standard gauge railway lines in central Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It started by taking over an obsolescent horse-operated tramway in 1862, and it improved and extended it, connecting Newquay and Par Harbours, and Fowey. Having expended considerable capital, it was hurt by a collapse in mineral extraction due to a slump in prices. Despite its title, it operated a passenger service between Newquay and Fowey.

Bodinnick Human settlement in England

Bodinnick is a riverside village in south-east Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. According to the Post Office the population of the 2011 Census was included in the civil parish of Lanteglos-by-Fowey. It is a fishing village situated on the east bank of the River Fowey opposite the town of Fowey, also on the banks of the Fowey River. The ferry crossing is from Fowey to Bodinnick and the "Old Ferry Inn" is located on its bank glorified as "in the heart of Du Maurier country". This ferry terminal is said to have existed since the 13th century.

Lanteglos-by-Fowey Human settlement in England

Lanteglos is a coastal civil parish in south Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is on the east side of the tidal estuary of the River Fowey which separates it from the town and civil parish of Fowey. The South West Coast Path runs along the southern coasts of the parish and much of the southern part of the parish lies in the Polruan to Polperro Site of Special Scientific Interest managed by the National Trust.

Gribben Head Headland on the south coast of Cornwall, England

Gribbin Head is a promontory on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK, owned and managed by the National Trust. It separates St Austell Bay from the estuary of the River Fowey and is marked by a large tower used to aid navigation of ships approaching the local harbours. The nearest town is Fowey. The western point of the headland is called Little Gribbin.

Fowey Lifeboat Station

Fowey Lifeboat Station is the base for Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) search and rescue operations at Fowey on the south coast of Cornwall in the United Kingdom. The first lifeboat was stationed in the area in 1859 and the present station was opened in 1997. It operates a Trent Class all weather boat (AWB) and a D class (IB1) inshore lifeboat (ILB).

Outline of Cornwall Overview of and topical guide to Cornwall

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Cornwall: Cornwall – ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom. Cornwall is a peninsula bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall is also a royal duchy of the United Kingdom. It has an estimated population of half a million and it has its own distinctive history and culture.

Presented below is an alphabetical index of articles related to Cornwall:

References

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  23. "Bodinnick Ferry". Ctomsandson.co.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  24. "Silvanus Trevail". Passmoreedwards.org.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  25. "Fowey Festival 2013Fowey Festival 2013 »". 19 January 2013. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.
  26. Mallett, Francis (30 July 2008). "Obituary: Fred Yates". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  27. "Archived copy". www.manifestgallery.org. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  33. "River Fowey Gig Club". Foweygigclub.org.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  34. "Golfs Missing Links". Golfsmissinglinks.co.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  35. Fowey River Practice Patient Leaflet
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  40. "Leary". 29 March 2004. Archived from the original on 29 March 2004.
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Further reading