François Auguste Marie Mignet (8 May 1796 – 24 March 1884) was a French journalist and historian of the French Revolution.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
He was born in Aix-en-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône), France. His father was a locksmith from the Vendée, who enthusiastically accepted the principles of the French Revolution and encouraged liberal ideas in his son. François had brilliant success at Avignon in the lycée where he became a teacher in 1815. He returned to Aix to study law, and in 1818 was called to the bar, where his eloquence would have ensured his success had he not been more interested in the study of history. His abilities were shown in an Éloge de Charles VII, which was honoured by the Académie de Nîmes in 1820, and a memoire on Les Institutions de Saint Louis, which in 1821 was honoured by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.
Aix-en-Provence, or simply Aix, is a city-commune in the south of France, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille. A former capital of Provence, it is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, of which it is a subprefecture. The population of Aix numbers approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains.
Bouches-du-Rhône is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône. It is the most populous department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region with 2,019,717 inhabitants in 2016; it has an area of 5,087 km2 (1,964 sq mi). Its INSEE and postal code is 13. Marseille is Bouches-du-Rhône's largest city and prefecture.
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean. The name Vendée is taken from the Vendée river which runs through the southeastern part of the department.
He then went to Paris, where he was soon joined by his friend and compatriot Adolphe Thiers, the future president of the French Republic. He was introduced by Jacques-Antoine Manuel, formerly a member of the Convention, to the Liberal paper, Le Courrier français , where he became a member of the staff which carried on a fierce pen-and-ink warfare against the Restoration. He acquired his knowledge of the men and intrigues of the Napoleonic epoch from Talleyrand.
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic.
Jacques-Antoine Manuel was a French lawyer, politician, and noted orator.
Le Courrier français was a Liberal French journal that appeared from 1820 to 1851.
Mignet's Histoire de la révolution française (1824), in support of the Liberal cause, was an enlarged sketch, prepared in four months, in which more stress was laid on fundamental theories than on the facts. In 1830, he founded Le National with Thiers and Armand Carrel, and signed the journalists' protest against the July Ordinances, however, he refused to profit from his party's victory. He was satisfied with the modest position of Director of the Archives at the Foreign Office, where he stayed till the revolution of 1848, when he was dismissed, and retired permanently into private life. He had been elected a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques , which was re-established in 1832, and, in 1837, was made the permanent secretary. He was elected a member of the Académie française in 1836, and sought no further honours.
Armand Carrel was a French journalist and political writer.
July Ordinances, also known as the Four Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, were a series of decrees set forth by Charles X and Jules Armand de Polignac, the chief minister, in July 1830.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute.
Mignet was well known in fashionable circles where his witty conversation and pleasant manners made him a favourite. Most of his time was devoted to study and to his academic duties. Eulogies on his deceased fellow-members, the Academy reports on its work, and on the prizes awarded by it, which it was part of Mignet's duty as secretary to draw up, were thoroughly appreciated by connoisseurs, and were collected in Mignet's Notices et portraits.
He worked slowly and lingered over research. With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the Middle Ages. He and historian Francois Guizot invented the concept of the bourgeois revolution.These include, De la féodalité, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la législation de ce prince (1822); La Germanie au VIIIe et au IXe siècle, sa conversion au Christianisme, et son introduction dans la société civilisée de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du XIe siècle jusqu'à la fin du XVe (1836); all of which are rough sketches that mainly outline the subjects.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
Mignet's most famous works are devoted to modern history. For many years, he immersed himself into history of the Reformation, but only one part of his writings, dealing with the Reformation at Geneva, was published. His Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., 1851) made use of previously unpublished documents from the archives of Simancas. He devoted several volumes to a history of Spain, which had a well-deserved success, including, Charles Quint, son abdication, son séjour et sa mort au monastère de Yuste (1845); Antonio Perez et Philippe II. (1845); and Histoire de la rivalité de François Ier et de Charles Quint (1875).
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.
Simancas is a town and municipality of central Spain, located in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is situated approximately 10 km southwest of the provincial capital Valladolid, on the road to Zamora and the right bank of the river Pisuerga.
At the same time, he was commissioned to publish the diplomatic acts relating to the War of the Spanish Succession for the Collection des documents inédits. Only four volumes of these Négotiations were published (1835–1842), and they do not go further than the Peace of Nijmwegen; however, the introduction is celebrated, and Mignet reprinted it in his Mélanges historiques.
Mignet was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1876.He died in Paris at age 87.
Charles François Marie, Comte de Rémusat, was a French politician and writer.
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot was a French historian, orator, and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848. A moderate liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power, he worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830.
Marie Roch Louis Reybaud, French writer, political economist and politician, was born at Marseille.
Jules Sylvain Zeller was a 19th-century French historian.
Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire was a French philosopher, journalist, statesman, and possible illegitimate son of Napoleon I of France.
Amable Guillaume Prosper Brugière, baron de Barante was a French statesman and historian. Associated with the center-left, he was described in France as the first man to call himself, "without any embarrassment or restriction, a Liberal."
Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest was a French diplomat, historian, and Peer of France. He was the eleventh member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1849.
René Rémond was a French historian, political scientist and political economist.
Pierre Milza was a French historian. His work focused mainly on the history of Italy, the history of Italian immigration to France and the history of fascism, of which he was a recognized specialist.
Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, called Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, was a member of the Académie française and the Choiseul-Gouffier family, French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1784 until the fall of the French monarchy and a scholar of ancient Greece.
Mathieu-Richard-Auguste Henrion was a Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist. After completing his studies in law, he became a member of the Paris Bar as avocat à la cour royale. Under the July Monarchy he was made assistant librarian at the Bibliothèque Mazarine; Napoleon III appointed him counsellor at the court of appeals of La Guadeloupe, whence he was transferred in the same capacity to the court of Aix, a position which he occupied until his death.
Bernard Cottret, born in 1951 at Boulogne-Billancourt near Paris, is a French Historian and literary scholar.
Jean-Yves Mollier is a French contemporary history teacher.
Antoine Aude (1799–1870) was a French lawyer and politician. He served as the Mayor of Aix-en-Provence from 1835 to 1848.
Joel Felix is professor of European history at the University of Reading. Felix is a specialist in the Ancien Regime and the French Revolution.
François Crouzet was a French historian. Considered the greatest French historian of Britain of his generation, he was Professor Emeritus of Modern History at the Université de Paris-Sorbonne at the time of his death.
Jean-François-Marie d'Arquier de Barbegal (1761–1794), also known as de Baumelles, parliamentarian from Aix in the 18th century, was involved in the federalist movement of 1793 during the French Revolution.
Yves-Marie Bercé, is a French historian known for his work on popular revolts of the modern era. He is a member of the Institut de France.
Émile Mireaux was a French economist, journalist, politician and literary historian. In the 1930s he edited Le Temps and contributed to other right-leaning journals. He became a senator in 1936, and briefly served as a minister in 1940. From 1940 until his death he held a chair in political economy, statistics and finance at the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
Patrice Bret is a French historian of science and technology and a senior researcher at the Centre Alexandre-Koyré in Paris. His areas of expertise include the translation and circulation of scientific and technical knowledge through communities in the 18th century, the technology and history of armaments in the 18th-20th centuries, and science and technology under colonisation.
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