François de Harlay de Champvallon
| Archbishop of Paris, Duke of Saint-Cloud, |
Peer of France
François de Harlay de Champvallon (1625-1695)
|Church||Roman Catholic Church|
|See||Notre-Dame de Paris|
|Installed||23 February 1671|
|Term ended||6 August 1695|
|Predecessor||Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont|
|Successor||Louis-Antoine de Noailles|
|Other posts||Archbishop of Rouen|
|Born||14 August 1625|
|Died||6 August 1695 69) (aged|
|Alma mater||College of Navarre, Paris|
François de Harlay de Champvallon (François III de Harlay; 14 August 1625 – 6 August 1695) was the fifth Archbishop of Paris.
Harlay de Champvallon was born in Paris, the nephew of François de Harlay, archbishop of Rouen. He was presented to the abbey of Jumièges immediately on leaving the Collège de Navarre, and he was only twenty-six when he succeeded his uncle in the archiepiscopal see. He was transferred to the see of Paris in 1671. In 1674 the domain and lordships of Saint-Cloud, Maisons-Alfort, Créteil, Ozoir-la-Ferrière, and Armentières-en-Brie were erected into a duchy of Saint-Cloud to be held by the successive Archbishops of Paris, although it was not registered in the parlement until 1690. Harlay was the first to bear the title, which was then held by his successors at Paris till the Revolution. The Duke was likewise a pair of France. Harlay was also commander of the chivalric Order of the Holy Spirit and a member of the Académie française. In 1690 he was proposed by the king for the cardinalate, though this did not have effect.
During the early part of his political career he was a firm adherent of Mazarin, and is said to have helped to procure his return from exile. His private life gave rise to much scandal, but he had considerable learning, was an eloquent and persuasive speaker and had a great capacity for business. He secured the favour of Louis XIV by his support for the claims of the Gallican Church formulated by the declaration made by the clergy in assembly on 19 March 1682, when Bossuet accused him of truckling to the court like a valet.
Though no official act has survived, it is reliably thought that Harlay officiated in a private ceremony at the king's marriage with Madame de Maintenon after a Mass celebrated by Père la Chaise, the king's confessor, and in the presence of only three witnesses, the Marquis de Montchevreuil, the Chevalier de Forbin and Alexandre Bontemps. Harlay was hated by the bride for using his influence with the king to keep the matter secret.
He had a weekly audience of Louis XIV in company with Père la Chaise on the affairs of the Church in Paris, but his influence gradually declined, and Saint-Simon, who bore him no good will for his harsh attitude to the Jansenists, says that his friends deserted him as the royal favour waned, until at last most of his time was spent at his Château de Conflans (in Charenton-le-Pont)in the company of Paule-Françoise de Gondi, duchess of Lesdiguieres, who alone was faithful to him. Saint-Simon records that they were fond of walking through the magnificent gardens there, while a servant followed at a respectful distance to rake the gravel disturbed by their feet.
Harlay urged the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and this took place in 1685. As a result Dieppe, of which he was temporal and spiritual lord, saw 3,000 of its Huguenot citizens flee abroad, partly it is said on account of Harlay's severity.
Harlay de Champvallon died suddenly, without having received the sacraments, on 6 August 1695. His funeral discourse was delivered by Père Gaillard, and Mme de Sévigné made on the occasion the severe comment that there were only two trifles to make this a difficult matter — his life and his death.
Jacint Rigau-Ros i Serra, known as Hyacinthe Rigaud, was a French baroque painter most famous for his portraits of Louis XIV and other members of the French nobility.
Yvelines is a department in the region of Île-de-France, France. Located west of Hauts-de-Seine, it had a population of 1,431,808 as of 2016. Its main communes are Versailles, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Mantes-la-Jolie and Rambouillet.
François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, more commonly known as François Fénelon, was a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer. He today is remembered mostly as the author of The Adventures of Telemachus, first published in 1699.
Jules Hardouin-Mansart was a French Baroque architect and builder whose major work included the Place des Victoires (1684–1690); Place Vendôme (1690); the domed chapel of Les Invalides (1690), and the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles. His monumental work was designed to glorify the reign of Louis XIV of France.
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France. She was known during her first marriage as Madame Scarron, and subsequently as Madame de Maintenon. Her marriage to the king was never officially announced or admitted, and thus she was never considered queen of France. Even so, she was very influential at court, and was one of the king's closest advisers. She founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for girls from poorer noble families, in 1684.
Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marquise of Montespan, better known as Madame de Montespan, was the most celebrated maîtresse-en-titre of King Louis XIV of France, by whom she had seven children.
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. Most of her letters, celebrated for their wit and vividness, were addressed to her daughter. She is revered in France as one of the great icons of French 17th-century literature.
François de la Chaise was a French Jesuit priest, the father confessor of King Louis XIV of France.
The title of Duke of Saint-Cloud was created in 1674. The intention behind the creation was to provide a noble title to be held by the Archbishop of Paris for the time being.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is traditionally thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum; it was elevated to an archdiocese on October 20, 1622. Before that date the bishops were suffragan to the archbishops of Sens.
Simon Arnauld de Pomponne, Seigneur and then Marquis (1682) of Pomponne was a French diplomat and minister.
French Baroque architecture, sometimes called French classicism, was a style of architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610–43), Louis XIV (1643–1715) and Louis XV (1715–74). It was preceded by French Renaissance architecture and Mannerism and was followed in the second half of the 18th century by French Neoclassical architecture. The style was originally inspired by the Italian Baroque architecture style, but, particularly under Louis XIV, it gave greater emphasis to regularity, the colossal order of facades, and the use of colonnades and cupolas, to symbolize the power and grandeur of the King. Notable examples of the style include the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, and the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. In the final years of Louis XIV and the reign of Louis XV, the colossal orders gradually disappeared, the style became lighter and saw the introduction of wrought iron decoration in rocaille designs. The period also saw the introduction of monumental urban squares in Paris and other cities, notably Place Vendôme and the Place de la Concorde. The style profoundly influenced 18th-century secular architecture throughout Europe; the Palace of Versailles and the French formal garden were copied by other courts all over Europe.
The Château de Meudon, also known as the royal castle of Meudon and imperial palace of Meudon, is a French castle located in Meudon in the department of Hauts-de-Seine. On the edge of a wooded plateau, the castle offers views of Paris and the Seine river, as well as of the valley of Chalais. Located between Paris and Versailles in the heart of a hunting reserve, the castle has an ideal topography for large gardens. It had many successive owners from the Renaissance until the fall of the Second French Empire. It should not be confused with the Château de Bellevue, also in Meudon.
The Château de Clagny was a French country house that stood northeast of the Château de Versailles; it was designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for Madame de Montespan between 1674 and 1680. Although among the most important of the private residences designed by this great architect, it was demolished in 1769 after years of neglect.
André Le Nôtre, originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the gardens of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française.
Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné, comtesse de Grignan, was a French aristocrat, remembered for the letters that her mother, Madame de Sévigné, wrote to her.
François Adhémar de Monteil, comte de Grignan was a French aristocrat, remembered chiefly for being Lieutenant-Governor of Provence and the beloved son-in-law of Madame de Sévigné.
Jean-Antoine de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux (1661–1723) was a premier president of the Parlement of Paris and member of the Académie française. As premier president he presided at the rescinding of the will of Louis XIV and at the remonstrance against the regent, Philippe of Orléans, in 1720 for allowing Law's disastrous financial scheme and appointing Guillaume Dubois as archbishop of Cambrai.
The Style Louis XIV or Louis Quatorze, also called French classicism, was the style of architecture and decorative arts intended to glorify King Louis XIV and his reign. It featured majesty, harmony and regularity. It became the official style during the reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715), imposed upon artists by the newly established Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture and the Académie royale d'architecture. It had an important influence upon the architecture of other European monarchs, from Frederick the Great of Prussia to Peter the Great of Russia. Major architects of the period included François Mansart, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Robert de Cotte, Pierre Le Muet, Charles Perrault, and Louis Le Vau. Major monuments included the Palace of Versailles, the Grand Trianon at Versailles, and the Church of Les Invalides (1675–91).
|Catholic Church titles|
Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont
| Archbishop of Paris |
Louis Antoine de Noailles