France 2

Last updated

France 2
France 2 2018.svg
Country France
Broadcast area Europe, Middle East, Africa, Americas and Australia
Slogan Nos différences nous rassemblent. (Translation: Our differences bring us together.)
Programming
Picture format 1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
Ownership
Owner France Télévisions
Sister channels France 3
France 4
France 5
History
Launched18 April 1964;57 years ago (1964-04-18)
Former namesLa deuxième chaîne de la RTF(1964)
La deuxième chaîne de l’ORTF (1964 – 1975)
Antenne 2(1975 – 1992)
Links
Website www.france2.fr
Availability
Terrestrial
TNT Channel 2 (HD)
TNT in Overseas FranceChannel 2 or 3 or 4
Cable
Ziggo (Netherlands)TV Française Ziggo App Channel 3 (HD)
Vodafone (Germany)Channel 685
Unitymedia (Germany)Channel 18 (SD)
Caiway (Netherlands)Channel 224 (SD)
DELTA (Netherlands)Channel 501 (SD)
Telenet (Belgium)Channel 25 (Wallonia & Brussels)
Channel 151 (Flanders)
VOO (Belgium)Channel 8
SFR (Luxembourg)Channel 41
UPC Switzerland Channel 4 (Romandy)
Channel 304 (Deutschswizz)
Channel 504 (Ticino)
Satellite
Canal+ Channel 2
TNTSAT
Fransat
Channel 2
TéléSAT Channel 11
Canal+ Réunion /
Calédonie /
Caraïbes
Channel 12
Platforma Canal+ Channel 232
TV Vlaanderen Channel 63
Meo (Portugal)Channel 256
Canal+ Afrique Channel 52
StarTimes Channel 641
IPTV
French TV providersChannel 2
KPN (Netherlands)Channel 92 (HD)
Proximus TV Channel 7 (Wallonia & Brussels)
Channel 257 (Flanders)
Scarlet Channel 46
Sunrise Channel 4
FL1 (Liechtenstein)Channel 143
My.t Channel 140

France 2 (pronounced  [fʁɑ̃s dø] ) is a French public national television channel. It is part of the state-owned France Télévisions group, along with France 3, France 4, and France 5. France Télévisions also participates in ARTE and EuroNews.

Contents

Since 3:20 CET on 7 April 2008, all France 2 programming has been broadcast in 16:9 widescreen format [1] over the French analogue and digital terrestrial television. An HD simulcast feed of France 2 has been broadcasting on satellite provider CanalSat since 1 July 2008 and on digital terrestrial television since 30 October 2008. [2]

History

Originally under the ownership of the RTF, the channel went on the air for the first time on 18 April 1964 as RTF Télévision 2. Within a year, ORTF rebranded that channel as La deuxième chaîne (The Second Channel). Originally, the network was broadcast on 625-line transmitters only in preparation for the discontinuation of 819-line black & white transmissions and the introduction of colour. The switch to colour occurred at 14:15 CET on 1 October 1967, using the SECAM system. La deuxième chaîne became the first colour television channel in France. TF1 would not commence colour broadcasting on 625-lines until 1 September 1975. Such technology later allowed the network to air programming in NICAM stereo (compatible with SECAM).

The present channel is the direct successor of Antenne 2, established under a 1974 law that mandated the breakup of ORTF into seven distinct organisations. Three television "programme corporations" were established on 6 January 1975 – TF1, Antenne 2 and FR3, now France 3 – alongside Radio France, the Société française de production, the public broadcasting agency Télédiffusion de France and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA). Antenne 2 and the other corporations were constituted as limited companies with the state controlling 100% of their capital. Although the three channels were set up as competitors vying for advertisers, they retained a collective monopoly over television broadcasting in France that was not repealed until 1981. Privately owned channels such as Canal+ and La Cinq (now superseded by France 5) soon became major competitors to the state-owned channels after the state monopoly was lifted. [3] The breakup of ORTF had been intended to stimulate competition between the public channels but failed in this aim; both TF1 and Antenne 2 came to rely on a diet of popular entertainment shows alongside cheap American imports, seeking to maximise ratings and attract advertisers. [4]

TF1 was privatised in 1987, radically affecting the balance of the French television market. The remaining state-owned channels came under severe pressure from their private competitors and lost 30% of their market share between 1987 and 1989. [5] In an effort to save them, a single director-general was appointed to manage both Antenne 2 and FR3 and the two channels merged to form the France Télévisions group. They were renamed on 7 September 1992 as France 2 and France 3 respectively. [6]

By 1995, the combined audience share of the two state-owned channels was 41%, with France 2 in particular being heavily dependent on advertising and sponsorship revenues, which comprised 43.8% of its budget by 1996. The focus on ratings led to strong rivalry with TF1, for instance prompting the two channels to broadcast popular shows and news programmes in the same timeslots. TF1 and France 2 compete for the same demographics; dramas (including American imports), game shows and light entertainments form the dominant mix on both channels. [7]

Logos

Leaders of France 2

General President-Director
General Directors
Program Directors
Information Directors
Writing Directors
Sports Directors

Programming

Italian coverage

From 1975, Antenne 2 was available in Italy (regions of Tuscany, Lazio, Lower Veneto and parts of Lombardy and Liguria) using SECAM and since 1983 using PAL until 2003 when the frequencies were sold to various television networks like such as Canale Italia and Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso.

Since 11 December 2006, France 2 was again made available across Italy on Digital terrestrial television until 7 June 2007, when it was replaced by all-news French TV network France 24.

France 2 is now only available in Aosta Valley due to Italian self-government laws, and in the border zones because of natural spillover.

Controversy

Lebanese Civil War kidnapping of Antenne 2 news team

In March 1986, an Antenne 2 news team was kidnapped in Beirut while reporting on the Lebanese Civil War. Philippe Rochot, Georges Hansen, Aurel Cornéa and Jean-Louis Normandin were four of many Western hostages held by terrorists during the conflict. During the opening sequences of Antenne 2 news bulletins, the headlines would be followed by a reminder of the French hostages held in Lebanon, including others such as Michel Seurat and Jean-Paul Kaufman, with names, photos and the length of their captivity. Within a year, most of the news team had been released and returned to France, but the reminders continued until all the hostages had been freed.

Muhammad al-Durrah shooting

On 30 September 2000, France 2 aired the famous footage of the shooting of Muhammad al-Durrah in the Gaza Strip. The scene was filmed by a Palestinian journalist, Talal Abu Rahma, who worked for the station. [12] The voiceover, blaming the killing on fire from the Israeli Defence Forces, was provided by the channel's reporter Charles Enderlin. Subsequently, that account was put in doubt, with others suggesting that the fatal shots could not have come from the IDF position. [13] France 2 later launched libel actions against commentators who alleged that the incident was staged. France 2 won a case against one of those critics, Philippe Karsenty who was eventually and definitely fined €7,000 by the Court of Appeal of Paris in 2013. [14] Karsenty had been convicted in 2006, acquitted in appeal in 2008, [15] which decision was cancelled in 2012 by the Cour de cassation.

2008–2009 Israel-Gaza Conflict

France 2 has been accused of airing misleading footage of the event that was biased against Israel during the 2008–2009 Gaza conflict. [16] It aired portion of a video that purported to show destruction caused by the Israel Air Force in January 2009, but was shown to be a different incident from 2005 in which the IDF denied having any involvement. [17] [18] After being alerted to the error by bloggers, [19] France 2 acknowledged the error and formally apologized in the magazine Le Figaro , saying that it was an "internal malfunction" caused by their staff having "worked too fast." [16] [20] [21]

2013 report on weapons smuggling from Serbia to France

France 2 has been accused of knowingly producing and airing a news item whose key part it fabricated and staged.

On 7 March 2013, France 2 aired an eight-minute investigative report purporting to expose a weapons smuggling channel from Serbia to France. The report authors, journalists Franck Genauzeau and Régis Mathé, traveled to Serbia in February 2013 where they filmed a story claiming that Serbia is a hub for international weapons smuggling. Among its footage, the report showed two masked men – identified as Serbian weapons smugglers – who talked about their supposed illegal activity while showing off some of the weaponry: in particular two hand guns and one AK-47 Kalashnikov. They're also shown firing off rounds in the woods. [22]

After the report aired, the Serbian police's criminal department (UKP) conducted a month-long investigation, revealing its findings in May 2013 that parts of the French news story were staged with full knowledge of the two France 2 journalists. [23]

According to the police report, Genauzeau and Mathé arrived in Belgrade where they hired a local media fixer named Aleksandar M. who was employed at a Serbian news agency, giving him the task of finding weapons smugglers willing to go before a camera. Aleksandar M. apparently contacted his cousin Nenad Mirković and told him that the French were willing to pay €800 for weapons smugglers. At this point Mirković decided that he himself will appear on camera and also contacted his friend Žarko Blagojević to do the same. In order to make their act more credible, they then obtained two handguns – Zastava 9mm and 7.56mm – from Blagojević's father-in-law and father respectively. They also decided to get an automatic weapon by buying it from certain Milorad Novaković, a resident of Umka. Apparently, the two first offered him €200, but Novaković wanted €350, at which point they went back to two French journalists asking for more money and getting it.

Coached by Genauzeau and Mathé, the footage featuring masked Blagojević and Mirković was shot at a house owned by Blagojević's friend in Umka. Afterwards, they went into the nearby woods in Duboko near Umka where they fired off a few rounds for the cameras. They then returned the two handguns to Blagojević's father and father in law before selling the Kalashnikov for €100. According to the Serbian police report, Aleksandar M. was paid €300 by the French journalists while Mirković and Blagojević split the €800 between themselves.

Serbian foreign minister Ivan Mrkić reacted to the police report by "seeking explanations from France as the ministry looks to make sure the untruths from the report are clarified". [24]

Related Research Articles

TF1 French television channel

TF1 is a French free-to-air television channel owned by TF1 Group, which is controlled by the Bouygues construction company. TF1's average market share of 24% makes it the most popular domestic network.

The Radio-télévision belge de la Communauté française is a public service broadcaster delivering radio and television services to the French-speaking Community of Belgium, in Wallonia and Brussels. Its counterpart in the Flemish Community is the Dutch-language VRT, and in the German-speaking Community it is BRF.

TV5Monde, formerly known as TV5, is a French television network, broadcasting several channels of French-language programming. It is an approved participant member of the European Broadcasting Union.

Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française

The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France. All programming, and especially news broadcasts, were under strict control of the national government.

Michel Drucker

Michel Drucker, CQ is a popular French journalist and TV host. He has been on screen for so long and so permanently, that he once said that some people consider that he was included in the price of their TV sets.

France 3 French television channel

France 3 is a French free-to-air public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, and France 5.

Eurosport is a pan-European television sports network and a subsidiary of Discovery. Eurosport owns a wide range of rights across many sports but generally does not bid for premium priced rights such as those to major football leagues. However, in 2015 it was awarded rights to broadcast the Olympic Games from 2018 for most of Europe and 2022 for the UK and France in a deal worth €1.3 billion. It transmits much of the same footage across many markets, using unseen commentators rather than on-screen presenters so that the same visual feed may be broadcast in multiple languages while holding down production costs.

France Télévisions French national public television broadcaster

France Télévisions is the French national public television broadcaster. It is a state-owned company formed from the integration of the public television channels France 2 and France 3, later joined by the legally independent channels France 4, and France 5.

Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française

Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française was the French national public broadcasting organization established on 9 February 1949 to replace the post-war "Radiodiffusion Française" (RDF), which had been founded on 23 March 1945 to replace Radiodiffusion Nationale (RN), created on 29 July 1939. It was replaced in its turn, on 26 June 1964, by the notionally less-strictly government controlled Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF), which itself lasted until the end of 1974.

William Leymergie

William Leymergie (born 4 February 1947 in Libourne, France is a journalist television producer and host, best known for the French breakfast television news show Télématin, broadcast on public broadcaster France 2 and TV5 in Canada.

La Cinq was France's first privately owned free-to-air television network. Created by politician Jérôme Seydoux and Italian media mogul Silvio Berlusconi, the network broadcast from 1985 to 1992.

Thierry Ardisson French television producer and host

Thierry Ardisson, is a French television producer and host and a movie producer.

RTL9

RTL9 is a French speaking Luxembourgish television channel shown in Luxembourg, France, Monaco, Africa and Switzerland.

Radio Forces Françaises de Berlin was a broadcaster catering to the French military contingent in the French Sector of West Berlin. It was located in the Quartier Napoléon near Tegel Airport in the French sector.

Michel Denisot

Michel Maurice Daniel Denisot is a French journalist, producer, TV host and director of a football club and television. As of April 2021, Denisot is president of LB Châteauroux.

Laurent Broomhead is a French radio and television broadcaster and producer, specialized in science and health. As a horse riding enthusiast, he owns and raises thoroughbreds.

Charles Enderlin is a Franco-Israeli journalist, specialising in the Middle East and Israel. He is the author of a number of books on the subject, including Shamir, une biographie (1991), Shattered Dreams: The Failure of the Peace Process in the Middle East, 1995–2002 (2002), and The Lost Years: Radical Islam, Intifada and Wars in the Middle East 2001–2006 (2007). He was awarded France's highest decoration, the Légion d'honneur, in August 2009.

Patrick Chêne is a French journalist who worked mainly on France TV, where he commented the Tour de France between 1989 and 2000.

Claude Sérillon

Claude Sérillon, is a French journalist and TV presenter.

Journal de 20 heures

The Journal de 20 heures, also known as 20 heures and symbolized as 20h on-screen, is a French television news program that broadcasts at 8pm every evening on France 2, as its name suggests. This program is the successor of 24 heures actualités, 24 heures sur la Deux, and INF 2 which have been broadcast successively since 15 September 1967 on television.

References

  1. France 2 goes 16:9 widescreen : Broadband TV News
  2. France 2 HD launches on CanalSat : Broadband TV News
  3. Rigourd, Serge. "France", in Western Broadcasting at the Dawn of the 21st Century, pp. 255, 270. Eds. Haenens, Leen; Saeys, Frieda. Walter de Gruyter, 2001. ISBN   3-11-017386-7
  4. Looseley, David. Popular Music in Contemporary France: Authenticity, Politics, Debate, p. 122. Berg Publishers, 2003. ISBN   1-85973-636-X
  5. Rollet, Brigitte. "Television in France", in Television in Europe, pp. 39–40. Eds. Coleman, James A.; Rollet, Brigitte. Intellect Books, 1997. ISBN   1-871516-92-7
  6. Hart, Jeffrey A. Technology, Television, and Competition: The Politics of Digital TV, p. 46. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN   0-521-82624-1
  7. Scriven, Michael; Lecomte, Monia. Television Broadcasting in Contemporary France and Britain, p. 46, 51. Berghahn Books, 1999. ISBN   1-57181-754-9
  8. «  Jean Réveillon, directeur de France 2  », Le Figaro , 2 avril 2012.
  9. «  La directrice des programmes de France 2 écartée  », Le Figaro , 28 septembre 2012.
  10. "Officiel: Thierry Thuillier, directeur de l'info, devient le nouveau patron de France 2". jeanmarcmorandini.com (in French). Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  11. Direction commune des rédactions de France 2 et France 3 national.
  12. The Rory Peck Trust: Awards 2001 Archived 17 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Who Shot Mohammed al-Dura?
  14. "Media analyst convicted over France-2 Palestinian boy footage", Associated Press, 26 June 2013.
  15. French court cancels libel in Intifada video case Reuters.
  16. 1 2 Critics Say French TV Network Broadcast Fabricated Footage in Gaza, Again Fox News, 12 January 2009
  17. France 2 victime d'une intox palestinienne ?
  18. France 2 Uses Fake Gaza Video Israel National News 7 January 2009
  19. Gaza propaganda war escalates on the internet
  20. Gaza – France 2 : "une erreur bête" (Arlette Chabot)
  21. French network apologizes for Gaza report
  22. Sur la piste des trafiquants de kalachnikovs, de la Serbie à la France;France 2, 8 March 2013
  23. Nameštena reportaža: Francuska nacionalna televizija izmislila da je Srbija centar šverca oružja;Blic, 26 May 2013
  24. French national TV fabricates story about weapons smuggling;B92, 27 May 2013