Francesco Laurana

Last updated
Bust from the Louvre showing the stylized oval face typical of Laurana Princess Laurana Louvre MR2597.jpg
Bust from the Louvre showing the stylized oval face typical of Laurana

Francesco Laurana, also known as Francesco de la Vrana (Croatian : Frane Vranjanin) (c. 1430 – before 12 March 1502) was a Dalmatian sculptor and medallist. [1] He is considered both a Croatian [2] [3] and an Italian [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] sculptor. Though born in the territory of the Republic of Venice, he spent his mature career at the other end of Italy, moving between Naples and Sicily, and Urbino, and finally in southern France, where he died.

Contents

He was one of the more significant and complex sculptors of the 15th century – complex because of his activities within varying cultural circles and his exposure to differing influences. His best works evolved in the workshop tradition in collaboration with other artists. His portrait busts reveal a creative individuality that was seen as particularly fascinating in the late 19th century. Though it is impossible to chart his stylistic development, his later work made in France shows some assimilation of northern realism, which is absent from the work executed in Italy.

Life and works

Enthroned Madonna with Child, Naples Madonna enthroned and Child Laurana Castel Nuovo Napoli n01.jpg
Enthroned Madonna with Child, Naples

Laurana was born in Vrana, near Zadar, in Dalmatia. [10] Under Venetian rule Vrana was named La Vrana, from romance de Vrana, giving the surname used by Francesco Laurana: LA VRANA -> LAVRANA which is read like LAURANA because the letter U is written as V in inscriptions in Latin.

After an apprenticeship under a sculptor, he began his solo career at Naples, where he was one of the team of sculptors finishing the triumphal arch of Castel Nuovo for Alfonso V of Aragon. [Note 1] After the death of Alfonso (1458) he was called to Aix-en-Provence to the court of René d'Anjou, the former and still titular King of Naples, who commissioned him to do a series of bronze portrait medals of personages at the court. [Note 2]

From 1466 to 1471 Laurana was in Sicily. Works of this period include the Mastrantonio Chapel and the tomb of Pietro Speciale in the church of S. Francesco in Palermo, the side door of the church of St. Marguerite in Sciacca, Madonna and Child sculptures in the cathedrals of Palermo (1471) [Note 3] and Noto, and a bust allegedly portraying Eleanor of Aragon, now in the Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo, Sicily.

In 1471 he traveled to Naples where he executed the sculpture of the Virgin in the Sta. Barbara Chapel. From 1474 to 1477 Laura spent three years in Urbino, where his relative Luciano Laurana worked. He then went to Marseille, where he built a small chapel in the Cathedral of S. Marie Majeure (1475–1481), the first structure in France designed entirely in the Renaissance style. [12] His workshop in Marseille created the St. Lazarus marble altar as well as the retable of the Calvary in St. Didier d'Avignon, and the tombs of Giovanni Cossa at Sainte-Marthe de Tarascon and Charles, comte du Maine, in Le Mans. [Note 4]

Laurana died at Marseille or Avignon, in 1502.

Notes

  1. Laurana was first documented in 1453, as Francesco Adzara (Francesco da Zara).
  2. Some bear dates 1461, 1463 and 1466. [11]
  3. Signed and dated.
  4. Illustration.

See also

Related Research Articles

Pope Julius II Pope from 1503 to 1513

Pope Julius II was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant cultural and political legacy. Despite much of his policy being reversed by his successor, the Papal States remained independent and centralized as a result of Julius' policies and the office of the papacy would remain crucial, diplomatically and politically, during the entirety of the 16th century in Italy and Europe.

1502 Calendar year

Year 1502 (MDII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Palermo City in Sicily, Italy

Palermo is a city of southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is in the northwest of the island of Sicily, by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Antonello da Messina 15th-century Italian painter

Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina, was a Sicilian painter from Messina, active during the Early Italian Renaissance. His work shows strong influences from Early Netherlandish painting, although there is no documentary evidence that he ever travelled beyond Italy. Giorgio Vasari credited him with the introduction of oil painting into Italy. Unusually for a south Italian artist of the Renaissance, his work proved influential on painters in northern Italy, especially in Venice.

Luciano Laurana was an Italian architect and engineer from the historic Vrana settlement near the town of Zadar in Dalmatia, After education by his father Martin in Vrana settlement, he worked mostly in Italy during the late 15th century. He was principal designer of the Palazzo Ducale of Urbino and one of the main figures in 15th-century Italian architecture. He considerably influenced the development of Renaissance architecture. His projects were accompanied with notes in the Croatian glagolitic script, as witnessed by the famous Bernardo Baldi. He was a relative of the sculptor Francesco Laurana.

Raffaellino del Garbo

Raffaellino del Garbo was a Florentine painter of the early Renaissance.

Girolamo Genga

Girolamo Genga was an Italian painter and architect of the late Renaissance, Mannerist style.

Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua

Federico I Gonzaga was marquess of Mantua from 1478 to 1484, as well as a condottiero.

Andrea Bregno

Andrea di Cristoforo Bregno (1418–1506) was an Italian sculptor and architect of the Early Renaissance who worked in Rome from the 1460s and died just as the High Renaissance was getting under way.

Tommaso Malvito was an Italian sculptor, known particularly for his work on funerary monuments in Naples at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Bertoldo di Giovanni

Bertoldo di Giovanni was an Italian sculptor and medallist.

The year 1502 in art involved some significant events and new works.

The decade of the 1460s in art involved some significant events.

Mario Rutelli Italian sculptor

Mario Rutelli was an Italian sculptor.

Pietro Tenerani

Pietro Tenerani was an Italian sculptor of the Neoclassic style.

Palazzo Abatellis

Palazzo Abatellis is a palace in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy, located in the Kalsa quarter. It is home to the Galleria Regionale della Sicilia, the Gallery of Art for the Sicilian region.

Bust of a Princess

Bust of a Princess is a c.1468 marble sculpture by the Italian Renaissance artist Francesco Laurana. It was in the Condé family collection at château d'Écouen by 1793 and entered the Louvre in 1818, where it remains.

References

  1. Laurana Francesco in: L. Forrer: Biographical Dictionary od Medallists, Volume III, London 1907, S. 339 ff.
  2. Stourton, James (2003). Great Smaller Museums of Europe. Scala - Michigan University. p. 58. ISBN   9780852298329.
  3. Britannica (2002). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopaedia Britannic. p. 1056. ISBN   9780852298329.
  4. "Francesco Laurana". Grove Art, Oxford University Press. Web. 16 May. 2011.
    "Italian sculptor and medallist. He was one of the most significant and most complex sculptors of the 15th century."
  5. "Francesco Laurana." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 16 May. 2011.
  6. "LAURANA, Francesco." Treccani, il portale del sapere. Web. 16 May. 2011.
  7. Chilvers, Ian. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press, 10/giu/2004. p. 395. Web. 5 November 2013.
  8. Osborne, Harold. The Oxford companion to art. Clarendon P., 1970. p. 57. Web. 5 November 2013.
    "Italian sculptor Francesco Laurana ..."
  9. Jackson, Thomas Graham. The Renaissance of Roman Architecture. CUP Archive, 1921. p. 12. Web. 5 November 2013.
  10. Norwich, John Julius (2009). Croatia: Aspects of Art, Architecture and Cultural Heritage. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 137. ISBN   9780711229211.
  11. [Spink & Sons] Numismatic Circular, London. January 1906:col. 8843f
  12. Nikolaus Pevsner. An Outline of European Architecture, 7th ed. 1963:289.