Rosi at the Cannes Film Festival, 1991
|Born||15 November 1922|
|Died||10 January 2015 92) (aged|
Francesco Rosi (Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ˈrɔːzi] ; 15 November 1922 – 10 January 2015) was an Italian film director. His film The Mattei Affair won the Palme d'Or at the 1972 Cannes Film Festival. Rosi's films, especially those of the 1960s and 1970s, often appeared to have political messages. While the topics for his later films became less politically oriented and more angled toward literature, he continued to direct until 1997, his last film being the Primo Levi book adaptation The Truce .
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film.
The Mattei Affair is a 1972 film directed by Francesco Rosi. It depicts the life and mysterious death of Enrico Mattei, an Italian businessman who in the aftermath of World War II managed to avoid the sale of the nascent Italian oil and hydrocarbon industry to US companies and developed them in the Eni, a state-owned oil company which rivaled the 'seven sisters' for oil and gas deals in northern African and Middle Eastern countries.
At the 2008 Berlin International Film Festival 13 of his films were screened, in a section reserved for film-makers of outstanding quality and achievement. He received the Honorary Golden Bear for Lifetime Achievement, accompanied by the screening of his 1962 film Salvatore Giuliano . In 2012 the Venice Biennale awarded Rosi the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement.
The Berlin International Film Festival, usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival.
Salvatore Giuliano is a 1962 Italian film directed by Francesco Rosi. Shot in a neo-realist documentary, non-linear style, it follows the lives of those involved with the famous Sicilian bandit Salvatore Giuliano. Giuliano is mostly off-screen during the film and appears most notably as a corpse.
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes.
Rosi was born in Naples in 1922. His father worked in the shipping industry, but was also a cartoonist and had, at one time, been reprimanded for his satirical drawings of Benito Mussolini and King Vittorio Emmanuel III.
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy from his golpe in 1922 to 1943, and Duce of Fascism from 1919 to his execution in 1945 during the Italian civil war. As dictator of Italy and founder of fascism, Mussolini inspired several totalitarian rulers such as Adolf Hitler.
Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he held the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941) and King of the Albanians (1939–1943). During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism and its regime.
During the Second World War Rosi went to college alongside Giorgio Napolitano who was to become Italian President.He studied law and then embarked on a career as an illustrator of children's books. At the same time he began working as a reporter for Radio Napoli . There he became friendly with Raffaele La Capria, Aldo Giuffrè and Giuseppe Patroni Griffi, with each of whom he would later often collaborate.
Giorgio Napolitano, is an Italian politician who served as the 11th President of the Republic from 2006 to 2015, and the only Italian President to be reelected to the Presidency. Due to his monarchical style and his dominant position in Italian politics, critics often refer to him as Re Giorgio. He is the longest serving President in the history of the modern Italian Republic, which has been in existence since 1946.
The President of the Italian Republic is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The President's term of office lasts for seven years. The 11th President of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, was elected on 10 May 2006 and elected to a second term for the first time in Italian Republic history on 20 April 2013. Following Napolitano's resignation, the incumbent President, former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009 on 31 January 2015.
Raffaele La Capria is an Italian novelist and screenwriter, known especially for the three novels which were collected as Tre romanzi di una giornata.
His show business career began in 1946 as an assistant to Ettore Giannini for the stage production of a work by Salvatore Di Giacomo.He then entered the film industry and worked as an assistant to Luchino Visconti on La Terra Trema ("The Earth Trembles", 1948) and Senso ("Sense", 1953). He wrote several screenplays, including Bellissima ("Beautiful", 1951) and The City Stands Trial ("Processo alla città", 1952), and shot a few scenes of the film Red Shirts ("Camicie rosse", 1952) by Goffredo Alessandrini. In 1956 he co-directed, with Vittorio Gassman, the film Kean – Genio e sregolatezza ("Kean – Genius and recklessness"), about the Shakespearean actor Edmund Kean.
Ettore Giannini was an Italian screenwriter and film director. He wrote for eight films between 1940 and 1967.
Salvatore Di Giacomo was an Italian poet, songwriter, playwright and fascist, one of the signatories to the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals.
Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo, was an Italian theatre, opera and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter. He is best known for his films Ossessione (1943), Senso (1954), Rocco and His Brothers (1960), The Leopard (1963) and Death in Venice (1971).
His emergence as a director is considered to be his 1958 film La sfida (The Challenge), based on the story of Camorra boss Pasquale Simonetti, known as Pasquale 'e Nola, and Pupetta Maresca.The realist nature of this film caused a stir in alluding to mafia control of the government. Of the film, Rosi himself said, "A director makes his first film with passion and without regard for what has gone before". But David Shipman comments "... but this is in fact a reworking of La Terra Trema, with the Visconti arias replaced by Zavattini's naturalism."
La sfida is a 1958 Italian film by Francesco Rosi. It stars José Suárez as a gang leader who challenges a local Camorra boss for supremacy. It won the Jury Prize at the Venice Film Festival.
The Camorra is an Italian Mafia-type crime syndicate, or secret society, which arose in the region of Campania and its capital Naples. It is one of the oldest and largest criminal organizations in Italy, dating back to the 17th century. Unlike the pyramidal structure of the Sicilian Mafia, the Camorra's organizational structure is more horizontal than vertical. Consequently, individual Camorra clans act independently of each other, and are more prone to feuding among themselves.
Pasquale Simonetti, known as Pascalone 'e Nola, was an Italian criminal of the Camorra, a Mafia-type organisation in Naples and Campania in Italy.
The following year he directed The Magliari ("I magliari"), in which the main character, an Italian immigrant in Germany, travels between Hamburg and Hanover and clashes with a Neapalitan mafioso boss over control the fabric market. Shipman writes:
I magliari (1959) also concerns racketeers, and they are rival con-men (Alberto Sordi, Renato Salvatori) preying on their compatriots, immigrant workers in Germany. Sordi, like the protagonist in La sfida, manages to antagonise his colleagues more than his rivals – and this was to be a continuing theme in Rosi's films. For the moment it means that both films end dispiritedly, and they are further weakened by an uncertain grasp of narrative – though that is partly hidden in the vigorous handling of individual scenes and the photography of Gianni Di Venanzo.
Rosi was one of the central figures of the politicised post-neorealist 1960s and 1970s of Italian cinema, along with Gillo Pontecorvo, Pier Paolo Pasolini, the Taviani brothers, Ettore Scola and Valerio Zurlini. Dealing with a corrupt postwar Italy, Rosi's movies take on controversial issues, such as Salvatore Giuliano , a film that won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival in 1962.The film examined the life of the Sicilian gangster Giuliano, using the technique of a long series of flashbacks, one that became very popular thereafter. Shipman suggests that the film, with a "superb unity of the landscape and people of Sicily" ... "made Rosi's international reputation."
In 1963 he directed Rod Steiger in the film Hands over the City ("Le mani sulla città"), in which he courageously denounced the collusion between the various government departments and the crooked urban reconstruction programmes in Naples. The film was awarded the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. The film, together with Salvatore Giuliano, is generally considered the first of his films concerning political issues, later to be expressed in the flexible and spontaneous acting of Gian Maria Volonté. Rosi himself explained the film's purpose: "What interests me passionately is how a character behaves in the relation to the collectivity of society. I'm not making a study of character but of society. To understand what a man is like in his private drama you must begin to understand him in his public life".
In The Moment of Truth ("Il momento della verità", 1965), Rosi changed what was planned as a documentary about Spain in to a film about bullfighter Miguel Marco Miguelin. Shipman comments: "The wide screen and colour footage of the corrida were incomparably superior to those seen outside Spain hitherto."
After this Rosi moved into the unfamiliar world of the movie fable with More Than a Miracle (also titled Cinderella Italian Style and Happily Ever After, Italian: "C'era una volta" – "Once Upon a Time ..."). The film starred Sophia Loren and Omar Sharif, fresh from the success of the 1966 film Doctor Zhivago , although Rosi had initially asked for the part to be played by Marcello Mastroianni.
His 1970 film Many Wars Ago ("Uomini contro") dealt with the absurdity of war in the context of the Trentino Front of 1916–17 during World War One, where Italian army officers demanded far too much of their men. It was based on the novel Un anno sull'altopiano by Emilio Lussu.The lead is played by Mark Frechette and the cost of the film was such that Rosi needed to secure Yugoslavian collaboration. Shipman writes: "The Alpine battlefield has been imaginatively and bloodily re-created, and photographed in steely colours by Pasqualino De Santis, but Rosi's urge to say something important – doubtless intense after the last two films – resulted only in cliché: that military men are fanatics and war is hell."
The years 1972 to 1976 cemented Rosi's reputation internationally as a director who dealt with controversial subjects such as the mysterious death of oil magnate Enrico Mattei ( The Mattei Affair , 1972, which won the Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival);the political machinations around gangster Lucky Luciano ( Lucky Luciano , 1974), and corruption in the judiciary, Illustrious Corpses ("Cadaveri Eccellenti", 1976). During the preparation of The Mattei Affair Rosi was in contact with Mauro De Mauro, the Sicilian journalist murdered in mysterious circumstances for reasons which, it is suspected, included an investigation on behalf of Rosi, into the death of the president of the Italian state-owned oil and gas conglomerate Eni.
Lucky Luciano (1973) starred Gian Maria Volonté with Steiger in a sub-plot about another dubious Italo-American. Edmond O'Brien featured a UN man. Norman Mailer described the film as "the most careful, the most thoughtful, the truest, and the most sensitive to the paradoxes to a society of crime".
In 1976 came the remarkable success Illustrious Corpses ("Cadaveri eccellenti"), based on the novel Equal Danger by Leonardo Sciascia, with Lino Ventura. The film is praised highly by Shipman, who describes it as: "a film so rich, so powerful and so absorbing that it leaves the spectator breathless. ... This is a film, rare in the history of cinema, in which location – as opposed to decor – is a character in its own right, commenting on the action." Writing in The Observer , Russell Davies said, "Few directors select their shots with such flamboyant intelligence as this".
In 1979 Rosi directed Christ Stopped at Eboli , based on the memoir of the same name by Carlo Levi, again with Volonté as the protagonist. It won the Golden Prize at the 11th Moscow International Film Festivaland was to win BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1983. Rosi had been invited by the state-owned television service RAI to select a subject for filming, and the four-part television programme was cut into a 141-minute feature film which he described as "a journey through my own conscience". Shipman writes, "the film retains all the mystery of Rosi's best work – an enquiry where at least half the answers are withheld. In this enquiry there is a respect for the historical process, but the usual magisterial blend of art and dialectic is softened by a sympathy much deeper than that of Il Momento Della Verità . The occasional self-conscious shot that we associate with peasantry cannot mar it."
After another successful film Three Brothers ("Tre fratelli", 1981), with Philippe Noiret, Michele Placido and Vittorio Mezzogiorno, Rosi wanted bring the novel The Truce by Primo Levi, to the big screen, but the suicide of the writer in April 1987 forced him to give the project up. The film was finally made only in 1997. He directed a film adaptation of Carmen (1984) with Plácido Domingoand subsequently he worked on Chronicle of a Death Foretold (1987), adapted from the novel by Gabriel García Márquez, which brought together a great cast including Gian Maria Volonté, Ornella Muti, Rupert Everett, Anthony Delon and Lucia Bosè. The film was shot in Mompox, Colombia.
In 1990 he directed The Palermo Connection ("Dimenticare Palermo") with Jim Belushi, Mimi Rogers, Vittorio Gassman, Philippe Noiret and Giancarlo Giannini. He then returned to the theatre direction with the comedies of Eduardo De Filippo: Napoli milionaria!, Le voci di dentro and Filumena Marturano , all performed by Luca De Filippo.
His last film as director was 1997's The Truce , based on holocaust survivor Levi’s memoir, and starring John Turturro. Rosi described the film in a 2008 interview with Variety as being about "the return to life."
In 2005, for the film Hands over the City , he was awarded an Honorary Degree in "Urban and Environmental Planning" by the Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria.
The 58th edition of the Berlin International Film Festival in 2008 played tribute to Rosi by screening 13 films in its Homage section, a feature being reserved for film-makers of outstanding quality and achievement. He received the Honorary Golden Bear for Lifetime Achievement on 14 February 2008, accompanied by the screening of Salvatore Giuliano.
In 2009 he was awarded the Cavaliere della Legion d'Onore, in 2010 the "Golden Halberd" at the Trieste Film Festival and in May 2012 the Board of the Venice Biennale unanimously approved the proposal of its director Alberto Barber, to award Rosi the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement at its 69th show. Barber praised Rosi for his "absolute rigor in historic reconstruction, never making any compromises on a political or ethical level, combined with engaging storytelling and splendid visuals."
On 27 October 2010 he became an honorary citizen of Matelica, the birthplace of Enrico Mattei, while in 2013, in the presence of the Italian Minister of Cultural Heritage Massimo Bra, he was given the honorary citizenship of Matera, where he had shot three of his films. In 2014 he took part in the film Born in the USE, co-produced by Renzo Rossellini and directed by Michele Dioma.
In the last part of his life he lived on the Via Gregoriana in Rome near the Spanish Steps. In April 2010 his wife Giancarla Mandelli, died at the Hospital Sant Eugenio, as a result of burns caused by her dress catching fire from a cigarette.
Rosi died, on 10 January 2015, at the age of 92,whilst at home, as a result of complications from bronchitis.
A memorial service was held in Rome on 10 January, with a day-long viewing of the body at the Casa del Cinema. Fellow director Giuseppe Tornatore was among many acclaimed Italian film-makers who attended. Italian President Giorgio Napolitano, Rosi's friend and former classmate, sent white roses. Italian director Giuseppe Piccioni said Rosi's work gave Italy "identity and dignity" continuing, "Rosi was one of those artists who lived his work like a mission."
Director Paolo Sorrentino dedicates his 2015 movie Youth with a simple end credit "For Francesco Rosi".
Rosi's films, especially those of the 1960s and 1970s, often appear to have political messages. As he matured as a director his film topics became less politically oriented and more angled toward literature. Despite the more traditional slant of his later work, Rosi continued to direct until 1997.
The Variety Movie Guide says of Rosi: "Most films by Francesco Rossi probe well under the surface of people and events to establish a constant link between the legal and the illegal exercise of power."
Writing Rosi's obituary in The Guardian , David Robinson and John Francis Lane said:
In his best films, the director Francesco Rosi ... was essentially a crusading, investigative journalist concerned with the corruption and inequalities of the economically depressed Italian south. He believed that “the audience should not be just passive spectators”: he wanted to make people think and question.
The British Film Institute, recognising that Rosi had made historical films, war pictures and family dramas, in a directorial career that spanned almost four decades, said "he will be remembered above all as the master of the ‘cine-investigation’ and an influence on several generations of artists, including the likes of Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola, Roberto Saviano and Paolo Sorrentino.
Interviewed by The New York Times after Rosi's death, actor John Turturro who played Primo Levi in Rosi's last film The Truce , called Rosi "something of a mentor". He said, "I would never have read all of Primo Levi’s work if not for him. There are a lot of films I never would have otherwise seen... He was a wonderful actor. He helped you physically as an actor. If he had trouble explaining something, he could act it out, and all the actors understood."
Awarded by British Academy of Film and Television Arts:
Awarded at the Cannes Film Festival:
The Nastro d'Argento, awarded by the Sindacato Nazionale Giornalisti Cinematografici Italiani:
Awarded at the Berlin International Film Festival:
Rosi directed 20 films, starting with some scenes in Goffredo Alessandrini's Red Shirts. His last film was The Truce in 1997.
Michele Placido is an Italian actor and director. He is best known for the role of Corrado Cattani in the TV series La Piovra.
Piero Piccioni was an Italian lawyer and film score composer.
Carmen is a 1984 French-Italian film directed by Francesco Rosi. It is a film version of Bizet's opera Carmen. Julia Migenes stars in the title role, Plácido Domingo as Don José, Ruggero Raimondi as Escamillo, and Faith Esham as Micaela. Lorin Maazel conducts the Orchestre National de France.
Gian Maria Volonté was an Italian actor, remembered for his versatility as an interpreter, his outspoken left-wing leanings and fiery temper on and off-screen. He is perhaps most famous outside Italy for his roles in four Spaghetti Western films: Ramon Rojo and El Indio in Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars (1964) and For a Few Dollars More (1965), El Chuncho Munoz in Damiano Damiani's A Bullet for the General (1966) and Professor Brad Fletcher in Sergio Sollima's Face to Face (1967).
Gianni Di Venanzo, was a distinguished Italian cinematographer.
Christ Stopped at Eboli, also known as Eboli in the United States, is a 1979 film adaptation of the book of the same name by Carlo Levi. It was directed by Francesco Rosi and stars Gian Maria Volonté as Carlo Levi.
Alain Cuny was a French actor in theatre and cinema.
Lea Massari, born Anna Maria Massetani is an Italian actress and singer.
Pasqualino De Santis was an Italian cinematographer.
The Truce is a 1997 film directed by Francesco Rosi, written by Tonino Guerra, based on Primo Levi's memoir, The Truce. The film deals with Primo Levi's experiences returning to Italy in 1945 after the Red Army liberated the concentration camp at Auschwitz during the Second World War. This was Rosi's final film before his death in 2015.
Andrea Crisanti was an Italian production designer and art director.
The 12th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 22 June – 3 July 1962. The Golden Bear was awarded to the British film A Kind of Loving directed by John Schlesinger.
The 11th Moscow International Film Festival was held from 14 to 28 August 1979. The Golden Prizes were awarded to the Italian-French film Christ Stopped at Eboli directed by Francesco Rosi, the Spanish film Siete días de enero directed by Juan Antonio Bardem and the Polish film Camera Buff directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski.
Fernando Cicero, better known as Nando Cicero, was an Italian film director, screenwriter and actor.
The list of the 100 Italian films to be saved was created with the aim to report "100 films that have changed the collective memory of the country between 1942 and 1978". The project was established by the Venice Days at the 65th Venice International Film Festival, in collaboration with Cinecittà Holding and with the support of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.
The 71st annual Venice International Film Festival took place in Venice, Italy between 27 August to 6 September 2014. The festival opened with Alejandro G. Iñárritu's film Birdman, and closed with Ann Hui's drama film The Golden Era. Italian actress Luisa Ranieri hosted the opening and closing nights of the festival. The Swedish film A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence, directed by Roy Andersson, won the Golden Lion, and Joshua Oppenheimer's The Look of Silence won the Grand Jury Prize.
Massimo Mollica was an Italian actor and stage director.
Leo Pescarolo was an Italian film producer.
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