|Diocese||Diocese of Rome|
|Appointed||1 April 1657|
|Term ended||5 June 1667|
|Created cardinal||9 April 1657|
by Pope Alexander VII
|Born||28 November 1607|
Rome, Papal States
|Died||5 June 1667|
Francesco Maria Sforza Pallavicino (or Pallavicini) (28 November 1607, Rome – 5 June 1667, Rome), was an Italian cardinal and historian of the Council of Trent. He used the name Sforza Pallavicino as an author and is often incorrectly identified as Pietro Sforza Pallavicino.
Pallavicino was born in Rome. He was son of the Marquis Alessandro Pallavicino, the adopted son of Sforza Pallavicino marchese di Cortemaggiore, a famous Italian condottiero, Captain-General of the Republic of Venice,and his second wife, Francesca Sforza di Santa Fiora, widow of Ascanio della Penna della Cornia.
Descended from the line of Parma of the ancient and noble house of the Marchesi Pallavicini, his father's first-born son, he renounced the right of primogeniture and resolved to enter the priesthood. He entered the Roman College, where he devoted himself to the study of philosophy and law.
He earned doctorates in philosophy in 1625, and in theology in 1628, having studied under the famous Spanish theologian John de Lugo. Pope Urban VIII appointed him referendarius utriusque signaturæ and member of the Congregatio boni regiminis and of the Congregatio immunitatis, assigning him a pension of 250 scudi.
Pallavicino was highly esteemed in the literary circles of Rome. He was elected Member of the Accademia degli Umoristi and became friends with the poet Virginio Cesarini and with some of the most prominent personalities of italian baroque, including Agostino Mascardi, Fulvio Testi, John Barclay and Giulio Strozzi. Alessandro Tassoni praised him in a verse of his mock-heroic poem La secchia rapita .
On 27 January 1629 Pallavicino became a Member of the Accademia dei Lincei , together with Lucas Holstenius and Pietro della Valle.
When his friend Giovanni Ciampoli, the secretary of briefs, fell into disfavour, Pallavicino's standing at the papal court was also seriously affected. He was sent in 1632 as governatore to Jesi, Orvieto, and Camerino, where he remained for a considerable time.
Over his father's objections, he entered the Society of Jesus on 21 June 1637. After the two years' novitiate he became professor of philosophy at the Roman College.In 1643, when John de Lugo was made a cardinal, Pallavicino succeeded him in the chair of theology, a position he held until 1651 while also fulfilling assignments for Pope Innocent X. These included appointments as a member of the commissions that examined the writings of Jansenius and Martin de Barcos, which resulted in the condemnation of two works by de Barcos in 1647.
On 3 February 1665 Pallavicino entered the Accademia della Crusca,an association of scholars and writers devoted to the Italian language.
On 9 April 1657 Pallavicino was made a cardinal in pectore by Pope Alexander VII who made the appointment public in 1659. Pallavicino died in Rome on 5 June 1667, at the age of sixty.
His other writings include Trattato dello Stile, Vindication. Soc. Jes., and Del Benewhich latter was later praised by the Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce for its contribution to the development of modern aesthetics.
Pallavicino is chiefly known by his History of the Council of Trent, a harsh if well researched rebuttal to Paolo Sarpi's Istoria del Concilio Tridentino.The work was published at Rome in two folio volumes in 1656 and 1657 (2nd ed., considerably modified, in 1666). In this he continued the task begun by Terenzio Alciati, who had been commissioned by Pope Urban VIII to correct and supersede the very damaging work of Sarpi. Alciati and Pallavicino had access to many important sources which had been denied to Sarpi.
The great nineteenth-century historian Leopold von Ranke reported that he examined many of the manuscript sources from which Pallavicino drew his materials, and that the extracts he has made from the instructions and other official documents were "scrupulously exact" and that he has "carefully consulted the whole of the documents".Until the twentieth century, Pallavicino's History of the Council of Trent was the principal work on this important ecclesiastical assembly. It was translated into Latin by a fellow Jesuit, Giattini (Antwerp, 1670–1673), into French (Migne series, Paris, 1844–1845); into Spanish and into German by Theodor Friedrich Klitsche de la Grange (1835–1837). There is a good edition of the original by Francesco Antonio Zaccaria (6 vols., Faenza, 1792–1799).
Paolo Sarpi was a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict (1605–1607) and its war (1615–1617) with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Edward Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft." Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent (1619), was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph.
Pietro da Cortona was an Italian Baroque painter and architect. Along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, he was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations.
Francesco Antonio Zaccaria was an Italian theologian, historian, and prolific writer.
The Accademia di San Luca, was founded in 1577 as an association of artists in Rome, with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters, sculptors and architects, above that of mere craftsmen. Other founders included Girolamo Muziano and Pietro Olivieri. The Academy was named after Saint Luke the evangelist who, legend has it, made a portrait of the Virgin Mary, and thus became the patron saint of painters' guilds.
The Basilica of Saint Praxedes, commonly known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major, on Via di Santa Prassede, 9/a in rione Monti of Rome, Italy. The current Cardinal Priest of Titulus Sancta Praxedis is Paul Poupard.
The Pallavicini, Pallavicino, and in former times named "Pelavicino", are an Italian noble family descended from Oberto I. The first Pallavicino fief was created by Oberto II, who received it from Frederick Barbarossa in 1162. A number of lines descended from Guglielmo, possessor of a series of fiefs between Parma and Piacenza and a descendant of the Lombard Obertenga family. They are:
The Diocese of Frascati is a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy, based at Frascati, near Rome. The bishop of Frascati is a Cardinal Bishop; from the Latin name of the area, the bishop has also been called Bishop of Tusculum. Tusculum was destroyed in 1191. The bishopric moved from Tusculum to Frascati, a nearby town which is first mentioned in the pontificate of Pope Leo IV. Until 1962, the Cardinal-Bishop was concurrently the diocesan bishop of the see in addition to any curial duties he possessed. Pope John XXIII removed the Cardinal Bishops from any actual responsibility in their suburbicarian dioceses, and made the title purely honorific.
Giuseppe Ghezzi was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Rome.
Orfeo Boselli, or Bosselli, (1597–1667) was an Italian sculptor working in Rome. As with most Roman sculptors of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, a great part of his commissioned work was in restoring and completing fragmentary ancient Roman sculptures.
Carlo Carafa of a distinguished family of Naples, vicious and talented was successively condottiero in the service of France and of Spain, vying for their protectorates in Italy until 1555, when he was made a cardinal, to 1559 the all-powerful favourite and Cardinal Nephew of Pope Paul IV Carafa, whose policies he directed and whom he served as papal legate in Paris, Venice and Brussels. According to the Jesuit, later Cardinal, Francesco Sforza Pallavicino, writing the history of the Council of Trent, his subtlety of spirit and grace of address, physical courage and instinct for glory were overridden by his insatiable thirst for power.
Alessandro Borgia was an Italian bishop and archbishop.
Francesco Mancini was an Italian painter whose works are known between 1719 and 1756. He was the pupil of Carlo Cignani.
The Perfect Fusion was the 1847 act of the Savoyard king Charles Albert of Sardinia which abolished the administrative differences between the Mainland states and the island of Sardinia, in a fashion similar to the Acts of Union between Great Britain and Ireland in 1800.
Luigi Pisani was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
The Rospigliosi family is an ancient noble Italian family from Pistoia. Attested since the Middle Ages, it became wealthy through agriculture, trade and industry, reaching the apogee of its power and the high nobility status in Rome thanks to Giulio Rospigliosi, elected pope in 1667 with the name of Clement IX.
The Scrittori d'Italia was an Italian book collection, published by Gius. Laterza & figli from 1910 to 1987 in Bari. The series was born with the intent to define and explain a cultural canon of the new Italy, disassociating from a culture yet considered too much based on the classic of the humanism, and choosing to represent also the civil history of the newborn Italian State. The original work plan included 660 volumes, of which 287 were actually published for a total of 179 works.
The Accademia degli Umoristi was a learned society of intellectuals, mainly noblemen, that significantly influenced the cultural life of 17th century Rome. The society was founded in 1603 by Paolo Mancini and Gaspare Salviani. It began as place for writers and intellectuals to celebrate burlesque and mock-heroic poetry, but soon attracted some of the most prominent literary figures and patrons of the arts in Rome. The academy became defunct around 1670. The Academy was briefly revived in the first half of the eighteenth century by Pope Clement XI.
The marquisate of Antella is a noble title given by the king Philip IV of Spain in Sicily to Nicolo Pallavicino Piamonte on septembre 22nd of 1649 due to his support to the Spanish Empire during the Thirty Years War preventing the rebellion of the Neapolitan Republic (1647) and Sicilian rebellion.
Marcello Papiniano Cusani was an Italian archbishop, professor of both civil law and canon law as well as founder and rector of the University of Altamura.
Giovanni Francesco Loredan was a Venetian writer and politician, and a member of the noble family of Loredan.
Il nome proprio di Pallavicino è stato oggetto di equivoco già lui vivente, generato dalla rarità del nome proprio ‘Sforza’ e dall’omonimo cognome materno. Nel corso del Novecento la situazione si è ulteriormente complicata per la comparsa – nelle biografie, nei repertori e in testa alle riedizioni delle sue opere – di un presunto nome ‘Pietro’, non confermato da alcun documento. Il nome da lui comunemente usato nella vita pubblica e privata era Sforza (Apollonio, 2013)." Translation: "Pallavicino's correct name was misunderstood even during his lifetime, generated by the rarity of the proper name 'Sforza' and the homonymous maternal surname. In the twentieth century the situation was further complicated by the appearance, in biographies, in bibliographies, and on the title pages of his reissued works, of a presumed name 'Pietro' that no document supports. The name he commonly used in both his public and private life was Sforza (Apollonius, 2013).