Franche-Comté

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Franche-Comté

Fraintche-Comtè  (Frainc-Comtou)
Franche-Comtât  (Arpitan)
Blason fr Franche-Comte.svg
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Comtois, rends-toi ! Nenni, ma foi !
Comtois, surrender! No, my faith!
Franche-Comte in France.svg
Coordinates: 47°00′N6°00′E / 47.000°N 6.000°E / 47.000; 6.000 Coordinates: 47°00′N6°00′E / 47.000°N 6.000°E / 47.000; 6.000
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Dissolved2016-01-01
Prefecture Besançon
Departments
Area
  Total16,202 km2 (6,256 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2016)
  Total1,180,397
  Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Free Countian
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-I
GDP  (2012) [1] Ranked 20th
Total€28.6 billion (US$36.8 bn)
Per capita€24,482 (US$31,501)
NUTS Region FR43
Websitewww.franche-comte.fr (Redirects to www.bourgognefranchecomte.fr)

Franche-Comté ( UK: /ˌfrɒ̃ʃkɒ̃ˈt/ , [2] US: /-knˈ-/ ; [3] [4] French:  [fʁɑ̃ʃ kɔ̃te] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Frainc-Comtou: Fraintche-Comtè; Arpitan : Franche-Comtât; German : Freigrafschaft Burgund; Spanish : Franco Condado; all lit.'French County') is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

Contents

From 1956 to 2015, the Franche-Comté was a French administrative region. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. [5]

The region is named after the Franche Comté de Bourgogne (Free County of Burgundy), definitively separated from the region of Burgundy proper in the fifteenth century. In 2016, these two-halves of the historic Kingdom of Burgundy were reunited, as the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. It is also the 6th biggest region in France. The name "Franche-Comté" is feminine because the word "comté" in the past was generally feminine, although today it is masculine.

The principal cities are the capital Besançon, Belfort and Montbéliard (the last two form the aire urbaine Belfort-Montbéliard-Héricourt-Delle). Other important cities are Dole (the capital before the region was conquered by Louis XIV in the late seventeenth century), Vesoul (capital of Haute-Saône), Arbois (the "wine capital" of the Jura), and Lons-le-Saunier (the capital of Jura).

History

The region has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age and was occupied by the Gauls. Little touched by the Germanic migrations, it was part of the territory of the Alemanni in the fifth century, then the Kingdom of Burgundy from 457 to 534. It was Christianized through the influence of St. Columbanus, who founded several monasteries there. In 534, it became part of the Frankish kingdom. In 561 it was included in the Merovingian Kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, the third son of Clotaire I. In 613, Clotaire II reunited the Frankish Kingdom under his rule, and the region remained a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy under the later Merovingians and Carolingians.

The name Franche Comté de Bourgogne or Freigrafschaft Burgund in German (Free County of Burgundy) did not appear officially until 1366. It had been a territory of the County of Burgundy from 888, the province becoming subject to the Holy Roman Empire in 1034. It was definitively separated from the neighboring Duchy of Burgundy upon the latter's incorporation into the Kingdom of France in 1477. That year at the Battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke, Charles the Bold, was killed in battle. Although the county, along with the Duchy, was seized by King Louis XI of France, in 1492 his son Charles VIII ceded it to Philip of Austria, the grandson and heir of Charles the Bold. When Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, inherited the Spanish throne in 1516, the Franche-Comté, along with the rest of the Burgundian lands, passed to the Spanish.

Province of the Kingdom of France

Franche-Comté
Government of Kingdom of France
1668/1674–1790
Blason fr Franche-Comte.svg
Coat of arms
Franche-Comte in France (1789).svg
History 
 Established
1668/1674
 Disestablished
1790
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Arms of County of Burgundy.svg County of Burgundy
Jura (department) Blason departement fr Jura.svg
Haute-Saône Blason departement fr Haute-Saone.svg
Doubs Blason departement fr Doubs.svg

Franche-Comté was captured by France in 1668, but returned to Spain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It was conquered a second time in 1674, and finally was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen (1678). Enclaves such as Montbéliard remained outside French control.

1771 map of Burgundy, Franche-Comte and Lyonnais by Rigobert Bonne 1771 Bonne Map of Burgundy, Franche-Comte, and Lyonnais, France - Geographicus - Bourgogne-bonne-1771.jpg
1771 map of Burgundy, Franche-Comté and Lyonnais by Rigobert Bonne

The Franche-Comté was one of the last parts of France to have serfdom. In 1784, half of the population consisted of serfs, accounting for 400,000 out of the 1 million French serfs. Landowners took one-twelfth of the sale's price if a serf (mainmortable) wanted to sell up. Serfs were not forced to stay on the land, but the lord could claim droit de suite, whereby a peasant who died away from his holding left it to the lord, even if he had heirs. A runaway serf's land was forfeit after ten years. Louis XVI issued a decree banning these practices on 8 August 1779, but the Parlement of Besançon blocked this until 1787.

After 1790

The population of the region fell by a fifth from 1851 to 1946, reflecting low French natural growth and migration to more urbanized parts of the country. Most of the decline occurred in Haute-Saône and Jura, which remain among the country's more agriculture-dependent areas.

Environment

This region borders Switzerland and shares much of its architecture, cuisine, and culture with its neighbour. Between the Vosges range of mountains to the north and the Jura range to the south, the landscape consists of rolling cultivated fields, dense pine forest, and rampart-like mountains. Not so majestic as the Alps, the Jura mountains are more accessible and are France's first cross-country skiing area. It is also a superb place to hike, and there are some fine nature trails on the more gentle slopes. The Doubs and Loue valleys, with their timbered houses perched on stilts in the river, and the high valley of Ain, are popular visitor areas. The Région des Lacs is a land of gorges and waterfalls dotted with tiny villages, each with a domed belfry decorated with mosaic of tiles or slates or beaten from metal. The lakes are perfect for swimming in the warmer months. The summits of Haut Jura have wonderful views across Lac Léman (Lake Geneva) and toward the Alps.

Forty percent of the region's GDP is dependent on manufacturing activities, and most of its production is exported. Construction of automobiles and their parts is one of the most buoyant industries there. Forestry exploitation is steadily growing, and 38% of the agriculture is dairy and 17% cattle farming. The region has a large and lucrative cheese-making industry, with 40 million tonnes of cheese produced here each year, much of which is made by fruitières (traditional cheese dairies of Franche-Comté); for instance, Comté cheese comes from this region.

Geology

Principal cities

CityMetropolitan areaUrban areaMunicipality
Besançon 250,563135,448116,676
Montbéliard 160,671106,48625,336
Belfort 114,44581,65149,519
Dole 65,40029,91623,373
Vesoul 59,26228,70715,058
Lons-le-Saunier 58,67426,89417,459
Pontarlier 30,89521,76017,140
Gray 17,2959,4705,484
Luxeuil-les-Bains 14,65212,3666,821
Champagnole 14,2669,8417,916
Lure 12,25111,1358,253
Saint-Claude 11,34310,3469,732

Language

Among the regional languages of France, the term Franc-comtois refers to two dialects of two different languages. Franc-comtois is the name of the dialect of Langue d'Oïl spoken by people in the northern part of the region. The dialect of Arpitan has been spoken in its southern part since as early as the thirteenth century (the southern two-thirds of Jura and the southern third of Doubs). Both are recognized as languages of France.

People from Franche-Comté

Typical regional products

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012" . Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  2. "Franche-Comté". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  3. "Franche-Comté". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  4. "Burgundy". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  5. Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral (in French)