Franche-Comté

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Franche-Comté

Fraintche-Comtè  (Frainc-Comtou)
Franche-Comtât  (Arpitan)
Blason fr Franche-Comte.svg
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Comtois, rends-toi ! Nenni, ma foi !
Comtois, surrender! No, my faith!
Franche-Comte in France.svg
Coordinates: 47°00′N6°00′E / 47.000°N 6.000°E / 47.000; 6.000 Coordinates: 47°00′N6°00′E / 47.000°N 6.000°E / 47.000; 6.000
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Dissolved2016-01-01
Prefecture Besançon
Departments
Area
  Total16,202 km2 (6,256 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2016)
  Total1,180,397
  Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Free Countian
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-I
GDP  (2012) [1] Ranked 20th
Total€28.6 billion (US$36.8 bn)
Per capita€24,482 (US$31,501)
NUTS Region FR43
Website www.franche-comte.fr

Franche-Comté ( UK: /ˌfrɒ̃ʃkɒ̃ˈt/ , [2] US: /- knˈ-/ , [3] [4] French:  [fʁɑ̃ʃ kɔ̃te] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Frainc-Comtou: Fraintche-Comtè; Arpitan : Franche-Comtât; German : Freigrafschaft; Spanish : Franco Condado; all lit."Free County") is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is globally considered to be one of the most influential dialects in the world; more so than any other dialect of English.

Franc-Comtois (Frainc-Comtou), or Jurassien, is an Oïl language spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France and in the Canton of Jura and Bernese Jura in Switzerland.

Contents

From 1956 to 2015, the Franche-Comté was a French administrative region. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. [5]

Regions of France France top-level territorial subdivision

France is divided into 18 administrative regions, of which 13 are located in metropolitan France, while the other five are overseas regions. All 13 mainland administrative regions are further subdivided into 2 to 13 administrative departments, while the overseas regions administratively consist of only one department each and hence also coexist with administrative "overseas departments" of equal size. All administrative regions except Corsica, the French Guiana, Mayotte, and Martinique also correspond to a regional territorial collectivity since 1982, whereas the regional and departmental territorial collectivities of Corsica, the French Guiana, Mayotte, and Martinique have been replaced with single territorial collectivities.

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Administrative region of France

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, sometimes abbreviated BFC, is a region in the east of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

The region is named after the Franche Comté de Bourgogne (Free County of Burgundy), definitively separated from the region of Burgundy proper in the fifteenth century. In 2016, these two halves of the historic Kingdom of Burgundy were reunited, as the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. It is also the 6th biggest region in France. The name "Franche-Comté" is feminine because the word "comté" in the past was generally feminine, although today it is masculine.

Burgundy Region of France

Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.

Kingdom of Burgundy historic region in Western Europe, now Southern France

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy and Switzerland and includes the major modern cities of Geneva and Lyon.

The principal cities are the capital Besançon, Belfort and Montbéliard (the last two form the aire urbaine Belfort-Montbéliard-Héricourt-Delle). Other important cities are Dole (the capital before the region was conquered by Louis XIV in the late seventeenth century), Vesoul (capital of Haute-Saône), Arbois (the "wine capital" of the Jura), and Lons-le-Saunier (the capital of Jura).

Besançon Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in Eastern France, close to the Jura Mountains and the border with Switzerland.

Belfort Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg and approximately 25 km (16 mi) from the French-Swiss border. It is the biggest town and also the administrative centre of the Territoire de Belfort département. Belfort is 400 km (250 mi) from Paris, 141 km (88 mi) from Strasbourg, 290 km (180 mi) from Lyon and 150 km (93 mi) from Zürich. The residents of the city are called "Belfortains". The city is located on the Savoureuse river, on a strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate. It is located approximately 16 km (10 mi) south from the base of the Ballon d'Alsace mountain range, source of the Savoureuse. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants.

Montbéliard Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Montbéliard is a city in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France, about 13 km (8 mi) from the border with Switzerland. It is one of the two subprefectures of the department.

History

The region has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age and was occupied by the Gauls. Little touched by the Germanic migrations, it was part of the territory of the Alemanni in the fifth century, then the Kingdom of Burgundy from 457 to 534. It was Christianized through the influence of St. Columbanus, who founded several monasteries there. In 534, it became part of the Frankish kingdom. In 561 it was included in the Merovingian Kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, the third son of Clotaire I. In 613, Clotaire II reunited the Frankish Kingdom under his rule, and the region remained a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy under the later Merovingians and Carolingians.

Gauls Group of Celtic peoples of Western Europe

The Gauls were a group of Celtic peoples of Western Europe in the Iron Age and the Roman period. The area they inhabited was known as Gaul. Their Gaulish language forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages.

Alemanni ancient and early-medieval confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhein river

The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, and later expanded into present-day Alsace, and northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German language in those regions, by the eighth century named Alamannia.

Burgundians Historical East Germanic ethnic group

The Burgundians were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that lived in the time of the Roman Empire in the region of Germania that is now part of Poland.

The name Franche Comté de Bourgogne (Free County of Burgundy) did not appear officially until 1366. It had been a territory of the County of Burgundy from 888, the province becoming subject to the Holy Roman Empire in 1034. It was definitively separated from the neighboring Duchy of Burgundy upon the latter's incorporation into the Kingdom of France in 1477. That year at the Battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke, Charles the Bold, was killed in battle. Although the County, along with the Duchy, was seized by King Louis XI of France, in 1492 his son Charles VIII ceded it to Philip of Austria, the grandson and heir of Charles the Bold. When Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, inherited the Spanish throne in 1516, the Franche-Comté, along with the rest of the Burgundian lands, passed to the Spanish. The Franche-Comté was captured by France in 1668, but returned to Spain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It was conquered a second time in 1674, and finally was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen (1678). Enclaves such as Montbéliard remained outside French control.

County of Burgundy countship

The Free County of Burgundy was a medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf. It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843.

Holy Roman Empire Complex of territories in Europe from 962 to 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.

Duchy of Burgundy historic principality

The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).

The Franche-Comté was one of the last parts of France to have serfdom. In 1784, half of the population consisted of serfs, accounting for 400,000 out of the 1 million French serfs. Landowners took one-twelfth of the sales price if a serf (mainmortable) wanted to sell up. Serfs were not forced to stay on the land, but the lord could claim droit de suite, whereby a peasant who died away from his holding left it to the lord, even if he had heirs. A runaway serf's land was forfeit after ten years. Louis XVI issued a decree banning these practices on 8 August 1779, but the Parlement of Besançon blocked this until 1787.

The population of the region fell by a fifth from 1851 to 1946, reflecting low French natural growth and migration to more urbanized parts of the country. Most of the decline occurred in Haute-Saône and Jura, which remain among the country's more agriculture-dependent areas.

Environment

This region borders Switzerland and shares much of its architecture, cuisine, and culture with its neighbour. Between the Vosges range of mountains to the north and the Jura range to the south, the landscape consists of rolling cultivated fields, dense pine forest, and rampart-like mountains. Not so majestic as the Alps, the Jura mountains are more accessible and are France's first cross-country skiing area. It is also a superb place to hike, and there are some fine nature trails on the more gentle slopes. The Doubs and Loue valleys, with their timbered houses perched on stilts in the river, and the high valley of Ain, are popular visitor areas. The Région des Lacs is a land of gorges and waterfalls dotted with tiny villages, each with a domed belfry decorated with mosaic of tiles or slates or beaten from metal. The lakes are perfect for swimming in the warmer months. The summits of Haut Jura have wonderful views across Lac Léman (Lake Geneva) and toward the Alps.

Forty percent of the region's GDP is dependent on manufacturing activities, and most of its production is exported. Construction of automobiles and their parts is one of the most buoyant industries there. Forestry exploitation is steadily growing, and 38% of the agriculture is dairy and 17% cattle farming. The region has a large and lucrative cheese-making industry, with 40 million tonnes of cheese produced here each year, much of which is made by fruitières (traditional cheese dairies of Franche-Comté); for instance, Comté cheese comes from this region.

Geology

Principal cities

CityMetropolitan areaUrban areaMunicipality
Besançon 250,563135,448116,676
Montbéliard 160,671106,48625,336
Belfort 114,44581,65149,519
Dole 65,40029,91623,373
Vesoul 59,26228,70715,058
Lons-le-Saunier 58,67426,89417,459
Pontarlier 30,89521,76017,140
Gray 17,2959,4705,484
Luxeuil-les-Bains 14,65212,3666,821
Champagnole 14,2669,8417,916
Lure 12,25111,1358,253
Saint-Claude 11,34310,3469,732

Language

Among the regional languages of France, the term Franc-comtois refers to two dialects of two different languages. Franc-comtois is the name of the dialect of Langue d'Oïl spoken by people in the northern part of the region. The dialect of Arpitan has been spoken in its southern part since as early as the thirteenth century (the southern two-thirds of Jura and the southern third of Doubs). Both are recognized as languages of France.

People from Franche-Comté

Typical regional products

Related Research Articles

Doubs Department of France

Doubs is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.

Jura (department) Department of France

Jura is a department of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the east of France named after the Jura Mountains.

Haute-Saône Department of France

Haute-Saône is a French department of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region named after the Saône River.

Arbois Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Arbois is a commune in the Jura department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. The Cuisance River passes through the town, which has some pretty streets lined with ancient houses. The town centres on an arcaded central square where one can sample the local wines.

Dole, Jura Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Dole is a commune in the Jura department in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France, of which it is a subprefecture (sous-préfecture).

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Besançon archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Besançon is a Latin Rite Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in France. It comprises the département of Doubs and the département of Haute-Saône, except for the canton of Héricourt.

TER Franche-Comté

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Ornans Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Pouilley-Français Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Valonne Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Arcey, Doubs Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle French diplomat

Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle (1486–1550) was a Burgundian politician who served as a close trusted advisor to Emperor Charles V. He was made suzerain of the imperial city of Besançon and held an influential position in the Netherlands. From 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany. He was the father of the cardinal and politician Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, also a leading Habsburg minister, and built the Palace Granvelle in Besançon.

Gare de Besançon-Viotte railway station

Besançon-Viotte is the main railway station located in Besançon, Doubs, eastern France. The station was opened in 1855 and is located on the Dole–Belfort railway, Besançon–Le Locle railway and Besançon-Viotte-Vesoul railway. The train services are operated by SNCF. Besançon Franche-Comté TGV is a high speed station located 10km north of Besançon.

University of Burgundy - Franche-Comté is the association of universities and higher education institutions (ComUE) for institutions of higher education and research in the French regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. Its headquarters are in Besançon.

References

  1. INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012" . Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  2. "Franche-Comté". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  3. "Franche-Comté". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  4. "Burgundy". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  5. Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral (in French)