The Viscount Bertie of Thame
Lord Bertie of Thame, 1915.
|British Ambassador to France|
|Monarch|| Edward VII |
|Preceded by||Sir Edmund Monson, Bt|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Derby|
|Born||17 August 1844|
|Died||26 September 1919 75)(aged|
|Spouse(s)||Lady Feodorowna Cecilia Wellesley (1838-1920)|
Francis Leveson Bertie, 1st Viscount Bertie of Thame, / ... / "barty of tame"; 17 August 1844 – 26 September 1919) was a British diplomat. He was Ambassador to Italy between 1903 and 1905 and Ambassador to France between 1905 and 1918.(
Bertie was the second son of Montagu Bertie, 6th Earl of Abingdon, and Elizabeth Harcourt, daughter of George Harcourt. He was educated at Eton. From his great grandmother Charlotte Warren he had Dutch and Huguenot ancestral roots from the Schuyler family, the Van Cortlandt family, and the Delancey family of British North America.
Bertie entered the Foreign Office in 1863. From 1874 to 1880 he served as Private Secretary to Robert Bourke, the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and in 1878 attended the Congress of Berlin. He served as acting senior clerk in the Eastern department from 1882 to 1885, and then later as senior clerk and assistant under-secretary in that department. In 1902 he was rewarded for his services by being made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902.He received the knighthood in a private audience with King Edward VII on 2 August, during the King′s convalescence on board HMY Victoria and Albert.
In 1903, Bertie was appointed a Privy Counsellorand made Ambassador to Italy, and then in 1905 became Ambassador to France, a post previously held by his father-in-law, Lord Cowley. Bertie would hold the Paris embassy for the next thirteen years. Having spent most of his career in the Foreign Office, he initially had some trouble adjusting to the role of ambassador, where he had far less control over the development of policy. But in his time at Paris Bertie was able to play a substantial role in strengthening the Entente Cordiale between France and Britain into a genuine alliance, encouraging strong British backing for France during the Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911. During these years, he was also showered with honours, being made Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) in 1903, a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (GCMG) in 1904, and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) in 1908, as well as receiving the French Legion of Honour.
Bertie's career coincided with that of Sir Edward Grey at the Foreign Office, his immediate superior, and the wider fortunes of the Liberal governments of Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith. There are a large number of extant official letters marked "very confidential" that prove and intensive ongoing diplomacy on behalf of the Entente in the protracted period that preceded war.As early as 1906 there were discussions about the possibility of a German invasion of France, yet always the proviso that it was in doubt, "that matters might be brought to a point in which a pacific issue would be difficult." But giving a positive assurance to France might be dependent on the circumstances. Bertie negotiated closely with Théophile Delcassé the foreign minister "toute occasion de concerter avec le Gouvernement Francais," warning them of the revulsion for war in France. He was careful always not to "cause offence to Germany" which characterised the effects of a diplomatic round shuttling between capital cities. David Owen argues that this placed too great a reliance on the Admiralty and War Office to promise unequivocally support of a BEF. It was his view that Germany would try to dissuade France from our friendship. He was of the school that believed that reductions in Naval estimates would not appease German preparations for aggression.
When Clemenceau became Prime Minister in France he pledged never to rompre des accords[ clarification needed ] with Britain. Campbell-Bannerman reasserted the value of an alliance propre on election, but Bertie was concerned about the integrity of secret diplomatic lines of communication & the prompt arrival of dispatches. He was not present at the leaders meeting at the embassy on 7 April 1907; which was a worry for the francophile ambassador. One dispatch of April 1911 was so sensitive that it has since been destroyed by archivists: but it is clear that under Asquith, military leaders questioned Grey's competence; one of these critics must have been the Ambassador to France. His military attache, Colonel Fairholme clearly believed the French would outflank a German army on the frontier, which greatly exercised Bertie's mind "respecting strategical problems." Bertie had played hs part in diffusing the crises off the coast of Morocco, but down the coast in Portugal, the German influence was more sinister still. Unfortunately Grey refused to pressurise the misgovernors of their colonies to sell up, leaving the Germans to fill the diplomatic vacuum. But the Union of South Africa cried foul, as Delgoa Bay represented a strategic naval base area that could not be ceded to Germany. Bertie was reassured, but had his own critics who were most disparaging of his performance, and failure to keep abreast of modern developments of politics and strategy. Bertie was an old school diplomat, admired protocol and court precedents, was reluctant to go beyond his own prescribed powers. In a series of letters at the end of 1911/12 he found to his cost that francophiles were dead set against Metternich's 'satanic invitation.' In fact as time went on he became more sceptical of the Haldane Mission as foolish because it threatened the "excellent position" in Paris. By February 1912 it had become clear to him that Germany was still the problem; not France. In competing with the British Empire Germany sought to acquire lands in southern Africa from Portugal, France, Belgium and Britain, in addition to promising the Portuguese government financial support. Bertie blamed Admiral Tirpitz's sabre-rattling belligerence in the Persian Gulf where it coincidentally met with the Berlin-Baghdad Railway.
He sold the manor of North Weston (now in Great Haseley) and his lands there in 1913, and the estate was divided up.
Bertie was still ambassador in Paris when the First World War broke out in 1914. Although he was raised to the peerage as Baron Bertie of Thame, in the County of Oxford, in 1915,during the war he was frequently bypassed by special missions directly from the British government, particularly the military mission of Lord Esher, with whom he also came into personal conflict. After the February Revolution he advised the British government against the Romanovs being allowed to go into exile in France as the ex-Empress Alexandra was perceived as pro-German. When Bertie fell ill in April 1918, he was replaced by the Secretary of State for War, Lord Derby, and returned to England. On his retirement, Bertie was made Viscount Bertie of Thame, in the County of Oxford. In June 1919, he sold off the manors of Beckley and Horton-cum-Studley, Oxfordshire, which he had inherited from his father. He never fully recovered from his illness, dying in London on 26 September 1919.
Bertie married Lady Feodorowna Cecilia Wellesley (1838–1920), daughter of Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley and grandniece of the Duke of Wellington, in 1874. They had one child Vere Bertie, 2nd Viscount Bertie of Thame, who succeeded in the viscountcy.
Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon,, better known as Sir Edward Grey, was a British Liberal statesman and the main force behind British foreign policy in the era of the First World War. An adherent of the "New Liberalism", he served as foreign secretary from 1905 to 1916, the longest continuous tenure of any holder in that office. He renewed the 1902 alliance with Japan in 1911. The centrepiece of his policy was the defence of France against German aggression, while avoiding a binding alliance with Paris. He supported France in the Moroccan crises of 1905 in 1911. Another major achievement was the Anglo-Russian entente of 1907. He resolved an outstanding conflict with Germany over the Baghdad railway in 1913, but successfully convinced the cabinet that Britain had an obligation and was honour-bound to defend France, and prevent Germany from controlling Western Europe in August 1914. Once the war began, there was little role for his diplomacy; he lost office in December 1916. He was a leading British supporter of the League of Nations. He is remembered for his "the lamps are going out" remark on 3 August 1914 on the outbreak of the First World War. He signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement on 16 May 1916. Ennobled in 1916, he was Ambassador to the United States between 1919 and 1920 and Leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords between 1923 and 1924.
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Earl of Abingdon is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 30 November 1682 for James Bertie, 5th Baron Norreys of Rycote. He was the eldest son of Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey by his second marriage to Bridget, 4th Baroness Norreys de Rycote, and the younger half-brother of Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey. His mother's family descended from Sir Henry Norris, who represented Berkshire and Oxfordshire in the House of Commons and served as Ambassador to France. In 1572 he was summoned by writ to Parliament as Lord Norreys de Rycote. He was succeeded by his grandson, the second Baron. In 1621 he was created Viscount Thame and Earl of Berkshire in the Peerage of England. He had no sons and on his death in 1624 the viscountcy and earldom became extinct. He was succeeded in the barony by his daughter Elizabeth, the third holder of the title. On her death the title passed to her daughter, the aforementioned Bridget, the fourth Baroness, second wife of the second Earl of Lindsey.
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Viscount Bertie of Thame, in the County of Oxford, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1918 for the prominent diplomat Francis Bertie, 1st Baron Bertie of Thame, on his retirement as British Ambassador to France. He had already been created Baron Bertie of Thame, in the County of Oxford, in 1915, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Bertie was the second son of Montagu Bertie, 6th Earl of Abingdon. Both titles became extinct on the death of his son, the second Viscount, in 1954.
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The Lord Currie
| British Ambassador to Italy |
Sir Edmund Monson
| British Ambassador to France |
The Earl of Derby
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Viscount Bertie of Thame |
Vere Frederick Bertie
| Baron Bertie of Thame |