Francis Gary Powers

Last updated

Francis Gary Powers
RIAN archive 35172 Powers Wears Special Pressure Suit.jpg
Powers wearing special
pressure suit for stratospheric flying, 1960
Francis Gary Powers

(1929-08-17)August 17, 1929
DiedAugust 1, 1977(1977-08-01) (aged 47)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of deathHelicopter crash
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Known for 1960 U-2 incident
  • Barbara Gay Moore
    (m. 1956;div. 1963)
  • Claudia Edwards Downey(m. 1963)
RelativesTwo children
Awards Director's Award
CIAIS.svg Intelligence Star
Silver Star ribbon.svg Silver Star
Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Flying Cross
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal
Prisoner of War Medal ribbon.svg Prisoner of War Medal
Aviation career
Rank US Air Force O3 shoulderboard rotated.svg Captain

Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977) was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) [1] U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.


He later worked as a helicopter pilot for KNBC in Los Angeles and died in a 1977 helicopter crash.

Early life and education

Powers was born August 17, 1929, in Jenkins, Kentucky, the son of Oliver Winfield Powers (1904–1970), a coal miner, and his wife Ida Melinda Powers (née  Ford; 1905–1991). [2] His family eventually moved to Pound, Virginia, just across the state border. He was the second born and only male of six children.

His family lived in a mining town, and because of the hardships associated with the life in such a town, his father wanted Powers to become a physician. He hoped his son would achieve the higher earnings of such a profession and felt that this would involve less hardships than any job in his hometown. [3]

Education and service

Graduating with a bachelor's degree from Milligan College in Tennessee in June 1950, he enlisted in the United States Air Force in October. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in December 1952 after completing his advanced training with USAF Pilot Training Class 52-H [4] at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona. Powers was then assigned to the 468th Strategic Fighter Squadron at Turner Air Force Base, Georgia, as an F-84 Thunderjet pilot.

He married Barbara Gay Moore in Newnan, Georgia, on April 2, 1955. [5]

In January 1956 he was recruited by the CIA. In May 1956 he began U-2 training at Watertown Strip, Nevada. His training was complete by August 1956 and his unit, the Second Weather Observational Squadron (Provisional) or Detachment 10-10, was deployed to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey. By 1960, Powers was already a veteran of many covert aerial reconnaissance missions. [3] :6–9,14–15,24,50–51,55–56,95 Family members believed that he was a NASA weather reconnaissance pilot. [6]

Powers while he was in Soviet custody RIAN archive 35174 American Spy Pilot Francis Gary Powers.jpg
Powers while he was in Soviet custody
Wooden U-2 model - one of two used by Powers when he testified to the Senate Committee. The wings and tail are detached to demonstrate the aircraft's breakup. U2 Powers Senate model.jpg
Wooden U-2 model – one of two used by Powers when he testified to the Senate Committee. The wings and tail are detached to demonstrate the aircraft's breakup.

The U-2 incident

Powers was discharged from the Air Force in 1956 with the rank of captain. He then joined the CIA's U-2 program at the civilian grade of GS-12. U-2 pilots flew espionage missions at altitudes of 70,000 feet (21 km), [7] [8] [9] supposedly above the reach of Soviet air defenses. [10] The U-2 was equipped with a state-of-the-art camera [10] designed to take high-resolution photos from the stratosphere over hostile countries, including the Soviet Union. U-2 missions systematically photographed military installations and other important sites. [3] :41

Reconnaissance mission

The primary mission of the U-2s was overflying the Soviet Union. Soviet intelligence had been aware of encroaching U-2 flights at least since 1958 if not earlier [3] :47,59 but lacked effective countermeasures until 1960. [11] On May 1, 1960, Powers's U-2A, 56-6693, departed from a military airbase in Peshawar, Pakistan, [3] :53 with support from the U.S. Air Station at Badaber (Peshawar Air Station). This was to be the first attempt "to fly all the way across the Soviet Union ... but it was considered worth the gamble. The planned route would take us deeper into Russia than we had ever gone, while traversing important targets never before photographed." [3] :53–54


Powers was shot down by an S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) surface-to-air missile [12] over Sverdlovsk. A total of 14 Dvinas were launched, [13] one of which hit a MiG-19 jet fighter which was sent to intercept the U-2 but could not reach a high enough altitude. Its pilot, Sergei Safronov, ejected but died of his injuries. Another Soviet aircraft, a newly manufactured Su-9 on a transit flight, also attempted to intercept Powers's U-2. The unarmed Su-9 was directed to ram the U-2, but missed because of the large differences in speed. (The Su-9 flew above Mach 1.1, while the U-2 flew at approximately Mach 0.6.)

As Powers flew near Kosulino in the Ural Region, three S-75 Dvinas were launched at his U-2, with the first one hitting the aircraft. "What was left of the plane began spinning, only upside down, the nose pointing upward toward the sky, the tail down toward the ground." Powers was unable to activate the plane's self-destruct mechanism before he was thrown out of the plane after releasing the canopy and his seat belt. While descending under his parachute, Powers had time to scatter his escape map, and rid himself of part of his suicide device, a silver dollar coin suspended around his neck containing a poison-laced injection pin, though he kept the poison pin. [14] "Yet I was still hopeful of escape." He hit the ground hard, was immediately captured, and taken to Lubyanka Prison in Moscow. [3] :61–63, 67–71, 76 Powers did note a second chute after landing on the ground, "some distance away and very high, a lone red and white parachute". [3] :69, 148–49, 274, 278 [15] :159–60

Attempted deception by the U.S. government

When the U.S. government learned of Powers's disappearance over the Soviet Union, they lied that a "weather plane" had strayed off course after its pilot had "difficulties with his oxygen equipment". What CIA officials did not realize was that the plane crashed almost fully intact, and the Soviets recovered its equipment. Powers was interrogated extensively by the KGB for months before he made a confession and a public apology for his part in espionage. [16]

Pilot testimony compromised by newspaper reports

Powers tried to lie to limit the information he shared with the KGB to that which could be determined from the remains of his plane's wreckage. He was hampered by information appearing in the western press. A KGB major stated "there's no reason for you to withhold information. We'll find it out anyway. Your Press will give it to us." However, he limited his divulging of CIA contacts to one individual, with a pseudonym of "Collins". At the same time, he repeatedly stated the maximum altitude for the U-2 was 68,000 feet (21 km), significantly lower than its actual flight ceiling. [3] :xii, 78, 91, 128, 135, 137, 139, 145, 165–66, 256

Political consequence

The incident set back talks between Khrushchev and Eisenhower. Powers's interrogations ended on June 30, and his solitary confinement ended on July 9. On August 17, 1960, his trial began for espionage before the military division of the Supreme Court of the USSR. Lieutenant General Borisoglebsky, Major General Vorobyev, and Major General Zakharov presided. Roman Rudenko acted as prosecutor in his capacity of Procurator General of the Soviet Union. Mikhail I. Grinev served as Powers's defense counsel. In attendance were his parents and sister, and his wife Barbara and her mother. His father brought along his attorney Carl McAfee, while the CIA provided two additional attorneys. [3] :110, 114, 119–20, 142–43, 148, 157–58, 162, 188, 220


On August 19, 1960, Powers was convicted of espionage, "a grave crime covered by Article 2 of the Soviet Union's law 'On Criminality Responsibility for State Crimes'". His sentence consisted of 10 years' confinement, three of which were to be in a prison, with the remainder in a labor camp. The US Embassy "News Bulletin" stated, according to Powers, "as far as the government was concerned, I had acted in accordance with the instructions given me and would receive my full salary while imprisoned". [3] :157–61

He was held in Vladimir Central Prison, about 150 miles (240 km) east of Moscow, in building number 2 from September 9, 1960 until February 8, 1962. His cellmate was Zigurds Krūmiņš, a Latvian political prisoner. Powers kept a diary and a journal while confined. Additionally he took up carpet weaving from his cellmate to pass the time. He could send and receive a limited number of letters from his family. The prison now contains a small museum with an exhibit on Powers, who allegedly developed a good rapport with Soviet prisoners there. Some pieces of the plane and Powers's uniform are on display at the Monino Airbase museum near Moscow. [17]

Prisoner exchange

On February 10, 1962, Powers was exchanged, along with U.S. student Frederic Pryor, in a well-publicized spy swap at the Glienicke Bridge in Berlin. The exchange was for Soviet KGB Colonel William Fisher, known as "Rudolf Abel", who had been caught by the FBI and tried and jailed for espionage. [18] Powers credited his father with the swap idea. When released, Powers's total time in captivity was 1 year, 9 months, and 10 days. [3] :237–40

In 2010, CIA documents were released indicating that U.S. officials did not believe Powers's account of the incident at the time, because it was contradicted by a classified National Security Agency (NSA) report which alleged that the U-2 had descended from 65,000 to 34,000 feet (20 to 10 km) before changing course and disappearing from radar. The NSA report remains classified. [19]


Powers initially received a cold reception on his return home. He was criticized for not activating his aircraft's self-destruct charge to destroy the camera, photographic film, and related classified parts. He was also criticized for not using a CIA-issued "suicide pill" to kill himself (a coin with shellfish toxin embedded in its grooves, revealed during CIA testimony to the Church Committee in 1975). [20] [ better source needed ]

He was debriefed extensively by the CIA, [21] Lockheed Corporation, and the Air Force, after which a statement was issued by CIA director John McCone that "Mr. Powers lived up to the terms of his employment and instructions in connection with his mission and in his obligations as an American." [22] On March 6, 1962, he appeared before a Senate Armed Services Select Committee hearing chaired by Senator Richard Russell Jr. which included Senators Prescott Bush, Leverett Saltonstall, Robert Byrd, Margaret Chase Smith, John Stennis, Strom Thurmond, and Barry Goldwater. During the hearing, Senator Saltonstall stated, "I commend you as a courageous, fine young American citizen who lived up to your instructions and who did the best you could under very difficult circumstances." Senator Bush declared, "I am satisfied he has conducted himself in exemplary fashion and in accordance with the highest traditions of service to one's country, and I congratulate him upon his conduct in captivity." Senator Goldwater sent him a handwritten note: "You did a good job for your country." [3] :264, 270–80

Clarence Johnson and Francis Gary Powers in front of a U-2 (Photo Gary Powers, Jr. / Cold War Museum via AP) KellyJohnsonandGaryPowers.jpg
Clarence Johnson and Francis Gary Powers in front of a U-2 (Photo Gary Powers, Jr. / Cold War Museum via AP)

Divorce and remarriage

Powers and his wife Barbara separated in 1962 and divorced in January 1963. Powers stated that the reasons for the divorce included her infidelity and alcoholism, adding that she constantly threw tantrums and overdosed on pills shortly after his return. [23] He started a relationship with Claudia Edwards "Sue" Downey, whom he had met while working briefly at CIA Headquarters. Downey had a child, Dee, from her previous marriage. They were married on October 26, 1963. [24] Their son Francis Gary Powers II was born on June 5, 1965. [3] :287, 292–93, 323 The marriage proved to be a very happy one, and Sue worked hard to preserve her husband's legacy after his death. [25]


During a speech in March 1964, former CIA Director Allen Dulles said of Powers, "He performed his duty in a very dangerous mission and he performed it well, and I think I know more about that than some of his detractors and critics know, and I am glad to say that to him tonight." [3] :295–96

Later career

Powers worked for Lockheed as a test pilot from 1962 to 1970, though the CIA paid his salary. In 1970, he wrote the book Operation Overflight with co-author Curt Gentry. [26] Lockheed fired him, because "the book's publication had ruffled some feathers at Langley." Powers became a helicopter traffic pilot reporter for KNBC News Channel 4.


Powers was piloting a helicopter for KNBC Channel 4 over the San Fernando Valley on August 1, 1977, when the aircraft crashed, killing him and his cameraman George Spears. [3] :251, 289–90, 324 They had been recording video tape following bush fires in Santa Barbara County in the KNBC helicopter and were heading back from them.

His Bell 206 JetRanger helicopter ran out of fuel and crashed at the Sepulveda Dam recreational area in Encino, California, several miles short of its intended landing site at Burbank Airport. The National Transportation Safety Board report attributed the probable cause of the crash to pilot error. [27] According to Powers's son, an aviation mechanic had repaired a faulty fuel gauge without informing Powers, who subsequently misread it. [28]

At the last moment, he noticed children playing in the area and directed the helicopter elsewhere to avoid landing on them. [27] He might have landed safely if not for the last-second deviation, which compromised his autorotative descent. [28]

Powers was survived by his wife, children Claudia Dee and Francis Gary Powers Jr., and five sisters. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery as an Air Force veteran. [27] [29]


Senior Pilot USAF Wings.svg
Silver Star ribbon.svg Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg CIAIS.svg
Prisoner of War ribbon.svg Army Good Conduct Medal ribbon.svg
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Air Force Longevity Service ribbon.svg
United Nations Service Medal Korea ribbon.svg
USAF Senior Pilot Badge
Silver Star Distinguished Flying Cross Intelligence Star
(Valor Award)
Prisoner of War Medal Army Good Conduct Medal National Defense Service Medal
w/ 1 bronze service star
Korean Service Medal Air Force Longevity Service Award
w/ two bronze oak leaf clusters
United Nations Service Medal for Korea

Powers received the CIA's Intelligence Star in 1965 after his return from the Soviet Union. Powers was originally scheduled to receive it in 1963 along with other pilots involved in the CIA's U-2 program, but the award was postponed for political reasons. In 1970, Powers published his first—and only—book review, on a work about aerial reconnaissance, Unarmed and Unafraid by Glenn Infield, in the monthly magazine Business & Commercial Aviation. "The subject has great interest to me," he said, in submitting his review. [30]

In 1998, newly declassified information revealed that Powers's mission had been a joint USAF/CIA operation. In 2000, on the 40th anniversary of the U-2 Incident, his family was presented with his posthumously awarded Prisoner of War Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, and National Defense Service Medal. In addition, CIA Director George Tenet authorized Powers to posthumously receive the CIA's coveted Director's Medal for extreme fidelity and extraordinary courage in the line of duty. [31]

On June 15, 2012, Powers was posthumously awarded the Silver Star medal for "demonstrating 'exceptional loyalty' while enduring harsh interrogation in the Lubyanka Prison in Moscow for almost two years." [32] Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton Schwartz presented the decoration to Powers's grandchildren, Trey Powers, 9, and Lindsey Berry, 29, in a Pentagon ceremony. [33] [34]


Powers's son, Francis Gary Powers Jr., founded the Cold War Museum in 1996. Affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution, it was essentially a traveling exhibit until it found a permanent home in 2011 on a former Army communications base outside Washington, D.C. [35]

Related Research Articles

Area 51 US Air Force facility in southern Nevada, US

Area 51 is the common name of a highly classified United States Air Force (USAF) facility located within the Nevada Test and Training Range. The facility is officially called Homey Airport (KXTA) or Groom Lake, named after the salt flat situated next to its airfield. Details of the facility's operations are not publicly known, but the USAF says that it is an open training range, and it most likely supports the development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems. The USAF acquired the site in 1955, primarily for flight testing the Lockheed U-2 aircraft.

Lockheed U-2 American single-jet-engine, ultra-high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It provides day and night, high-altitude, all-weather intelligence gathering.

1960 U-2 incident Aviation incident

On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory. The single-seat aircraft, flown by pilot Francis Gary Powers, was hit by an S-75 Dvina surface-to-air missile and crashed near Sverdlovsk. Powers parachuted safely and was captured.

Lockheed A-12 High-altitude, supersonic reconnaissance aircraft

The Lockheed A-12 was a high-altitude, Mach 3+ reconnaissance aircraft built for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) by Lockheed's Skunk Works, based on the designs of Clarence "Kelly" Johnson. The aircraft was designated A-12, the 12th in a series of internal design efforts for "Archangel", the aircraft's internal code name. In 1959, it was selected over Convair's FISH and Kingfish designs as the winner of Project GUSTO, and was developed and operated under Project Oxcart.

<i>Firefox</i> (novel) novel written by Craig Thomas

Firefox is a thriller novel written by Craig Thomas and published in 1977. The Cold War plot involves an attempt by the CIA and MI6 to steal a highly advanced experimental Soviet fighter aircraft. The chief protagonist is fighter pilot turned spy Mitchell Gant. The book was subject to a 1982 film adaptation produced and directed by Clint Eastwood who also played the role of Gant in the film.

The Intelligence Star is an award given by the Central Intelligence Agency to its officers for "voluntary acts of courage performed under hazardous conditions or for outstanding achievements or services rendered with distinction under conditions of grave risk". The award citation is from the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and specifically cites actions of "extraordinary heroism". It is the third-highest award given by the Central Intelligence Agency, behind the Distinguished Intelligence Cross and Distinguished Intelligence Medal, and is analogous to the Silver Star, the US military award for extraordinary heroism in combat. Only a few dozen people have received this award, making it one of the rarest valor awards awarded by the US government.

Perm International Airport airport

Perm International Airport is an international airport located at Bolshoye Savino, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) southwest of the city of Perm, Russia. It is the only airport in Perm Krai with scheduled commercial flights, and serves as Perm's main civilian airport, with bus and minibus services operating during the daytime to the city's main bus terminus.

The Cold War Museum is a history museum in Warrenton, Virginia, focused on Cold War history.

<i>John Goldfarb, Please Come Home!</i> 1965 film directed by J. Lee Thompson

John Goldfarb, Please Come Home! is a 1965 American comedy film based on the novel by William Peter Blatty published in 1963. The movie was directed by J. Lee Thompson.

Countries with major counterintelligence failures are presented alphabetically. In each case, there is at least one systemic problem with seeking penetration agents when few or none may actually have existed, to the detriment of the functioning of the national service involved.

James B. Donovan American diplomat and politician

James Britt Donovan was an American lawyer and United States Navy officer in the Office of Scientific Research and Development and the Office of Strategic Services, ultimately becoming general counsel of the OSS, and an international diplomatic negotiator.

1964 T-39 shootdown incident Cold War incident involving an American T-39 being shot down by a Soviet MiG-19

On 28 January 1964, an unarmed T-39 Sabreliner aircraft of the United States Air Force was shot down while on a training mission over Erfurt, East Germany, by a MiG-19 jet fighter of the Soviet Air Force. The occupants of the aircraft were Lieutenant Colonel Gerald K. Hannaford, Captain Donald Grant Millard and Captain John F. Lorraine. All three died, becoming direct casualties of the Cold War in Europe.

United States aerial reconnaissance of the Soviet Union Wikimedia list article

Between 1946 and 1960, the United States Air Force conducted aerial reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union in order to determine the size, composition, and disposition of Soviet forces. Aircraft used included the Boeing B-47 Stratojet bomber and—from 1956—the Lockheed U-2 spy plane specifically designed for high-altitude reconnaissance flight. The overflight program was ended following the 1960 U-2 incident.

Richard S. Heyser, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF (Retired), was a pilot in the United States Air Force whose photographs while flying the Lockheed U-2 revealed Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba, precipitating the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962.

Sergei Safronov (fighter pilot) Soviet aviator

Sergei Ivanovich Safronov was a senior lieutenant in the Soviet Air Defense Forces. Safronov, a fighter pilot, was shot down by a friendly surface-to-air missile while attempting to intercept Gary Powers' U-2, conducting a reconnaissance mission.

<i>Bridge of Spies</i> (film) 2015 film directed by Steven Spielberg

Bridge of Spies is a 2015 American-German historical drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg, written by Matt Charman and the Coen brothers, and starring Tom Hanks, Mark Rylance, Amy Ryan, and Alan Alda. Set during the Cold War, the film tells the story of lawyer James B. Donovan, who is entrusted with negotiating the release of Francis Gary Powers—a U.S. Air Force pilot whose U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960—in exchange for Rudolf Abel, a convicted Soviet KGB spy held under the custody of the United States, whom he represented at trial. The name of the film refers to the Glienicke Bridge, which connects Potsdam with Berlin, where the prisoner exchange took place. The film was an international co-production of the United States and Germany.

1971 B-52C Lake Michigan crash Aviation accident

On January 7, 1971, a Boeing B-52C Stratofortress of Strategic Air Command crashed into northern Lake Michigan at the mouth of Little Traverse Bay near Charlevoix, Michigan, while on a low-level training flight. All nine crew members aboard were lost. No remains of the crewmen were recovered. Parts of the aircraft were retrieved from a water depth of 225 feet (69 m) in May and June 1971. The structural remains included parts of the wings, all eight engines, the tail, crew section, landing gear and wheels, plus numerous smaller parts of the plane. Oceans Systems, a Florida-based salvage company, carried out the recovery mission. It remains the deadliest plane crash involving a B-52 Stratofortress in aviation history.

1977 Encino helicopter crash

On August 1, 1977, a Bell 206 news helicopter piloted by Francis Gary Powers ran out of fuel and crashed into a field near Encino, California, killing Powers and the aircraft's only passenger, cameraman George Spears.

On 1 July 1960, a United States RB-47H spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing signals intelligence in the Barents Sea, near the Kola Peninsula, off the Arctic coast of the Soviet Union. Four of the six crew members died. The shootdown occurred exactly two months after the far better known U-2 shootdown involving Francis Gary Powers, and added to the tensions created by that incident.


  1. "CIA FOIA – Francis Gary Powers: U-2 Spy Pilot Shot Down by the Soviets". Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  2. "Francis Gary Powers (1929–1977) – Find A Grave Memorial".
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Powers, Francis (2004). Operation Overflight: A Memoir of the U-2 Incident. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 3. ISBN   9781574884227.
  4. Newnan-Coweta Magazine, Sep/Oct 2011, p. 78,
  5. Michael, Tal (September 2, 2012). "The Israeli Air Force : Mysterious Spyplane Revealed". Israeli Air Force. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  6. "U-2 Specifications". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  7. "Lockheed Martin U-2 Dragon Lady – Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  8. Harper, John. "U-2 Dragon Lady". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  9. 1 2 "American U-2 spy plane shot down – May 01, 1960". Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  10. Abarinov, Vladimir (April 30, 2010). "Fifty Years Later, Gary Powers and U-2 Spy Plane Incident Remembered". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  11. "S-75". Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  12. Polmar, Norman (2001). Spyplane: The U-2 History Declassified. Zenith Press. p. 137 ISBN   0760309574
  13. Dobbs, Michael. "Gary Powers Kept a Secret Diary With Him After He Was Captured by the Soviets". Smithsonian.
  14. Rich, Ben (1994). Skunk Works. Little, Brown and Company. pp.  162–63. ISBN   0316743305.
  15. "This Day in History – What Happened Today in History". Retrieved August 31, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  16. "Air Force Museum – Monino, Russia". Archived from the original on April 3, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  17. Famous Cases: Rudolph Ivanovich Abel (Hollow Nickel Case) Archived January 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine . Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  18. "CIA documents show US never believed Gary Powers was shot down". Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  19. "The 1962 Spy Exchange of Powers for Abel". Francis Gary Powers, Jr. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
  20. "Report of the board of inquiry into the case of Francis Gary Powers (sanitized copy)" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. February 27, 1962. p. 1. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  21. New York Daily News (page 2). March 7, 1962.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. Musgrove, Eric. "Remembering the people and events that shaped Suwannee County history: Barbara Moore – part 2". Suwannee Democrat. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  23. VA Marriage Records 1936–2014, Certificate #32518
  24. Writer, From a Times Staff (June 25, 2004). "Claudia 'Sue' Powers, 68; Wife of Spy Plane Pilot Downed During Cold War". Los Angeles Times. ISSN   0458-3035 . Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  25. Powers, Francis Gary (July 27, 2018). "Operation Overflight: The U-2 pilot tells his story for the first time" . Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  26. 1 2 3 "The Francis Gary Powers Helicopter Crash". Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  27. 1 2 "Powers Helicopter Crash". Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  28. Michael Robert Patterson. "Francis Gary Powers, Captain, United States Air Force". Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  29. Letter to G. Haber, Managing Editor, Business & Commercial Aviation
  30. Traitor or Patriot? Boghardt, Thomas. International Spy Museum. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  31. "Press Advisory: Silver Star to be Posthumously Presented to Capt. Francis Gary Powers". Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  32. "U-2 Pilot Gary Powers Receives Silver Star – ABC News". June 15, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  33. "Cold War pilot Francis Gary Powers to get Silver Star". Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  34. "Cold War Museum". Archived from the original on June 30, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  35. "Tom Hanks–Steven Spielberg Cold War Thriller Set for Oct. 16, 2015", Variety, accessed June 5, 2014
  36. David Cenciotti, "Rock Band Honors Gary Powers With New Song on U-2 Incident Anniversary", The Aviationist, April 30, 2018


Further reading