The Lord Howard of Effingham
|Crown Governor of Virginia|
|Monarch|| Charles II |
|Preceded by||Baron Colepeper|
|Succeeded by||Sir Edmund Andros|
|Born||17 September 1643|
|Died||30 March 1694/95|
Francis Howard, 5th Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1643 – 30 March 1694 O.S./95 N.S.)was a member of the Howard family, descended from noted naval commander Lord High Admiral Howard, and a Crown Governor of Virginia (1683-1692).
He was the son of Sir Charles Howard and Frances Courthope. Francis Howard's paternal grandfather was the first cousin of both Charles Howard, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham.His maternal grandfather was Sir George Courthope of Whiligh, Sussex. Francis was baptised on 17 September 1643 in Great Bookham near Effingham in Surrey. On 8 July 1673, he married Philadelphia Pelham, daughter of Thomas Pelham, 2nd Baronet Pelham of Laughton and half-aunt of Thomas Pelham, eventual 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton. Francis and Philadelphia were the parents of Thomas Howard, 6th Baron Howard of Effingham and Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham as well as another son and three daughters.
In 1681, Howard's cousin, the 3rd Earl of Nottingham, died and did not leave a male heir; nor did his two half-brothers. The earldom was declared extinct, but the title of Baron Howard of Effingham was passed on to Francis Howard.
Lord Howard was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1683.His family relocated there in February 1684, and Howard lived primarily at Rosegill plantation in Middlesex County. Howard commenced his duties as Governor on 16 April 1684. (The previous governor, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, had departed suddenly in 1683. He was replaced by acting Governor Nicholas Spencer, Culpepper's cousin, agent, and President of the Council, until Lord Howard's arrival nine months later.)
On 23 June 1684, Lord Howard sailed from Virginia for Albany, New York with his daughter, Philadelphia, where he and New York Governor Thomas Dongan brokered a July peace treaty with members of the Iroquois Confederacy.The treaty succeeded in ending a series of raids by the westernmost Seneca nation, whose warriors had traveled south to the frontier of Virginia. Although the Iroquois admitted to breaking the Covenant Chain, Howard and Dongan refrained from demanding reparations in hopes that they would continue attacks against the British rivals in New France. While in New York, Howard and his daughter stayed at Dongan's house and spent much of their time socialising. Howard was impressed by the lifestyle of New York, as compared to Virginia, and urged his wife to bring good silver from England. Lady Howard arrived in Virginia, but died the next year on 13 August 1685 at age 31. Their daughter, Margaret Frances, died while accompanying Lady Howard's body, being transported for return to England.
In 1687, Howard again travelled to New York to negotiate with the Iroquois, with a stop in Philadelphia on the way.Despite his negotiation efforts, Howard was unpopular among Virginians. He ordered that no one in the colony could use a printing press for any reason and tried to gain the power to overturn laws and levy taxes. Land grants could only be passed if Lord Howard was paid a fee. He created a court of equity and named himself a petty Lord Chancellor. In 1687, he expelled Colonel Philip Ludwell from the Virginia Council, calling him "an abettor in fomenting disputes over which the Assembly was so obstinate." The expulsion backfired, however, when Ludwell's resultant popularity led to a meeting with King William. A successful meeting with the king led to Ludwell's council seat being restored on 7 May 1691.
Howard left Virginia for England on 20 October 1688. He lived mostly in Little Chelsea in Kensington, then Middlesex.He was allowed to remain governor of Virginia from afar at half the salary. Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., who had administered the colony during Howard's time in New York in 1684, did so again while Howard was in England until Howard's deputy, Francis Nicholson, arrived on 16 May 1690. Howard remarried on 20 January 1690 to Susan Felton, daughter of Sir Henry Felton, Baronet, and widow of Philip Harbord. His funeral took place at St Giles in the Fields.
Ludwell House of burgesses 1691.
Francis Howard Effingham governor virginia.
Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, was a member of the Irish Parliament, Royalist military officer during the English Civil War, and Governor of the Province of New York. He is noted for having called the first representative legislature in New York, and for granting the province's Charter of Liberties.
Earl of Chichester is a title that has been created three times in British history. The current title was created in 1801 for Thomas Pelham, 2nd Baron Pelham of Stanmer in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl of Limerick is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland, associated first with the Dongan family, then with the Pery family.
Earl of Effingham, in the County of Surrey, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Its United Kingdom version was created in 1837 for Kenneth Howard, 11th Baron Howard of Effingham, named after the village of Effingham where they held the manor.
Baron Howard of Penrith, of Gowbarrow in the County of Cumberland, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1930 for the diplomat Sir Esme Howard, who had previously served as British Ambassador to the United States. A member of the famous Howard family, he was the grandson of Lord Henry Howard-Molyneux-Howard, younger brother of Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk. As of 2010 the title is held by his grandson, the third Baron, who succeeded his father in 1999. Lord Howard of Penrith is also in remainder to the dukedom of Norfolk and its subsidiary titles.
Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Culpeper of Thoresway, was the colonial governor of Virginia from 1677 to 1683.
This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Cumberland.
Catherine Howard, Countess of Nottingham, was a cousin, lady-in-waiting, and close confidante of Elizabeth I of England. She was in attendance on the queen for 44 years.
Long knives or big knives was a term used by the Iroquois, and later by the Mingo and other Natives of the Ohio Country to designate British colonists of Virginia, in contradistinction to those of New York and Pennsylvania.
Gentleman of the Bedchamber was a title in the royal household of the Kingdom of England from the 11th century, later used also in the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Brigadier-General Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham was an English peer and army officer.
Kenneth Alexander Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham, was a British peer and soldier.
Francis Howard may refer to:
Col. Nicholas Spencer, Jr. (1633–1689) was a London merchant who emigrated to Westmoreland County, Virginia, where he became a planter and which he represented in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Spencer later served as Secretary and President of the Council of the Virginia Colony, and on the departure of his cousin Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper in 1683, was named Acting Governor (1683–84), in which capacity Spencer served until the arrival of Governor Lord Howard of Effingham. Spencer's role as agent for the Culpepers helped him and his friend Lt. Col. John Washington, ancestor of George Washington, secure the patent for their joint land grant of the Mount Vernon estate.
Lieutenant-General Thomas Howard was an officer of the British Army and the ancestor of the family of the present Earls of Effingham.
Sir John Pell IV, 2nd Lord of Pelham Manor was a British-born American landowner who owned Pelham, New York, as well as land that now includes the eastern Bronx and southern Westchester County, New York.
Governor Howard may refer to:
| Colonial Governor of Virginia |
|Peerage of England|
| Baron Howard of Effingham |