This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Francisco Javier Clavijero
Francisco Javier Clavijero Echegaray
9 September 1731
|Died||2 April 1787 55) (aged|
|Resting place||Rotunda of Illustrious Persons|
Francisco Javier Clavijero Echegaray (sometimes Francesco Saverio Clavigero) (September 9, 1731 – April 2, 1787), was a Mexican Jesuit teacher, scholar and historian. After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish provinces (1767), he went to Italy, where he wrote a valuable work on the pre-Columbian history and civilizations of Mesoamerica and the central Mexican altiplano.
He was born in Veracruz (Mexico) of a Spanish father and a Criolla mother. His father worked for the Spanish crown, and was transferred with his family from one town to another. Most of the father's posts were to locations with a strong indigenous presence, and because of this Clavijero learned Nahuatl growing up. The family lived at various times in Teziutlán, Puebla and later in Jamiltepec, in the Mixtec region of Oaxaca.
Clavijero's biographer, Juan Luis Maneiro, wrote:
From the time of his boyhood, he had occasion to deal intimately with the indigenous people, to learn thoroughly their customs and nature, and to investigate attentively the many special things the land produces, be they plants, animals or minerals. There was no high mountain, dark cave, pleasant valley, spring, brook, or any other place that drew his curiosity to which the Indians did not take the boy to in order to please him.
He began his studies in Puebla, at the college of San Jerónimo for grammar, and the Jesuit college of San Ignacio for philosophy, Latin and theology. Upon completion of these studies, he entered a seminary in Puebla, Puebla to study for the priesthood, but he soon decided to become a Jesuit instead. In February 1748 he transferred to a Jesuit college in Tepotzotlán, State of Mexico. There he continued to study Latin and also learned ancient Greek, French, Portuguese, Italian, German, and English. In 1751 he was sent back to Puebla for further studies in philosophy. Here he was introduced to the works of such contemporary thinkers as Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz.
Next he was sent to Mexico City, to complete his theological and philosophical studies at the Colegio de San Pedro y Pablo. Here he joined with other students of stature, including José Rafael Campoy, Andrés Cavo, Francisco Javier Alegre, Juan Luis Maneiro and Pedro José Márquez, a group known today (along with others) as the "Mexican humanists of the eighteenth century". While still a student, he began teaching, and was made prefect of the Colegio de San Ildefonso. Later he was appointed to the chair of rhetoric in the Seminario Mayor of the Jesuits, an exceptional appointment as he had yet to be ordained as a priest.
In 1754, Clavijero was ordained a priest. He began to teach at the Colegio de San Gregorio, founded at the beginning of the colonial era to teach Indian youth. He spent five years there. Again, quoting from his biographer, Juan Luis Maneiro:
In those five years he examined with great curiosity all the documents relating to the Mexican nation that had been collected in large numbers in the Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, and with great determination extracted from them precious treasures that later were published in the history he left for posterity.
Nevertheless, his time at San Gregorio was not without problems. In a letter dated April 3, 1761, Father Pedro Reales, vicar general of the Jesuits, rebuked him in a letter for
having completely shaken off the yoke of obedience, responding with an "I don't want to" to those who assigned you duties, as occurred yesterday, or at the very least this answer was given to the superior, who in truth did not know what path to take so that Your Reverence would fulfill and embrace your duty. Relocating you is hardly a solution, and Your Reverence's life and example have provided no satisfaction, almost completely removing the unique purpose of those who live in this college, and handing over to others jobs and studies that you fill.
It seems clear that these "other jobs and studies" of Father Clavijero referred to the Aztec codices and the books of the period of the Conquest that had been given to the college of San Pedro and San Pablo by Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora. Clavijero followed Sigüenza as an example in his investigations, and was very pleased with Sigüenza's benevolence to and love of the Indians. He also admired much of the culture of the Indians before their contact with Europeans. Clavijero never ceased to try to read the ideograms in the codices.
Clavijero was transferred to the Colegio de San Javier in Puebla, also dedicated to the education of Indian youth. He taught there for three years. In 1764 he was transferred again, to Valladolid (now Morelia), to teach philosophy in the seminary there. More of a rationalist in philosophy than his predecessors, he was an innovator in the field. Good work in Valladolid got him promoted to the same position in Guadalajara. It was in Guadalajara that he finished his treatise Physica Particularis, which, together with Cursus Philosophicus, sets out his scientific and philosophical thought.
As part of the Bourbon Reforms in Spanish America and the general suppression of the Jesuits by European monarchs in the late eighteenth century, the Jesuits were expelled from all the Spanish dominations on June 25, 1767, on orders of King Charles III. When Clavijero left the colony, he went first to Ferrara, Italy, but soon relocated to Bologna, Italy, where he lived the rest of his life.
In Italy he devoted his time to his historical investigations. Although he no longer had access to the Aztec codices, the reference works, and the accounts of the first Spanish conquistadors, he retained in his memory the information from his earlier studies. He was able to write the work he had always intended, La Historia Antigua de México ( ISBN 968-6871-20-9). In Italy a work by the Prussian Cornelius de Pauw came to his attention. It was entitled Philosophical Investigations Concerning the Americans. This work revealed to Clavijero the extent of European ignorance about the nature and culture of pre-Columbian Americans, and spurred his work to show the true history of Mexico.
He worked for years on his history, consulting Italian libraries and corresponding with friends in Mexico who answered his questions by consulting the original works there. Finally his work was ready. It consisted of ten volumes containing the narrative of Mexican culture from before the Spanish conquest. The original manuscript was in Spanish, but Father Clavijero translated it into Italian, with the help of some of his Italian friends. The book was published at Cesena in 1780-81, and was received by scholars with great satisfaction. It was soon translated into English and German. It was also translated back into Spanish, and went through numerous editions in Mexico. Much later (1945) the original was published in Spanish.
La Historia Antigua de México begins with a description of Anáhuac, and continues with the story of the Aztec wanderings. It treats of the politics, warfare, religion, customs, social organization and culture of the Aztecs. It establishes for the first time the chronology of the Indian peoples, and concludes with the history of the Conquest up to the imprisonment of Cuauhtémoc.
In contrast to many of his contemporaries, Clavijero promoted a view of the Indigenous as peaceful and good, while heavily criticizing the actions of the Spanish conquistadors. Clavijero's work is seen today as overly sentimental and unreliable, but it is still read by many historians who seek detailed information about early American daily life.
In addition to La Historia Antigua de México, Father Clavijero published these works:
Father Francisco Javier Clavijero died in Bologna April 2, 1787, at 4 in the afternoon. He was 56 years of age. He did not live to see the publication of Historia de la Antigua o Baja California.
On August 5, 1970, the remains of Father Clavijero were repatriated to Veracruz, the place of his birth. They were received with the honors due to an illustrious son. He is now interred in the Rotonda de los Personajes Ilustres in the Pantheon Dolores in Mexico City.
Father Juan Luis Maneiro, his friend, coworker and biographer[ This quote needs a citation ]
Schools, libraries, botanical gardens, avenues and parks throughout the Republic of Mexico have been named for him, including:
Antigua Guatemala, commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua, is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala known for its preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches. It served as the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl was a nobleman of partial Aztec noble descent in the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain, modern Mexico; he is known primarily for his works chronicling indigenous Aztec history.
Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was a Spanish politician, administrator, and Catholic clergyman in 17th century Spain and a viceregal of Mexico.
Cornelius Franciscus de Pauw or Cornelis de Pauw was a Dutch philosopher, geographer and diplomat at the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
The Ramírez Codex is a post-conquest codex from the late 16th century entitled Relación del origen de los indios que hábitan esta Nueva España según sus Historias.
Don Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora was one of the first great intellectuals born in the New World - Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. He was a criollo patriot, exalting New Spain over Old. A polymath and writer, he held many colonial government and academic positions.
Lorenzo Boturini Benaducci 1698, Sondrio, Italy – 1749, Madrid) was a historian, antiquary and ethno grapher of New Spain, the Spanish Empire's colonial dominions in North America.
Francisco Xavier Alegre was a Jesuit scholar, translator, and historian of New Spain.
Joaquín García Icazbalceta was a Mexican philologist and historian. He edited writings by Mexican writers who preceded him, wrote a biography of Juan de Zumárraga, and translated William H. Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. His works on Colonial Mexico continue to be cited today.
Miguel del Barco was a Jesuit missionary in Baja California, Mexico and wrote major contributions to the peninsula's history and ethnography.
José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez was a priest in New Spain, scientist, historian, cartographer, and journalist.
Juan de Ugarte, S.J., (1662–1730) was a Jesuit missionary and explorer in Baja California Sur, New Spain, and the successor to Juan María de Salvatierra as head of the peninsula's missions.
The Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco, Mexico City, is the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World. It was established by the Franciscans on January 6, 1536 with the intention, as is generally accepted, of preparing Native American boys for eventual ordination to the Catholic priesthood. Students trained in the Colegio were important contributors to the work of Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún in the creation of his monumental twelve-volume General History of the Things of New Spain, often referred to as the Florentine Codex. The failure of the Colegio had long-lasting consequences, with scholar Robert Ricard saying that "[h]ad the College of Tlatelolco given the country even one [native] bishop, the history of the Mexican Church might have been profoundly changed."
Tepotzotlán is a city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Mexico. It is located 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Mexico City about a 45-minute drive along the Mexico City-Querétaro at marker number 41. In Aztec times, the area was the center of a dominion that negotiated to keep most of its independence in return with being allied with the Aztec Triple Alliance. Later, it would also be part of a "Republic of the Indians," allowing for some autonomy under Spanish rule as well. The town became a major educational center during the colonial period when the Jesuits established the College of San Francisco Javier. The college complex that grew from its beginnings in 1580 would remain an educational center until 1914. Today this complex houses the Museo del Virreinato, with one of the largest collections of art and other objects from this time period.
The San Pedro y San Pablo College colonial church and school complex built in late 16th and early 17th centuries, located in the historical center of Mexico City district of Mexico City, Mexico.
The Museo Nacional del Virreinato is located in the former College of San Francisco Javier complex in Tepotzotlán, Mexico State, Mexico.
New Spanish Baroque, also known as Mexican Baroque, refers to Baroque art in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. During this period, artists of New Spain experimented with expressive, contrasting, and realistic creative approaches, making art that became highly popular in New Spanish society.
The Chavero Codex of Huexotzingo of 1578 documents a judicial proceeding against officials who collected excessive taxes in Huexotzingo, located in today's Puebla, Mexico. There are 17 locations in the manuscript, which deals with tribute. These taxes, paid in "money, maize, and shirts and blankets" were collected in "the 21 districts of Huexotzingo between 1571 and 1577." Some of the taxes were used to build a church in the San Salvador district. The numbers in the codex from the surveys submitted by officials are recorded in illustrations "using the Mesoamerican numeric system, with some variations characteristic of the Mexica system."
Ignacio Molarja, or known in the Jesuit dictionaries as Ignacio Molarsa was an explorer and Jesuit missionary pertaining to the Society of Jesus of the Province of Nueva España. The surname of the Italian Jesuit varies according to the diversity of the biographical writings on him, varying between "Molar Ja", "Molarja", "Molargia", "Molarsa", and "Molarza". He has also been confused by contemporary dictionaries with Jerónimo de la Canal, who was one of his mcoworkers at the mission Ignacio Molarja ibeganhis Catholic studies in 1635, and arrived in northwest New Spain in 1644. As an explorer, missionary and evangelizer, he founded several missions in what is today is the state of Sonora, Mexico. He died due to health problems in 1658 in Tecoripa, La Colorada Municipality, Sonora.
The Spanish Universalist School of the 18th century is mainly defined by Juan Andrés, Lorenzo Hervás and Antonio Eximeno as main Authors, but also by his close collaborators: the botanist Antonio José Cavanilles and the great Americanists Francisco Javier Clavijero, José Celestino Mutis, Juan Ignacio Molina and Joaquín Camaño, the bibliographer Ramón Diosdado Caballero, the Cosmographer-major of the Indies Juan Bautista Muñoz, the Philippine Juan de la Concepción and Miguel Casiri, a Lebanese-born Arabic-language expert.