Francisco Pereira Passos
|Mayor of Rio de Janeiro|
30 December 1902 –16 November 1906
|Born||29 August 1836|
São João Marcos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Died||12 March 1913 76) (aged|
Rio de Janeiro
Francisco Franco Pereira Passos (29 August 1836 – 12 March 1913) was a Brazilian engineer and politician. He was mayor of Rio de Janeiro from 1902 to 1906, nominated by President Rodrigues Alves. During his tenure, Pereira Passos promoted a large-scale urban renewal plan for Rio, inspired by Georges-Eugène Haussmann's renewal of Paris.
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, PC was a Brazilian politician who first served as governor of the State of São Paulo in 1887, then as Treasury minister in the 1890s. Rodrigues Alves was elected President of Brazil in 1902 and served until 1906.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann, was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris that is commonly referred to as Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates central Paris.
Passos was son of Antônio Pereira Passos, Barão de Mangaratiba, and Clara Oliveira. Until the age of fourteen he was raised at the Bálsamo Farm, in São João Marcos, currently Rio Claro district, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In March 1852 he joined the then Military School, now the Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - former University of Brazil where he graduated in 1856 as a Bachelor in Physical and Mathematical Sciences, which gave him the Diploma of Civil Engineer. He was a classmate of Benjamin Constant.
Rio Claro is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Its population was 17,834 (2005) and its area is 841 km².
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific, artistic and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers, reviews and assessments made by international agencies. In 2017 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the seventh position among institutions of Latin America. In 2016 and 2017 the Ranking Universitário Folha (RUF) ranked UFRJ as the best university in Brazil and the best Federal University in the country. The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) published in 2017 UFRJ as the second best university in the world in Zoology field.
Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque, or simply Benjamin Constant, was a Swiss-French political activist and writer on politics and religion. He was the author of a partly biographical psychological novel, Adolphe. He was a fervent liberal of the early 19th century, who influenced the Trienio Liberal movement in Spain, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the Greek War of Independence, the November Uprising in Poland, the Belgian Revolution, and liberalism in Brazil and Mexico.
He studied in France from 1857 to the end of 1860, where he attended the urban reform of Paris promoted by Georges-Eugène Haussmann. His stay in Paris had a profound influence on Passos, who was to devote himself to railway engineering and urban planning.
On his return to Brazil in 1860, Pereira Passos dedicates himself to the construction and expansion of the Brazilian railway network, under the demand of the coffee economy. He participated in the construction of the Santos-Jundiaí Railroad (1867), the extension of the D. Pedro II Railroad to the São Francisco River (1868), and technical consultant to the Ministry of Agriculture and Public Works (1870).
Estrada de Ferro Santos-Jundiaí was a 1,600 mm gauge railway line in São Paulo, Brazil.
He returned to Europe in 1871, in the company of the Viscount of Mauá, as inspector of the Imperial Government. In Europe, he studied European rail systems and was inspired by the Swiss railroad which climbed Mount Righi with slopes of up to 20%, to run the railway extension to Petrópolis. System that would still be used later in the first tourist railrway of Brazil, Corcovado Railrway.He directed at the same time the Arsenal of Ponta da Areia, at the invitation of the Baron of Mauá, producing rails and wagons.
Irineu Evangelista de Sousa, the Viscount of Mauá was a Brazilian entrepreneur, industrialist, banker and politician. Born to a family of small estancieiros (ranchers), Mauá became one of the world's richest men; by 1867, his wealth was larger than the annual budget of the Brazilian Empire. He was called the Rothschild of the South American continent by the New York Times in 1871. He received the titles of baron (1854) and visconde com grandeza (1874) of Mauá. A pioneer in several areas of the economy of Brazil, one of his greatest achievements was to start the construction of the Mauá Railroad, the first railroad in Brazil.
The Rigi is a mountain massif of the Alps, located in Central Switzerland. The whole massif is almost entirely surrounded by the water of three different water bodies: Lake Lucerne, Lake Zug and Lake Lauerz. The range is in the Schwyzer Alps, and is split between the cantons of Schwyz and Lucerne, although the main summit, named Rigi Kulm, at 1,798 meters above sea level, lies within the canton of Schwyz.
The Corcovado Train is a rack railway in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from Cosme Velho to the summit of the Corcovado Mountain at an altitude of 710 m (2,329 ft). The summit is known for its statue of Christ the Redeemer and its views over the city and beaches of Rio.
He was appointed engineer of the Ministry of the Empire in 1874, and it is up to Pereira Passos to accompany all the works of the imperial government. He was part of the commission that was to present the city's overall urban reform plan, including widening streets, building major avenues, channeling rivers among other urban and sanitary measures. The survey carried out from 1875 to 1876 would be the basis of the future master plan of the city, put into practice in the administration of Passos as mayor.
He returned to Europe in 1880 and remained in Paris until 1881. In the meantime he attended courses at the Sorbonne and the Collége de France, visiting factories, steel mills, transport companies and public works in Europe. Still in 1881 he became a consultant for Compagnie Générale de Chemins de Fer Brésiliens, to accompany the construction of a railway line in Paraná, linking the Port of Paranaguá to Curitiba.
The Port of Paranaguá is a port located in Paranaguá, in the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the second largest port of Brazil in tonnage and the third in container shipping. It is a main exporting port of agricultural products in Brazil, especially soybeans and soybean meal.
Curitiba is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city's population was 1,879,355 as of 2015, making it the eighth most populous city in Brazil and the largest in Brazil's South Region. The Curitiba Metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities with a total population of over 3.2 million, making it the seventh most populous metropolitan area in the country.
On his return to Brazil, he moved to Paraná and only after the railroad was inaugurated in 1882, he returned to the capital. On his return, he assumed the chairmanship of Companhia Ferro-Carril de São Cristóvão, replacing the Viscount of Taunay. After restructuring the company, in 1884, Pereira Passos proposes to the shareholders the acquisition of the Italian project Giuseppe Fogliani, for the construction of a great avenue. Despite the shareholders' approval and the construction license obtained, the project did not go out of print. However, this would be more an anticipation of what would come to occur in his management as mayor 20 years later: the opening of Avenida Central.
Alfredo Maria Adriano d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay, was a French Brazilian writer, musician, professor, military engineer, historian, politician, sociologist and nobleman. He is famous for the Regionalist novel Inocência, considered a major forerunner of Naturalism in Brazil, and for A Retirada da Laguna, an account of an episode in the war against Paraguay. The Brazilianist Leslie Bethell has described it as "the one undoubted literary masterpiece produced by the Paraguayan War".
Appointed mayor by President Rodrigues Alves, Pereira Passos promoted a great urban reform in the city, with the goal of transforming it into a modern French-style capital, a "Tropical Paris".
Inspired by the Haussmann reforms, in four years Pereira Passos transformed the city's appearance: the cortiços (high-density housing for low income people) and the narrow, dark streets,were demolished, with large boulevards and buildings took their place. Some of the works made in his tenure are the opening of Avenida Central (currently Avenida Rio Branco), Avenida Beira-Mar and Avenida Atlântica, the modernizing of the Port of Rio de Janeiro and the beginning of the construction of the Municipal Theater. Passos' reforms and demolitions became known as the "Bota Abaixo" (Knock-it-down).
Despite improvements in sanitation and urban development, Pereira Passos's plan entailed a high social cost, with the beginning of formation of favelas in the city.
The reform promoted a great valorization of the soil in the central area, still partially occupied by the low income population. About 1,600 old residential buildings were demolished. As a result of these demolitions, the poor population of the city center was forced to live with other families, to pay high rents or to move to the suburbs, since the popular housing constructed to replace the demolished ones was insufficient. A large part of the immense population affected by the remodeling remained in the region and the hills located in the center of the city - Providência, Santo António, among others - once little inhabited, suffer a rapid occupation of the proletarian housing. The favelas appear, that would mark the configuration of the city until the present day.
Pereira Passos died in March 12, 1913, boarding the ocean liner Araguaia, on a trip to France.
A favela, is a unique, low and middle-income, and unregulated neighborhood in Brazil that has experienced historical governmental neglect. The first favela, now known as Providência in the center of Rio de Janeiro, appeared in the late 19th century, built by soldiers who had nowhere to live following the Canudos War. Some of the first settlements were called bairros africanos. Over the years, many former enslaved Africans moved in. Even before the first favela came into being, poor citizens were pushed away from the city and forced to live in the far suburbs. However, most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Unable to find places to live, many people found themselves in favelas. Census data released in December 2011 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) showed that in 2010, about 6 percent of the Brazilian population lived in slums.
Cesar Epitácio Maia is a Brazilian politician, notable for having been elected three times for mayor of Rio de Janeiro.
Central do Brasil is a major train station in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. It is the last stop of Rio's railway network, as well as a hub for connection with the city subway and a bus station. Central do Brasil was also a preeminent stop in the interstate Central do Brasil railroad, which did link Rio de Janeiro with São Paulo and Minas Gerais, though the railroad is now deactivated. The station is located in downtown Rio de Janeiro, along the Avenida Presidente Vargas and across from the Campo de Santana park.
Erechim or Erexim is a Brazilian municipality located in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. A regional center in the northern portion of the state, it is the second most populous city in the region with 105,059 inhabitants, second only to the city of Passo Fundo. The municipality ranks 17th in total gross domestic product in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Espera Feliz is a municipality in southeastern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The altitude is 2,430 m above sea level. Located at, its neighboring cities are Caiana to the south, Dores do Rio Preto to the east, Divino to the west, Alto Caparaó and Caparaó to the north and Carangola to the southwest.
The Theatro Municipal is an opera house in the Centro district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Built in the beginning of the twentieth century, it is considered to be one of the most beautiful and important theatres in the country.
Cinelândia is the popular name of a major public square in the centre of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its official name is Praça Floriano Peixoto, in honour of the second president of Brazil, Floriano Peixoto.
Itaim Paulista is a district in the subprefecture of the same name in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The name Itaim comes from Tupi and means Little Stone.
The Rio–São Paulo High-Speed Rail is a planned high-speed rail project to connect São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. While originally planned to be operational by 2014 in time for the 20th FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil at a cost of $9 billion, as of May 2015 formal bidding for the project had yet to start, with the Brazilian government delaying the auction by "at least" one year in August 2013, pushing back hopes of completion to at least the 2020s
Empresa de Transporte Aéreo & Companhia Limitada (ETA) was a Brazilian airline founded in 1928. It ceased operations in 1929.
The Avenida Rio Branco, formerly Avenida Central, is a major road in Rio de Janeiro. It was built as the leading brand of the urban reform carried out by the mayor Pereira Passos in early 20th century.
The TAV is planned to be Brazil's first planned high-speed rail service. The first line was proposed to run between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It was expected to cover the 403 kilometres (250 mi) between Barão de Mauá station, and Campo de Marte Airport in an 85 minutes, reaching a maximum speed of 350 kilometres per hour (220 mph).
BR-040 is a federal highway of Brazil. The 1,178.7 kilometres (732.4 mi) road connects Brasilia to Rio de Janeiro.
São Miguel Paulista is a district in the subprefecture of the same name in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Events in the year 1928 in Brazil.
Raimundo Teixeira Belfort Roxo better known as engineer Belfort Roxo was a Brazilian engineer. He was the son of José Rodrigues Roxo and Maria Rita Teixeira Vieira Belfort.
The Campo de Santana is a park located in the Praça da República in downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The name of the plaza refers to the fact that it is located near the site where the Brazil was declared a Republic in 1889.
Alfredo Hélio Syrkis is a Brazilian writer, journalist, urban environmental manager and former parliamentarian, having served as the chairman of the Joint Climate Change Congressional Commission – CMMC, and vice-chairman of the Commission of Foreign Affairs and National Defense of the House. He was the Brazilian Green Party's presidential candidate in the 1998 election. In 2010, he was elected to the Brazilian national parliament (2011-2014) but decided not to run for reelection in 2014.