Francisco de Holanda

Last updated
Francisco de Holanda
Francisco de Holanda - self-portrait, ca. 1573 (De Aetatibus Mundi Imagines).png
Self-portrait (ca. 1573), the artist presenting his book
Born6 September 1517
Died19 June 1585 (1585-06-20) (aged 67)
Lisbon, Portugal
Nationality Portuguese
Occupation Architect, sculptor, painter, essayist and historian

Francisco de Holanda (originally Francisco d'Olanda; 6 September 1517 – 19 June 1585) was a Portuguese court painter and sculptor for King João III of Portugal, and later for Sebastian of Portugal. He wrote what is regarded as the first treatise on portrait painting in Europe, Do tirar polo natural (1549). [1] He is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, also being an essayist, architect and historian. He represented the intelligible reality of the Holy Trinity through a "hypothetical" syntax of geometrical figures. [2] He insisted on the contrast between the ideal plane, the incorporeal form and the "imperfect copy in the terrestrial zone". His visual language demonstrated a mixture of Neoplatonism, Christian Kabbalah and finally Lullism. [3] In education, Francisco de Holanda emphasized mathematics and geometry, subsequently anticipating Clavius's reforms of the late 16th century. [4] Sylvie Deswarte said that "Francisco de Holanda gives a privileged place to cosmography and astrology in the education of the painter. On par with geometry, mathematics and perspective, he recommended them [...] in order to reach the heavens in the hope of one day arriving to the Empyrean and realizing celestial works." [5]

Contents

Biography

Francisco de Holanda: The Creation of Man, detail from De aetatibus mundi imagines Francisco de holanda-de aetatibus.jpg
Francisco de Holanda: The Creation of Man, detail from De aetatibus mundi imagines

Francisco de Holanda was born in Lisbon, Portugal on 6 September 1517, and began his career as an illuminator at the age of 20. His father, António de Holanda, was also a royal illuminator. Francisco studied in Italy between 1538 and 1547, where he frequented the circle of Vittoria Colonna, one of the notables of the Italian Renaissance. Colonna provided him with access to some of the greatest artists of the period such as Parmigianino, Giambologna, and most importantly, Michelangelo, who introduced him to Classicism.

At the age of 30, he returned to Portugal and obtained various commissions from the reigning King of Portugal, the Cardinal-Archbishop of Évora, and later from King John III (1521-1557) and King Sebastian (1568-1578). Francisco died in Lisbon, Portugal on June 19, 1585, at the age of 68.

Aesthetic values

A copy of Francisco's portrait of King John III of Portugal Joao III.jpg
A copy of Francisco's portrait of King John III of Portugal

Francisco de Holanda embraced the aesthetic values of the Renaissance. His paintings strongly expressed the desire to stimulate personal originality and provide a link between nature (the pure mirror of the Creator) and the ancients - immortal masters of greatness, symmetry, perfection and decorum. Most of these objectives can be seen in his three-part treatise on the nature of art, "On Ancient Painting" (Da Pintura Antiga), 1548. The second part of this treatise contains four dialogues, supposedly with Michelangelo. [6] Here, his passion for Classicism was brought to the fore, as he communicated the essence of the work of Michelangelo and of the contemporary artistic movement in Rome.

Francisco distinguished himself through his series of drawings at the command of the Portuguese king, João III. These drawings were devoted to the Antiquities of Italy and were sketched between 1540 and 1547, [7] through his studies on the revival of the archaeological heritage of Rome and on Italian art in the first half of the 16th century.

Francisco was the creator of the facade of the Church of Our Lady of Grace (Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Graça) in Évora. He also painted some portraits, not all of which survived. [8] [9]

Francisco wrote the first essay on urbanism, in the Iberian Peninsula, "On the construction lacking to the city of Lisbon" (Da fábrica que falece à cidade de Lisboa ) and also created the structures of De aetatibus mundi imagines and Antigualhas.

Francisco's works

Francisco de Holanda was the author of

Notes

  1. Sylvie Deswarte-Rosa, Do Tirar Polo Natura (1549) de Francisco de Holanda. Anísio Franco. Tirar polo Natural. Inquérito ao retrato português/ Inquiry to the Portuguese Portrait, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, p.18, 2018.
  2. Castillo & Nelson 2012, p. 81.
  3. Deswarte p. 22
  4. Castillo & Nelson 2012, p. 88.
  5. Deswarte p. 24
  6. Ronald W. Sousa, "The View of the Artist in Francisco de Holanda's Dialogues",Luso-Brazilian Review 15 (1978), p. 44.
  7. Hillgarth J. N. (2000). The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: The Formation of a Myth. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. p242-243.
  8. Annemarie Jordan, Retrato de Corte em Portugal. O Legado de António Moro (1552-1572) (Lisbon: Quetzal Editiores, 1994), p. 50.
  9. http://www.ourladyofgracema.org/

Related Research Articles

Nuno Gonçalves

Nuno Gonçalves was a Portuguese artist whose work initiated the Portuguese Renaissance in painting. He was court painter for Afonso V of Portugal from 1450 to 1471 and in 1471 he was appointed the official painter for the city of Lisbon. His surviving masterpiece is the polyptych known as the Saint Vincent Panels.

Belém Tower fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal

Belém Tower, officially the Tower of Saint Vincent is a 16th-century fortification located in Lisbon that served as a point of embarkation and disembarkation for Portuguese explorers and as a ceremonial gateway to Lisbon. It was built during the height of the Portuguese Renaissance, and is a prominent example of the Portuguese Manueline style, but it also incorporates hints of other architectural styles. The structure was built from lioz limestone and is composed of a bastion and a 30-metre (98.4 ft), four-storey tower.

Domingos Sequeira

Domingos António de Sequeira was a famous Portuguese painter at the Royal Court of King John VI of Portugal.

Vieira Portuense

Francisco Vieira, who choose the artistic name of Vieira Portuense, was a Portuguese painter, one of the introducers of Neoclassicism in Portuguese painting. He was, in the neoclassical style, one of the two great Portuguese painters of his generation, with Domingos Sequeira.

Eduardo Gageiro is a Portuguese photographer and photojournalist.

Josefa de Óbidos Portuguese artist

Josefa de Óbidos was a Spanish-born Portuguese painter. Her birth name was Josefa de Ayala Figueira, but she signed her work as, "Josefa em Óbidos" or, "Josefa de Ayalla". All of her work was executed in Portugal, her father's native country, where she lived from the age of four. Approximately 150 works of art have been attributed to Josefa de Óbidos, making her one of the most prolific Baroque artists in Portugal.

Cristóvão de Figueiredo was a Portuguese Renaissance painter.

Cristóvão Lopes

Cristóvão Lopes (c.1516–1594) was a Portuguese painter.

Carlos Botelho Portuguese painter and cartoonist (1899–1982)

Carlos Botelho was a Portuguese painter, illustrator, comics artist, political cartoonist, satirist and caricaturist, whose works are shown at the Chiado Museum and at the Modern Art Centre José de Azeredo Perdigão / Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, in Lisbon. Botelho was one of the most relevant Portuguese artists of his generation.

Igreja de São Roque

The Igreja de São Roque is a Roman Catholic church in Lisbon, Portugal. It was the earliest Jesuit church in the Portuguese world, and one of the first Jesuit churches anywhere. The edifice served as the Society’s home church in Portugal for over 200 years, before the Jesuits were expelled from that country. After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the church and its ancillary residence were given to the Lisbon Holy House of Mercy to replace their church and headquarters which had been destroyed. It remains a part of the Holy House of Mercy today, one of its many heritage buildings.

Jaime Alexandre Nogueira Pinto is a Portuguese writer and university professor, son of Jaime da Cunha Guimarães by Alda Branca Nogueira Pinto, who died in 2007.

Miguel da Silva

Miguel da Silva was a Portuguese nobleman, the second son of Diogo da Silva, 1st Count of Portalegre and of his wife Maria de Ayala, a Castilian noblewomen. He was ambassador of the king of Portugal to several popes, and papal ambassador to the Emperor and others.

Roman Dam of Belas Dam in Queluz e Belas, Lisbon

The Roman Dam of Belas is a 3rd-century Roman barrier constructed to serve the city of Olisipo, located in civil parish of Queluz e Belas, municipality of Sintra.

Patriarch of Lisbon

The Patriarch of Lisbon, also called the Cardinal-Patriarch of Lisbon once he has been made cardinal, is the ordinary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lisbon. He is one of the few patriarchs in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, along with the Patriarchs of Venice, the East Indies, and Jerusalem.

Portuguese Renaissance

The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th and 16th centuries. Though the movement coincided with the Spanish and Italian Renaissances, the Portuguese Renaissance was largely separate from other European Renaissances and instead was incredibly important in opening Europe to the unknown and bringing a more worldly view to those European Renaissances, as at the time the Portuguese Empire spanned the globe.

The Palace and Gardens of Panaca, sometimes characterized as the Palácio Palha is a palatial residence in the Santa Engrácia area of the civil parish of São Vicente, in the municipality in the Portuguese capital of Lisbon.

Museu Nacional da Música

The Museu da Música is a museum in Lisbon, Portugal. The museum primarily features musical instruments; among its holdings is a 1725 Stradivarius cello once owned and played by King Luís I of Portugal (ruled 1861–1889.

Sylvie Deswarte-Rosa is an art historian who specialises in the study of the Renaissance. She has written around a hundred texts and articles on painting, drawing, iconography, art theory, architecture, sculpture, illuminations, etching, typography, history and early European interpretations of art from other continents. She writes in Portuguese, French and Italian. Her most important works explore Portuguese art and culture in the 16th century.

Cathedral of Idanha-a-Velha Church in Centro, Portugal

The Former Cathedral of Idanha-a-Velha is a medieval the decommissioned Catholic cathedral of the former bishopric of Egitânia, in the Freguesia of Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha, in the municipality of Idanha-a-Nova, in the central Portuguese district of Castelo Branco.

Diogo de Contreiras was a Portuguese Mannerist painter, active between 1521 and 1562. He has been identified as the painter referred to as the Master of Saint Quentin. The identification of de Contreiras as the Master of Saint Quentin was determined by Martin Soria (1957) and later reinforced by Vítor Serrão.

References