Frans Hals

Last updated

Frans Hals
After Frans Hals - Portrait of Frans Hals - Indianapolis.jpg
Copy of a self-portrait by Frans Hals
Born
Frans Hals

c.1582
Died26 August 1666 (aged 8384)
Nationality Dutch
Notable work
The Gypsy Girl (1628)
Laughing Cavalier (1624)

Frans Hals the Elder ( /hɑːls/ ; [1] Dutch:  [ɦɑls] ; c.1582 – 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, normally of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture.

Haarlem City and municipality in North Holland, Netherlands

Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem had a population of 159,556 in 2017. It is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, and many residents commute to the country's capital for work.

Portrait painting Making images of individual people as paintings

Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject. The term 'portrait painting' can also describe the actual painted portrait. Portraitists may create their work by commission, for public and private persons, or they may be inspired by admiration or affection for the subject. Portraits are often important state and family records, as well as remembrances.

Contents

Biography

Hals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp, then in the Spanish Netherlands, as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen (c. 1542–1610) and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck. [2] Like many, Hals' parents fled during[ citation needed ] the Fall of Antwerp (1584–1585) from the south to Haarlem in the new Dutch Republic in the north, where he lived for the remainder of his life. Hals studied under Flemish émigré Karel van Mander, [2] [3] whose Mannerist influence, however, is barely noticeable in Hals' work.

Antwerp Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Antwerp is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, and with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels.

Spanish Netherlands Historical region of the Low Countries (1581–1714)

Spanish Netherlands was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels.

In 1610, Hals became a member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, and he started to earn money as an art restorer for the city council. He worked on their large art collection that Karel van Mander had described in his Schilderboeck ("Painter's Book") published in Haarlem in 1604. The most notable of these were the works of Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Jan van Scorel, and Jan Mostaert that hung in the St John's Church in Haarlem. The restoration work was paid for by the city of Haarlem, since all Catholic religious art had been confiscated after the satisfactie van Haarlem had been reversed in 1578, which had formerly given Catholics equal rights to Protestants. However, the entire collection of paintings was not formally possessed by the city council until 1625, after the city fathers had decided which paintings were suitable for the city hall. The remaining art that was considered too "Roman Catholic" was sold to Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen, a fellow guild member, on the condition that he remove it from the city. It was in this cultural context that Hals began his career in portraiture, since the market had disappeared for religious themes.

Geertgen tot Sint Jans Early Netherlandish painter

Geertgen tot Sint Jans, also known as Geertgen van Haarlem, Gerrit van Haarlem, Gerrit Gerritsz, Gheertgen, Geerrit, Gheerrit, or any other diminutive form of Gerald, was an Early Netherlandish painter from the northern Low Countries in the Holy Roman Empire. No contemporary documentation of his life has been traced, and the earliest published account of his life and work is from 1604, in Karel van Mander's Schilder-boeck.

Jan van Scorel painter from the Northern Netherlands

Jan van Scorel was a Dutch painter, who played a leading role in introducing aspects of Italian Renaissance painting into Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting. Van Scorel was one of the early painters of the Romanist style who had spent a number of years in Italy, where he thoroughly absorbed the Italian style of painting. His trip to Italy coincided with the brief reign of the only Dutch pope in history, Adrian VI in 1522-23. The pope made him a court painter and superintendent of his collection of antiquities. His stay in Italy lasted from 1518 to 1524. He also visited Nuremberg, Venice and Jerusalem. Venetian art had an important impact on the development of his style.

Jan Mostaert painter from the Northern Netherlands

Jan Mostaert was a Dutch Renaissance painter who is known mainly for his religious subjects and portraits. One of his most famous creations was the Landscape with an Episode from the Conquest of America. He was appointed ‘painctre aux honneurs’ by Margaret of Austria, the governor of the Habsburg Netherlands but did not become the court painter of Margaret.

The earliest known example of Hals' art is the portrait of Jacobus Zaffius (1611). His 'breakthrough' came with the life-sized group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616 . His most noted portrait today is the one of René Descartes which he made in 1649.

Jacobus Zaffius Dutch pastor and theologian

Jacobus Hendriksz Zaffius also known as Saffius or Saffio, was a Catholic pastor in Haarlem.

<i>The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616</i> Group militia painting (schutterstuk) by Frans Hals

The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616 refers to the first of several large schutterstukken painted by Frans Hals for the St. George civic guard of Haarlem, and today is considered one of the main attractions of the Frans Hals Museum there.

René Descartes 17th-century French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist

René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–1649) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age.

Statue of Frans Hals in Florapark, Haarlem Frans-hals-standbeeld-florapark.JPG
Statue of Frans Hals in Florapark, Haarlem

Frans Hals married his first wife Anneke Harmensdochter around 1610. Frans was of Catholic birth, however, so their marriage was recorded in the city hall and not in church. [4] Unfortunately, the exact date is unknown because the older marriage records of the Haarlem city hall before 1688 have not been preserved. [4] Anneke was born 2 January 1590 as the daughter of bleacher Harmen Dircksz and Pietertje Claesdr Ghijblant, and her maternal grandfather, linen producer Claes Ghijblant of Spaarne 42, bequeathed the couple the grave in St Bavo's Church (Grote Kerk) where both are buried, though Frans took over 40 years to join his first wife there. [4] Anneke died in 1615, shortly after the birth of their third child and, of the three, Harmen survived infancy and one had died before Hals' second marriage. [4] As biographer Seymour Slive has pointed out, older stories of Hals abusing his first wife were confused with another Haarlem resident of the same name. Indeed, at the time of these charges, the artist had no wife to mistreat, as Anneke had died in May 1615. [5] Similarly, historical accounts of Hals' propensity for drink have been largely based on embellished anecdotes of his early biographers, namely Arnold Houbraken, with no direct evidence existing documenting such. After his first wife died, Hals took on the young daughter of a fishmonger to look after his children and, in 1617, he married Lysbeth Reyniers. They married in Spaarndam, a small village outside the banns of Haarlem, because she was already 8 months pregnant. Hals was a devoted father, and they went on to have eight children. [6]

Grote Kerk, Haarlem Church in Haarlem, Netherlands

The Grote Kerk or St.-Bavokerk is a Reformed Protestant church and former Catholic cathedral located on the central market square in the Dutch city of Haarlem. Another Haarlem church called the Cathedral of Saint Bavo now serves as the main cathedral for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Haarlem-Amsterdam.

Harmen Hals painter from the Northern Netherlands

Herman, or Harmen Hals, was a Dutch Golden Age painter.

Seymour Slive was an American art historian, who served as director of the Harvard Art Museums from 1975 to 1991. He is considered an eminent scholar of Dutch art and more specifically of Rembrandt, Frans Hals, and Jacob van Ruisdael.

Contemporaries such as Rembrandt moved their households according to the caprices of their patrons, but Hals remained in Haarlem and insisted that his customers come to him. According to the Haarlem archives, a schutterstuk that Hals started in Amsterdam was finished by Pieter Codde because Hals refused to paint in Amsterdam, insisting that the militiamen come to Haarlem to sit for their portraits. For this reason, we can be sure that all sitters were either from Haarlem or were visiting Haarlem when they had their portraits made.

Rembrandt 17th-century Dutch painter and printmaker

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman, painter and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical scenes, biblical and mythological themes as well as animal studies. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was also an avid art collector and dealer.

<i>Meagre Company</i> Painting of Amsterdam schutterij under command of Reinier Reael and Cornelis Blaeuw, aka ‘Meagre Company’, by Frans Hals

The Meagre Company, or The company of Captain Reinier Reael and Lieutenant Cornelis Michielsz Blaeuw, refers to the only militia group portrait, or schutterstuk, painted by Frans Hals outside of Haarlem, and today is in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum, on loan to the Rijksmuseum, where it is considered one of its main attractions of the Honor Gallery. Hals was unhappy about commuting to Amsterdam to work on the painting and, unlike his previous group portraits, was unable to deliver it on time. The sitters contracted Pieter Codde to finish the work.

Pieter Codde painter from the Northern Netherlands

Pieter Jacobsz. Codde was a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits.

Hals' work was in demand throughout his life, but he lived so long that he eventually went out of style as a painter and experienced financial difficulties. In addition to his painting, he continued throughout his life to work as a restorer, art dealer, and art tax expert for the city councilors. His creditors took him to court several times, and he sold his belongings to settle his debt with a baker in 1652. The inventory of the property seized mentions only three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table, and five pictures [7] (these were by himself, his sons, van Mander, and Maarten van Heemskerck). [8] Left destitute, he was given an annuity of 200 florins in 1664 by the municipality. [7]

The Dutch nation fought for independence during the Eighty Years' War, [7] and Hals was a member of the local schutterij, a military guild. He included a self-portrait in his 1639 painting of the St Joris company, according to its 19th-century painting frame. (It has not been possible to confirm this.) It was not common for ordinary members to be painted, as that privilege was reserved for the officers. Hals painted the company three times. He was also a member of a local chamber of rhetoric, and in 1644 he became chairman of the Guild of St Luke.

Frans Hals died in Haarlem in 1666 and was buried in the city's St Bavo's Church. He had been receiving a city pension, which was highly unusual and a sign of the esteem with which he was regarded. After his death, his widow applied for aid and was admitted to the local almshouse, where she later died.

Artistic career

Frans Hals, later finished by Pieter Codde. De Magere Compagnie . 1637. Oil on canvas, 209 x 429 cm, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Frans Hals, De magere compagnie.jpg
Frans Hals, later finished by Pieter Codde. De Magere Compagnie . 1637. Oil on canvas, 209 x 429 cm, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens such as Pieter van den Broecke and Isaac Massa, whom he painted three times. He also painted large group portraits for local civic guards and for the regents of local hospitals. He was a Dutch Golden Age painter who practiced an intimate realism with a radically free approach. His pictures illustrate the various strata of society: banquets or meetings of officers, guildsmen, [7] local councilmen from mayors to clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlemen, fishwives, and tavern heroes. In his group portraits, such as The Banquet of the Officers of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1627 , Hals captures each character in a different manner. The faces are not idealized and are clearly distinguishable, with their personalities revealed in a variety of poses and facial expressions.

Hals was fond of daylight and silvery sheen, while Rembrandt used golden glow effects based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Both men were painters of touch, but of touch on different keys — Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble. Hals seized a moment in the life of his subjects with rare intuition. What nature displayed in that moment he reproduced thoroughly in a delicate scale of color and with mastery over every form of expression. He became so clever that exact tone, light and shade, and modeling were obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the brush. [7] He became a popular portrait painter, and painted the wealthy of Haarlem on special occasions. He won many commissions for wedding portraits (the husband is traditionally situated on the left, and the wife situated on the right). His double portrait of the newly married Olycans hang side by side in the Mauritshuis, but many of his wedding portrait pairs have since been split up and are rarely seen together.

Wedding portraits

The only record of his work in the first decade of his independent activity is an engraving by Jan van de Velde copied from the lost portrait of The Minister Johannes Bogardus. Early works by Hals show him as a careful draughtsman capable of great finish yet spirited, such as Two singing boys with a lute and a music book and Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia (1616). The flesh that he painted is pastose and burnished, less clear than it subsequently became. Later, he became more effective, displayed more freedom of hand and a greater command of effect. [7]

Jester with a Lute , 1620-1625, canvas, Musee du Louvre, Paris. Frans Hals - Luitspelende nar.jpg
Jester with a Lute , 1620–1625, canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.

During this period, he painted the full-length portrait of Madame van Beresteyn (Louvre) and a full-length portrait of Willem van Heythuyzen leaning on a sword. Both these pictures are equalled by the other Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia (with different portraits) and the same militia in 1627 and Banquet of the Officers of the St Hadrian Militia of 1633. A similar painting with the date of 1639 suggests some study of Rembrandt masterpieces, and a similar influence is apparent in a group portrait of 1641 representing the regents of the St Elisabeth Gasthuis and in his 1639 portrait of Maria Voogt at Amsterdam. [7]

From 1620 till 1640, he painted many double portraits of married couples on separate panels, the man on the left panel and his wife on the right panel. Only once did Hals portray a couple on a single canvas: Couple in a garden: Wedding portrait of Isaac Abrahamsz. Massa and Beatrix van der Laan , (c.1622, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam).

His style changed throughout his life. Paintings of vivid color were gradually replaced by pieces where one color dominated: black. This was probably due to the sober dress of his Protestant sitters, more than any personal preference. One simple way to observe this change is to look at all of the portraits that he painted through the years with his trademark pose leaning over the back of a chair:

Portrait painter

Willem Heythuijsen by Frans Hals 1634 Willem Heythuijsen by Frans Hals 1634.jpg
Willem Heythuijsen by Frans Hals 1634

Later in his life, his brush strokes became looser, fine detail becoming less important than the overall impression. His earlier pieces radiated gaiety and liveliness, while his later portraits emphasized the stature and dignity of the people portrayed. This austerity is displayed in Regents of the St Elizabeth Hospital in 1641 and, two decades later, The Regents and Regentesses of the Old Men's Almshouse (c.1664), which are masterpieces of color, though in substance all but monochromes. His restricted palette is particularly noticeable in his flesh tints, which became greyer from year to year, until finally the shadows were painted in almost absolute black, as in the Tymane Oosdorp . [7]

This tendency coincides with the period when Hals was less popular among the wealthy, and some historians have suggested that a reason for his predilection for black and white pigment was the low price of these colors as compared with the costly lakes and carmines. [7] Both conclusions are probably correct, however, because Hals did not travel to his sitters, unlike his contemporaries, but let them come to him. This was good for business because he was exceptionally quick and efficient in his own well-fitted studio, but it was bad for business when Haarlem fell on hard times.

As a portrait painter, Hals had scarcely the psychological insight of a Rembrandt or Velázquez, though in a few works, like the Admiral de Ruyter, the Jacob Olycan , and the Albert van der Meer paintings, he reveals a searching analysis of character which has little in common with the instantaneous expression of his so-called character portraits. In these, he generally sets upon the canvas the fleeting aspect of the various stages of merriment, from the subtle, half ironic smile that quivers round the lips of the curiously misnamed Laughing Cavalier to the imbecile grin of the Malle Babbe . To this group of pictures belong Baron Gustav Rothschilds Jester , the Bohemienne and the Laughing Fisherboy , whilst the Portrait of the Artist with his Second Wife , and the somewhat confused group of the Beresteyn Family at the Louvre show a similar tendency. Far less scattered in arrangement than this Beresteyn group, and in every respect one of the most masterly of Hals' achievements is the group called 'The Painter and his Family , which was almost unknown until it appeared at the winter exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1906. [7]

Many of Hals' works have disappeared, but it is not known how many. According to the Frans Hals catalog raisonné, 1974, 222 paintings can be ascribed to Hals. This list was compiled by Seymour Slive in 1970−1974 who also wrote an exhibition catalogue in 1989 and produced an update to his catalog raisonné work in 2014. In 1989 another authority on Hals, Claus Grimm, disagreed with Slive and published a lower list of 145 paintings in his Frans Hals. Das Gesamtwerk .

It is not known whether Hals ever painted landscapes, still lifes or narrative pieces, but it is unlikely. His debut for Haarlem society in 1616 with his large group portrait for the St George militia shows all three disciplines, but if that painting was his signboard for future commissions, it seems he was subsequently only hired for portraits. Many artists in the 17th century in Holland opted to specialise, and Hals also appears to have been a pure portrait specialist.

Painting technique

Frans Hals. Gypsy Girl. 1628-30. Oil on wood, 58 x 52 cm. Musee du Louvre, Paris. Frans Hals 008.jpg
Frans Hals. Gypsy Girl. 1628-30. Oil on wood, 58 x 52 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Hals was a master of a technique that utilized something previously seen as a flaw in painting, the visible brushstroke. The soft curling lines of Hals' brush are always clear upon the surface: "materially just lying there, flat, while conjuring substance and space in the eye." [9]

Lively and exciting, the technique can appear "ostensibly slapdash" [9] – people often think that Hals 'threw' his works 'in one toss' (aus einem Guss) onto the canvas. This impression is not correct.[ citation needed ] True, the odd work was largely put down without underdrawings or underpainting ('alla prima'), but most of the works were created in successive layers, as was customary at that time. Sometimes a drawing was made with chalk or paint on top of a grey or pink undercoat, and was then more or less filled in, in stages. It does seem that Hals usually applied his underpainting very loosely: he was a virtuoso from the beginning. This applies, of course, particularly to his genre works and his somewhat later, mature works. Hals displayed tremendous daring, great courage and virtuosity, and had a great capacity to pull back his hands from the canvas, or panel, at the moment of the most telling statement. He didn't 'paint them to death', as many of his contemporaries did, in their great accuracy and diligence whether requested by their clients or not.

In the 17th century his first biographer, Schrevelius wrote: "An unusual manner of painting, all his own, surpassing almost everyone," on Hals' painting methods. For that matter, schematic painting was not Hals' own idea (the approach already existed in 16th century Italy), and Hals was probably inspired by Flemish contemporaries, Rubens and Van Dyck, in his painting method.

As early as the 17th century, people were struck by the vitality of Hals' portraits. For example, Haarlem resident Theodorus Schrevelius noted that Hals' works reflected 'such power and life' that the painter 'seems to challenge nature with his brush'. Centuries later Vincent van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo: 'What a joy it is to see a Frans Hals, how different it is from the paintings – so many of them – where everything is carefully smoothed out in the same manner.' Hals chose not to give a smooth finish to his painting, as most of his contemporaries did, but mimicked the vitality of his subject by using smears, lines, spots, large patches of color and hardly any details.

It was not until the 19th century that his technique had followers, particularly among the Impressionists. Pieces such as The Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House and the civic guard paintings demonstrate this technique to the fullest.

Influence

Laughing Cavalier , 1624, canvas, relined, (H) 83cm x (W) 67cm, Wallace Collection, London. Cavalier soldier Hals-1624x.jpg
Laughing Cavalier , 1624, canvas, relined, (H) 83cm x (W) 67cm, Wallace Collection, London.
Boy with a lutec. 1625 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Frans Hals - Boy with a Lute - The Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg
Boy with a lutec.1625 The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Frans influenced his brother Dirck Hals (born at Haarlem, 1591–1656), who was also a painter. [10] Additionally, five of his sons became painters:

Though most of his sons became portrait painters, some of them took up still life painting or architectural studies and landscapes. Still lifes formerly attributed to his son Frans II have since been re-attributed to other painters, however. [2] [11] Hals painted a young woman reaching into a basket in a still life market scene by Claes van Heussen. [12]

Other contemporary painters who took inspiration from Hals were, with the main cities they were based in:

Hals had a large workshop in Haarlem and many students, though 19th century biographers questioned some of his pupils, since their painting styles were so dissimilar to Hals. In his De Groote Schouburgh (1718–21), Arnold Houbraken mentions Philips Wouwerman, Adriaen Brouwer, Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten, Adriaen van Ostade and Dirck van Delen as students. Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne was also a student, according to his diary with notes left by his son Laurens Vincentsz van der Vinne. Roestraten was not only a student (the Haarlem archives contain a notarised document, which supports this fact), but he also became a son-in-law of Hals when he married his daughter Adriaentje. The Haarlem portrait painter, Johannes Verspronck, one of about 10 competing portraitists in Haarlem at the time, possibly studied for some time with Hals.

In terms of style, the closest to Hals' work is the handful of paintings that are ascribed to Judith Leyster, which she often signed. She also 'qualifies' as a possible student, as does her husband, the painter Jan Miense Molenaer.

Two centuries after his death, Hals received a number of 'posthumous' students. Claude Monet, Édouard Manet, Charles-François Daubigny, Max Liebermann, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Gustave Courbet, and in the Netherlands, Jacobus van Looy and Isaac Israëls are some of the Impressionists and realists who have delved deeply into the work of Hals by making study copies of his work and further building on his techniques and style. Lovis Corinth named Hals as his biggest influence. [13] Many artists travelled to the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem (since 1913 on the Groot Heiligland, and before that in the Town Hall), where several of his most important works are kept.

Legacy

Malle Babbe , c. 1630. Oil on canvas, 75cm by 64cm. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Frans Hals 021.jpg
Malle Babbe , c.1630. Oil on canvas, 75cm by 64cm. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.

Hals' reputation waned after his death and for two centuries he was held in such poor esteem that some of his paintings, which are now among the proudest possessions of public galleries, were sold at auction for a few pounds or even shillings. The portrait of Johannes Acronius realized five shillings at the Enschede sale in 1786. The portrait of the man with the sword at the Liechtenstein gallery sold in 1800 for 4, 5s. [7]

Starting at the middle of the 1860s his prestige rose again thanks to the efforts of critic Théophile Thoré-Bürger. [14] With his rehabilitation in public esteem came the enormous rise in value, and, at the Secretan sale in 1889, the portrait of Pieter van den Broecke was bid up to 4,420 francs, while in 1908 the National Gallery paid 25,000 pounds for the large family group from the collection of Lord Talbot de Malahide. [7]

Hals' work remains popular today, particularly with young painters who can find many lessons about practical technique from his unconcealed brushstrokes. [9] Hals' works have found their way to countless cities all over the world and into museum collections. From the late 19th century, they were collected everywhere — from Antwerp to Toronto, and from London to New York. Many of his paintings were then sold to American collectors.

A primary collection of his work is displayed in the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem.

The Hals crater on Mercury is named in his honor. [15]

Hals was pictured on the Netherlands' 10-guilder banknote of 1968. [16]

The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1627 Frans Hals 013.jpg
The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1627
The Officers of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1633 Frans Hals 014.jpg
The Officers of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1633
Regents of the St Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem, 1641 Frans Hals - Regents of the St Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem - WGA11139.jpg
Regents of the St Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem, 1641
External video
Frans Hals - Singing Boy with Flute - Google Art Project.jpg
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Hals' Singing Boy with Flute, Smarthistory [17]
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Hals's Malle Babbe, Smarthistory [18]

Public collections (selection)

See also

References and sources

Related Research Articles

Frans Hals Museum Art museum in Haarlem, Netherlands

The Frans Hals Museum is a museum located in Haarlem, the Netherlands.

Dutch Golden Age painting

Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.

Cornelis van Haarlem painter from the Northern Netherlands

Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem, Dutch Golden Age painter and draughtsman, was one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in the Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist.

Hendrik Gerritsz Pot painter from the Northern Netherlands

Hendrik Gerritsz Pot was a Dutch Golden Age painter, who lived and painted in Haarlem, where he was an officer of the militia, or schutterij. Dutch artist Frans Hals painted Pot in militia sash in Hals' The Officers of the St Adrian Militia Company in 1633. Pot is the man reading a book on the far right.

Claes van Beresteyn painter from the Northern Netherlands

Claes van Beresteyn (1627–1684), was a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter who founded a hofje in his hometown of Haarlem.

Joseph Coymans Dutch businessman in Haarlem born 1591

Joseph Coymans, was a Dutch businessman in Haarlem, known best today for his portrait painted by Frans Hals, and its pendant, Portrait of Dorothea Berck. The former resides at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, the latter at the Baltimore Museum of Art. A portrait of the couple's son Willem is held by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Pieter Jacobsz Olycan Dutch brewer, magistrate, and later mayor of Haarlem

Pieter Jacobsz Olycan, was a Dutch brewer, magistrate, and later mayor of Haarlem, best known today for his portraits by Frans Hals, as well as for the portraits of his wife Maritge Claesdr. Voogt.

Isabella Coymans Dutch wife of Stephanus Geraerdts best known for her portrait painted by Frans Hals

Isabella Coymans, was the Dutch wife of Stephanus Geraerdts best known for her portrait painted by Frans Hals.

Nicolaes Woutersz van der Meer Dutch brewer, magistrate and mayor of Haarlem

Nicolaes Woutersz van der Meer was a Dutch brewer, magistrate and mayor of Haarlem, best known today for his portrait with its pendant of his wife Cornelia Claesdr Voogt, both painted by Frans Hals in 1631.

<i>Portrait of Dorothea Berck</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of Dorothea Berck is a 1644 painting by Frans Hals that is in the collection of the Baltimore Museum of Art. It depicts Dorothea Berck at age 51, the wife of the prosperous Haarlem merchant Joseph Coymans, whose portrait Hals also painted. Both paintings were executed on the occasion of their daughter Isabella's wedding, whose marriage pendants Hals also painted.

Aletta Hanemans brewer from the Northern Netherlands

Aletta Hanemans (1606–1653), was a grain merchant's daughter from Zwolle, the Netherlands, who became the brewer of the Hoeffijser in Haarlem. She is best known today for her marriage portrait by Frans Hals, painted when she married the brewer, magistrate, and later mayor of Haarlem, Jacob Pietersz Olycan in 1624.

<i>Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart</i> painting by Frans Hals

Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1623 and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The painting has also been titled as Young Man and Woman in an Inn or Portrait of Pieter Ramp.

<i>Claes Duyst van Voorhout</i> painting by Frans Hals

Claes Duyst van Voorhout is a portrait painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1638 and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

<i>Catharina Both-van der Eem</i> painting by Frans Hals

Catharina Both van der Eem is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1620 and now in Louvre Museum. It is considered a pendant portrait to the Portrait of Paulus van Beresteyn, in the same museum.

<i>Cunera van Baersdorp</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of Cunera van Baersdorp is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1625 and now in a private collection. It is considered a pendant portrait to the Portrait of a Man Standing, now identified as Cunera's husband Michiel de Wael.

Marriage pendant portraits by Frans Hals Wikimedia list article

The following are pendant portraits by Frans Hals painted on the occasion of a marriage or marriage anniversary. This list is a subset of the list of paintings by Frans Hals, showing the marriage portraits side by side.

<i>Maritge Claesdr. Voogt</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of Maritge Claesdr. Vooght is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1639 and now in a private collection. It is considered a pendant portrait to that of her husband, the Haarlem brewer and mayor Pieter Jacobsz Olycan.

<i>Cornelia Claesdr Voogt</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of Cornelia Claesdr. Vooght is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1631 and now in the Frans Hals Museum. It is considered a pendant portrait to that of her husband, the Haarlem brewer and mayor Nicolaes Woutersz van der Meer.

<i>Portrait of a Man with a Beer Jug</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of a man with a beer jug is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in the early 1630s, now in a private collection.

<i>Maria Pietersdr Olycan</i> painting by Frans Hals

Portrait of Maria Pietersdochter Olycan is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals, painted in 1638, now in the São Paulo Museum of Art. It is considered a pendant to the portrait of Maria's husband Andries van Hoorn.

References

  1. "Hals". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  2. 1 2 3 Frans Hals iat the Netherlands Institute for Art History (in Dutch)
  3. Slive, Seymour, Frans Hals, and P. Biesboer (1989). Frans Hals. Munich: Prestel. p. 379.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Anneke Harmensdr in Nieuwe gegevens betreffende Anneke Harmansdr., de eerste echtegonte van Frans Hals, by M. Thierry de Bye Dolleman working from research by C.A. de Goederen-van Hees, pp. 249-257, Haerlem : jaarboek 1973, ISSN 0927-0728, on the website of the North Holland Archives
  5. Slive, Seymour, Frans Hals, and Pieter Biesboer (1989). Frans Hals. Munich: Prestel. p. 376.
  6. see Hals biography in the Web Gallery of Art
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hals, Frans"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  8. Slive, Seymour, Frans Hals, and P. Biesboer (1989). Frans Hals. Munich: Prestel. p. 406.
  9. 1 2 3 Schjeldahl, Peter (8 August 2011). "Haarlem Shuffle: The Fast World of Frans Hals". The New Yorker. Condé Nast: 74–75. Retrieved 26 November 2011.(subscription required)
  10. Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 quote: "Quite in another form, and with much of the freedom of the elder Hals, Dirk Hals, his brother, painted festivals and ballrooms. But Dirk had too much of the freedom and too little of the skill in drawing which characterized his brother."
  11. Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 quote: "Of the master's numerous family members only Frans Hals the Younger (1618–1669) is notable, with paintings of cottages and poultry. A table laden with gold and silver dishes, cups, glasses and books, is considered one of his finest works."
  12. Young woman with a display of fruit and vegetables in the RKD
  13. Lovis Corinth A Feast of Painting, p17, Prestel, Vienna, 2009 ISBN   978-3-901508-64-6. ISBN   978-3-7913-4378-5
  14. Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003, p.369
  15. "Hals". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. NASA. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  16. Cuhaj, George S., ed. (2012). 2013 Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. Krause Publications. p. 713. ISBN   1440229562 . Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  17. "Hals' Singing Boy with Flute". Smarthistory at Khan Academy . Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  18. "Hals's Malle Babbe". Smarthistory at Khan Academy . Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  19. Collection Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen
  20. Collection Rijksmuseum

Parts of this article are excerpts of The Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem, July 2005 by Antoon Erftemeijer, Frans Hals Museum curator.