Franz Schlik

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Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen
Kriehuber Franz Schlick.jpg
Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber, 1849
Born(1789-05-23)23 May 1789
Prague
Died17 March 1862(1862-03-17) (aged 72)
Vienna
Allegiance Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg   Austrian Empire
Service/branchArmy (Cavalry)
Rank General
Battles Battle of Budamér (1848)
Battle of Kassa (1848)
Battle of Szikszó (1848)
Battle of Tarcal (1849)
Battle of Bodrogkeresztúr (1849)
Battle of Tokaj (1849)
Battle of Kápolna (1849)
Spring Campaign of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Battle of Isaszeg (1849)
Second Battle of Komárom (1849)
Third Battle of Komárom (1849)
Summer Campaign of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Battle of Győr (1849)
Battle of Szőreg (1849)
Battle of Solferino (1859)
Awards Ordine imperiale della corona di ferro, austria.png Austrian Order of the Iron Crown (1849)
Ord.MariaTeresa-CAV.png Military Order of Maria Theresa (1849)

Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen (Prague, 23  May 1789  Vienna, 17 March 1862) was a Count and general in the Austrian Empire. He was one of the most successful Austrian generals during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

Contents

In 1808, he enrolled in the imperial army and fought in the Napoleonic Wars. He lost sight in his right eye in the Battle of Leipzig on 19 October 1813. In 1848, as a Lieutenant general, he became regent of Kraków in Poland.

Hungarian Revolution

In late 1848, Schlik led a legion of 8,000 men through the Dukla Pass into the Kingdom of Hungary before Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz started to attack Hungary in the Winter Campaign of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. On 11 December Schlik defeated Sándor Pulszky in the Battle of Budamér and occupied Eperjes (now Prešov, Slovakia) and Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia).

His victories were a warning to the Hungarian Military Commission who recruited approximately 10,000 men around Miskolc under Lázár Mészáros's command, but Schlik defeated him on 28 December 1848 in the Battle of Szikszó and on 4 January 1849 in Kassa.

Franz Schlik with an eyepatch Franz Schlik.JPG
Franz Schlik with an eyepatch

Schlik waited two weeks before resuming the attack. By this time, György Klapka had reorganized the Upper Tisza legion and because of this, the Hungarians won the Battle of Tarcal on January 22 and the Battle of Bodrogkeresztúr the next day. On January 31st in the Battle of Tokaj Schlik and Windish-Grätz attacked Klapka's positions, losing again.

Richard Guyon's victory in the Battle of Branyiszkó created the possibility that Schlik would be surrounded, but Henryk Dembiński would not change his plans. Schlik's forces escaped and joined Windish-Grätz. The combined force won the Battle of Kápolna on 26  27 February.

Schlik took part in the Spring Campaign as the leader of the 3rd legion. He lost the battle against András Gáspár, the leader of the 7th Hungarian legion in the Battle of Hatvan on 2 April. He took part in the Battle of Isaszeg on 6 April and on 26 April in the First Battle of Komárom and later retreated in the direction of the River Rába.

In the Summer Campaign he took part as a leader of the 1st legion and so was in command at the Battle of Győr on 28 June and the Second and Third Battles of Komárom in July. Julius Jacob von Haynau moved the Austrian legions in three parallel lines against the Hungarians at Szeged. Schlik was the leader of the line that was advancing towards Makó and fought to cross the River Maros on 5 August.

In September 1849 Schlik was promoted to cavalry general and he received the Order of the Iron Crown and the Military Order of Maria Theresa for his victories.

Aftermath

From 1854 he was Galicia and Bukovina commanding general. On 24 June 1859 he was made the commander of the 2nd Austrian army, which he led in the Battle of Solferino. After the Treaty of Villafranca he resigned his commission.

Sources

Schlik's proclamation to the Hungarians Schlik kialtvany 1848.12.10..jpg
Schlik's proclamation to the Hungarians


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The Austrian Supreme Commander Field Marshal Julius Jacob von Haynau's plan was to force the Hungarian troops to retreat in the fortress of Komárom, to lay, with a part of his army, a siege against it from the south, opening in this way the road towards Buda and Pest. After accomplishing this goal the bulk of Haynau's troops had to advance towards East, and occupy the Hungarian capitals, before his allies, the Russian main troops led by Ivan Paskevich, arrived there.
The battle started on the early morning of 2 July with the attack of the I corps led by General Franz Schlik of the imperial troops from the direction of Ács, chasing quickly away the Hungarians from the Ács forest, then pushing them into the fortifications lying South from Komárom, and even capturing the Monostor-trenches, thus entering in the fortifications, menacing to occupy the whole southern fortification and trench system of the fortress, putting in danger the Hungarian troops from there, to be completely encircled.

The main aim of the third Battle of Komárom was to break through Haynau's blockade. Klapka took over the command of Görgey's army because of Görgey's injury. The Hungarian Government gave an order to the army to advance towards Maros. Görgey didn't follow the command because Haynau's army blocked the way south. The government gave a new order and on 11 July the Hungarian army started to attack the Austrians. New Hungarian troops arrived under the command of Ármin Görgey, and from Bátorkeszi under József Nagysándor.

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Battle of Győr

The Battle of Győr was a battle in the Summer Campaign of the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848 to 1849, fought on 28 June 1849 between the Hungarian Revolutionary Army led by General Ernő Poletenberg and General Artúr Görgei, and the army of the Austrian Empire led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, supplemented with a Russian division led by Feodor Sergeyevich Panyutyin, in and around the Hungarian city of Győr. After the Battle of Pered Haynau's army, joined by the Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, crossed the Danube to the southern bank of the river, without being noticed by the Hungarian troops, and attacked the Hungarian units displaced around Győr, placed to Árpás, Marcaltő and Ihász, cutting György Kmety's division from the main troops and forcing them to retreat towards Southern Hungary. The imperials, now were more than five times numerous than the Hungarian troops when they started the attack against Győr. The Hungarian high commander, Görgei at the start of the battle was not in the city, because at 26 June he had to participate in a ministry council at Pest, and arrived to Győr only towards the end of the battle, and assured, leading the Hungarian cavalry, the safe retreat of the Hungarian troops from the city. After the battle, Görgei's troops retreated to the fortress of Komárom, followed by the imperial troops.