|Città di Frascati|
Cathedral of San Pietro Apostolo
|Metropolitan city||Rome Capital (RM)|
|Frazioni||Cisternole, Cocciano, Pantano Secco, Prataporci, Selvotta, Vermicino|
|• Mayor||Roberto Mastrosanti (Left-wing independent)|
|• Total||22 km2 (8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||320 m (1,050 ft)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Saints Apostles Philip and James|
|Saint day||May 3|
Frascati (pronounced [fɾaˈskaːti] ) is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital in the Lazio region of central Italy. It is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-east of Rome, on the Alban Hills close to the ancient city of Tusculum. Frascati is closely associated with science, being the location of several international scientific laboratories.
Frascati produces the white wine with the same name. It is also a historical and artistic centre.
The most important archeological finding in the area, dating back to Ancient Roman times, during the late Republican Age, is a patrician Roman villa probably belonging to Lucullus. In the first century AD its owner was Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus, who married Agrippina the Younger, mother of Nero. His properties were later confiscated by the Flavian imperial dynasty (69–96 AD). Consul Flavius Clemens lived in the villa with his wife Domitilla during the rule of Domitian.
According to the Liber Pontificalis , in the 9th century Frascati was a little village, probably founded two centuries earlier. The name of the city probably comes from a typical local tradition of collecting firewood ("frasche" in Italian)—many place-names around the town refer to trees or wood. After the destruction of nearby Tusculum in 1191, the town's population increased and the bishopric moved from Tusculum to Frascati. Pope Innocent III endorsed the city as a feudal possession of the basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano, but in the following centuries its territories were ravaged by frequent raids that impoverished it. It was owned by various baronial families, including the Colonna, until, in 1460, Pope Pius II fortified the city with walls.
At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Pope Julius II gave Frascati as a feudal possession to the condottiero Marcantonio I Colonna, who lived there from 1508 together with his wife Lucrezia della Rovere (1485–1552), niece of Pope Julius II. In 1515 Colonna gave Frascati its first statute, Statuti e Capituli del Castello di Frascati, under the Latin title Populus antiquae civitas Tusculi.
In 1518 a hospital was built, named after St. Sebastiano, in memory of the old basilica destroyed in the 9th century. After Prince Colonna's death in 1522, Lucrezia della Rovere sold Frascati to Pier Luigi Farnese, nephew of Pope Paul III.
On May 1, 1527 a Landsknecht company, after having sacked Rome, arrived out of the bordering villages. However, the soldiers changed the direction of their movement next to a niche, a "Rural Aedicule" consecrated to the Virgin Mary, and the town was therefore saved. This event is commemorated by a church now called Capocroce.
In 1538, Pope Paul III conferred the title of "Civitas" to Frascati, with the name "Tusculum Novum". In 1598 construction began on a new cathedral dedicated to St. Peter.
On September 15, 1616 the first public and free school in Europe was established on the initiative of Saint Joseph Calasanz.
On June 18, 1656 a part of the plaster peeled off a wall inside the Church of St. Mary in Vivario, and an ancient fresco became visible. It was the image of Saints Sebastian and Roch, protector from the plague. In that same year there was an epidemic of plague in Rome but Frascati was unaffected. Since that year, the two Saints have been co-patron Saints of the city. There are statues of the two saints in the façade of the Cathedral.
Between 1713 and 1729, the head from a colossus of Antinous was discovered in the area, and displayed in the Villa Mondragone. In 1757 the Valle theater opened in the centre of the town, and in 1761 the fortress changed to a princely palace under the patronage of Cardinal Henry Stuart, Duke of York.
In 1809 Frascati was annexed to the French Empire, and selected as the capital of the Roman canton.
In autumn 1837, there was a plague epidemic in Rome, and 5,000 people left Rome. Frascati was the only city that opened its doors to them. Since then Frascati's flag has been the same as Rome's, yellow and red. In 1840 the "Accademia Tuscolana" was founded in the city by Cardinal-Bishop Ludovico Micara.
In 1856 the city was chosen as the terminus of the Rome–Frascati railway, the first railway to be built by the Papal State. The last section of the railway line was opened in 1884, 14 years after the city became part of the new Kingdom of Italy. On December 17, 1901, Frascati started to receive electricity from a hydroelectric plant in Tivoli.
In 1906, an electric tram line opened for service between Frascati, Rome and Castelli Romani. The trams traveled wholly along tracks laid down on existing streets as an interurban electric streetcar (light rail). In 1954 the electric tram line was replaced by buses. Another electric tram service, the Rome and Fiuggi Rail Road, called "Vicinali", was opened for service in 1916. It connected Frascati, Monte Porzio Catone, Monte Compatri and San Cesareo. This tram line was destroyed in 1943 and was replaced by buses.
In 1943, during World War II, Frascati was heavily bombed because it contained the German General Headquarters for the Mediterranean zone. Approximately 50% of its buildings, including many monuments, villas and houses, were destroyed. One thousand Italians and 150 Germans died in that air strike [ clarification needed ]and in a second air strike on January 22, 1944, the day of the battle of Anzio (Operation Shingle). The city was liberated from the Nazi German occupation on June 4, 1944 by the 85th Infantry Division. In 1944–1945 the ruins of the buildings were used to fill in a valley, and that land now supports the "8 September Stadium".
Frascati is famous for its notable villas, which were built from the 16th century onwards by Popes, cardinals and Roman nobles as "status symbols" of Roman aristocracy. These country houses were designed for social activities rather than farming. The villas are substantially well preserved, or have been carefully and authentically restored following damage during World War II.
The main villas are:
Frascati is twinned with:
Each year young people from Frascati and the other towns compete against one another in the Twin Towns Sports Competition, which is hosted in turn by each of the five towns. In the Torlonia Park in Frascati, there are roads named after each of the twin towns.
During the latter half of the 1950s, the first Italian particle accelerator was developed in Frascati by INFN, and the INFN still has a major particle physics laboratory in the town, the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. Frascati now also hosts the following laboratories:
The OECD's Frascati Manual , a methodology for research and development statistics, originated from a meeting at the Villa Falconieri in June 1963.
Novels and books partly or wholly set in Frascati include:
Some operas mention Frascati, including La Frascatana (L'Enfante de Zamora), 1774, by Giovanni Paisiello
Frascati was the birthplace of:
Frascati has drawn many famous people to live there for a time including:
The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian papal noble family. It was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other church and political leaders. The family is notable for its bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. Thereafter, historians recorded that "no peace had been concluded between the princes of Christendom, in which they had not been included by name".
The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the vicinity of Rome, whose (titular) bishops are the ordinary members of the highest-ranking order of cardinals, the cardinal bishops.
Girolamo Muziano or Mutiani, was an Italian painter, one of the most prominent Mannerist artists active in Rome in the mid-to-late sixteenth century.
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.
Grottaferrata is a small town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, situated on the lower slopes of the Alban Hills, 20 kilometres south east of Rome. It has grown up around the Abbey of Santa Maria di Grottaferrata, founded in 1004. Nearby communes include Frascati, Rocca di Papa, Marino and Rome.
The Aldobrandini are an Italian noble family from Florence, with close ties to the Vatican. Their Roman fortunes were made when Ippolito Aldobrandini became pope under the name Pope Clement VIII. He arranged the marriage that linked the Aldobrandini with the Roman family of Pamphili. They were also linked to marriage alliances with the Farnese and Borghese.
Gabriele Valvassori was an Italian architect of the late-Baroque period, mainly active in his native city of Rome.
Frascati Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral and minor basilica in Frascati, Italy. Dedicated to Saint Peter the Apostle, it is the seat of the Bishop of Frascati.
Villa Mondragone is a patrician villa originally in the territory of the Italian comune of Frascati, now in the territory of Monte Porzio Catone. It lies on a hill 416m above sea-level, in an area called, from its many castles and villas, Castelli Romani about 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Rome, near the ancient town of Tusculum.
The Villa Falconieri is a villa in Frascati, Italy.
The Villa Aldobrandini is a villa in Frascati, Italy. Still the property of, and still lived in by, the Aldobrandini family, it is known as Belvedere for its charming location overlooking the valley toward the city of Rome.
Villa Rufinella, also called Villa Tuscolana, is a villa in Frascati, Italy.
Villa Lancellotti is a villa in Frascati, Italy, the nearest to the town centre. This villa was constructed in 1582 by Cardinal Bonanni. It was sold in 1617 to the banker Roberto Primo who constructed the 'teatro d'acqua' at the far end of the garden. The theatre is a direct copy of that at the nearby Villa Mondragone, for whom Primo acted as a banker. The clock, or 'orologio' was added in the nineteenth century while the villa was in the ownership of the Lancellotti family.
Colonna is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Rome, on the Alban Hills. With a population of some 4,300, it is the smallest of the Castelli Romani.
The Diocese of Frascati is a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy, based at Frascati, near Rome. The bishop of Frascati is a Cardinal Bishop; from the Latin name of the area, the bishop has also been called Bishop of Tusculum. Tusculum was destroyed in 1191. The bishopric moved from Tusculum to Frascati, a nearby town which is first mentioned in the pontificate of Pope Leo IV. Until 1962, the Cardinal-Bishop was concurrently the diocesan bishop of the see in addition to any curial duties he possessed. Pope John XXIII removed the Cardinal Bishops from any actual responsibility in their suburbicarian dioceses, and made the title purely honorific.
Clemente Micara was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He worked in the diplomatic service of the Holy See from 1909 to 1950 and was Vicar General of Rome from 1951 until his death.
The Palazzo Chigi is a palace and former noble residence in Rome which is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Italy. Since 1 June 2018, the occupant of the Palazzo Chigi is Giuseppe Conte.
The Villa Torlonia in Frascati is a villa belonging to the Torlonia family in Frascati, Italy.
Francesco Pisani was an Italian Cardinal, born in Venice, the son of Alvise Pisani the noted banker, who was Procurator of S. Mark's, a member of the Council of Ten, and a Councilor of the Doge of Venice; and Cecilia Giustinian. He had a brother named Giovanni (Zuan), who also became Procurator of S. Marks' and was a Venetian diplomat; he was married to the sister of Doge Andrea Gritti. He was a strong supporter of the alliance between Venice, France and the Papacy, called the League of Cognac. He shared the imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in the Castel S. Angelo during the Sack of Rome and its aftermath. He spent eighteen months in exile in Naples while Clement made his peace with the Emperor Charles V.
Tolomeo Gallio was an Italian Cardinal.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Frascati .|