Frazione (Italian pronunciation: [fratˈtsjoːne] ; pl.frazioni [fratˈtsjoːni] ) is the Italian name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune ; for other administrative divisions, see municipio , circoscrizione , quartiere . It is cognate to the English word fraction, but in practice is roughly equivalent to "parishes" or "wards" in other countries.
The comune is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities.
Municipio and município are country subdivisions in Italy and several Hispanophone and Lusophone nations, respectively. They are often translated as "municipality". In the English language, a municipality often is defined as relating to a single city or town; however, in Spanish, the term "municipio" may not mean a single city or town, but rather a jurisdiction housing several towns and cities, like a township, county, borough or civil parish. The Italian term "municipalità" refers either to a single city or a group of cities and towns in a township, but the Portuguese use is almost entirely restricted to group of cities or towns like in a county, township and so forth.
Typically the term frazioni applies to the villages surrounding the principal town (the capoluogo ) of a comune. Subdivision of a comune is optional; some comuni have no frazioni, but others have several dozen. The comune usually has the same name of the capoluogo, but not always.
In practice, most frazioni are small villages or hamlets, occasionally a clump of houses. Not every hamlet is classified as a frazione; those that are not are often referred to as località , for example, in the telephone book. On some occasions, frazioni can be more populated than the capoluogo of the comune. Due to unusual circumstances or to the depopulation of the capoluogo, the town hall and its administrative functions can move to one of the frazioni: the comune still retains the name of the capoluogo.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church or other place of worship.
A località is an inhabited place in Italy that is not accorded a more significant distinction in administrative law such as a frazione, comune, municipio, circoscrizione, or quartiere. The word is cognate to English locality. The Italian National Institute of Statistics defines località abitata as an "area of more or less size, normally known by its own name, on which are situated either grouped or scattered houses."
Historically, many frazioni came into being during the Fascist era, when a major effort was made to consolidate and rationalize the territorial subdivisions of the country. Sometimes, a frazione represents a former comune that was believed to be no longer viable.
Fascism is a form of far right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.
Until 2000, the central government established the frazioni and defined their borders, except in the case of the five autonomous regions (see Regions of Italy), where this was controlled at the regional level. By the Legislative Decree 267/2000 to implement amendments to Title V of the Italian Constitution, the individual comuni now define the frazioni within their borders.
The regions of Italy are the first-level constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. There are 20 regions, of which five have a broader amount of autonomy than the other 15 regions. Under the Italian Constitution, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley, each region is divided into a number of provinces.
Under the former legislation, a frazione had the option of having a prosindaco (submayor), who was appointed by the mayor (il sindaco) of the comune, often on the recommendation of deliberative bodies such as the communal council (consiglio) or the giunta, or as a result of a petition by enough residents of the frazione involved; although there was no official provision for groups of frazioni joining forces with the appointment of a single prosindaco, the case was frequent enough. Under current law, however, Article 54 of the d.lgs. 267/2000 provides that a mayor may delegate mayoral functions at the frazione level to a councillor of the comune.
In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
In many comuni, in addition to their advisory function, the frazioni are endowed with their own clerks and recorders of deeds, but do not maintain their own civil records[ citation needed ].
A sestiere is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities. The word is from Italian: sesto, or sixth; and is thus used only for towns divided into six districts. The best-known example is the sestieri of Venice, but Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Milan and Rapallo, for example, were also divided into sestieri. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, on the island of Euboea, was also at times divided into six districts, each with a separate ruler, through the arbitration of Venice, which were known as sestieri. The island of Crete, a Venetian colony from the Fourth Crusade, was also divided into six parts, named after the sestieri of Venice herself, while the capital Candia retained the status of a comune of Venice. The island of Burano north of Venice is also subdivided into sestieri.
A terziere is a subdivision of several towns in Italy. The word derives from terzo, meaning "third"; and is thus used only for towns divided into three neighborhoods. Terzieri are most commonly met with in Umbria, as for example at Trevi, Spello, Narni and Città della Pieve; towns divided into terzieri in other regions include Lucca in Tuscany. Ancona and Macerata in the Marches. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, in the island of Euboea, was also divided into three distinct rulerships, which were known as terzieri.
A quartiere is a territorial subdivision of certain Italian towns. The word derives from quarto, or fourth, and was thus properly used only for towns divided into four neighborhoods by the two main roads. It has been later used as a synonymous of neighbourhood, and an Italian town can be now subdivided into a greater number of quartieri. The Swiss town of Lugano is subdivided into quarters also.
Contrada is a generic name given to various types of Italian city subdivisions, now unofficial. Depending on the case, a contrada will be a località, a rione, a quartiere, a borgo, or even a suburb. The best-known contrade are the 17 contrade of Siena, since they form the teams in the palio di Siena.
Rione is the name given to a neighbourhood in several Italian cities. A rione is a territorial subdivision. The larger administrative subdivisions in Rome are the Municipi, with the rioni being used only in the historic centre. The word derives from the Latin: regiones, the 14 subdivisions of Rome imposed by Augustus. The term has been adopted as a synonym of quartiere in the Italian comuni.
Circoscrizione can refer to two different administrative units of Italy. One is an electoral district approximating to the English constituency but typically the size of a province or region depending on the election. The other is a subdivision of city comuni roughly equivalent to the municipal arrondissements of Paris or the London boroughs.
Bellinzago Novarese is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Novara in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) northeast of Turin and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) north of Novara. As of 1-1-2017, it had a population of 9,634 and an area of 39.18 square kilometres (15.13 sq mi).
Kastelruth is a comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city of Bolzano.
Zimella is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Verona in the Italian region Veneto, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Venice and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of Verona. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 4,626 and an area of 20.1 square kilometres (7.8 sq mi).
Cantello is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Varese in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northwest of Milan and about 4 kilometres (2 mi) east of Varese, on the border with Switzerland. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 4,409 and an area of 9.1 square kilometres (3.5 sq mi).
Dumenza is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Varese in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 70 kilometers (43 mi) northwest of Milan and about 25 kilometers (16 mi) north of Varese, on the border with Switzerland.
Masciago Primo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Varese in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 km northwest of Milan and about 12 km northwest of Varese. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 289 and an area of 1.9 km².
Cavargna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) north of Milan and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Como, on the border with Switzerland. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 296 and an area of 15.1 square kilometres (5.8 sq mi).
Chiuro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Sondrio in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Milan and about 9 kilometres (6 mi) east of Sondrio, on the border with Switzerland. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,499 and an area of 51.8 square kilometres (20.0 sq mi).
Boffalora sopra Ticino is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Milan. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 4,313 and an area of 7.5 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi).
Arsiè is a comune (municipality) in the province of Belluno in the Italian region of Veneto, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Venice and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Belluno. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,748 and an area of 65.0 square kilometres (25.1 sq mi).
Salgareda is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Treviso in the Italian region Veneto, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northeast of Venice and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Treviso. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 6,102 and an area of 27.2 square kilometres (10.5 sq mi).
Vigonza is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Padua in the Italian region Veneto, located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Venice and about 10 kilometres (6 mi) northeast of Padua. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 20,421 and an area of 33.3 square kilometres (12.9 sq mi).