Frederica of Hanover

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Frederica of Hanover
HRH Princess Frederica of Hanover.jpg
Frederica before her arrival in Greece
Queen consort of the Hellenes
Tenure1 April 1947 – 6 March 1964
Born(1917-04-18)18 April 1917
Blankenburg (Harz), Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire
Died6 February 1981(1981-02-06) (aged 63)
Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
Burial12 February 1981
Royal Cemetery, Tatoi Palace, Greece
Spouse
Paul of Greece
(m. 1938;died 1964)
Issue
Full name
Frederica Louisa Thyra Victoria Margareta Sophie Olga Cécilie Isabelle Christa
House Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Mother Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
Signature Frederika of Hannover signature.svg

Frederica of Hanover (Friederike Luise Thyra Victoria Margarita Sophia Olga Cecilia Isabella Christa; Greek : Φρειδερίκη της Ελλάδας; pronounced  [friðeˈrici ˈtis eˈlaðas] ; 18 April 1917 – 6 February 1981) was Queen consort of Greece as the wife of King Paul.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Paul of Greece King of Greece

Paul was King of Greece from 1947 until his death in 1964.

Contents

Early life

Born Her Royal Highness Princess Frederica of Hanover, [1] of Great Britain and Ireland, [2] and of Brunswick-Lüneburg [3] on 18 April 1917 in Blankenburg am Harz, in the German Duchy of Brunswick, she was the only daughter and third child of Ernest Augustus, then reigning Duke of Brunswick, and his wife Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, herself the only daughter of the German Emperor Wilhelm II. Both her father and maternal grandfather would abdicate their crowns in November 1918 following Germany's defeat in World War I, [1] and her paternal grandfather would be stripped of his British royal dukedom the following year. As a descendant of Queen Victoria, she was, at birth, 34th in the line of succession to the British throne.

German Empire empire in Central Europe between 1871–1918

The German Empire, also known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

Duchy of Brunswick duchy in Germany

The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire. It was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick.

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick

Ernest Augustus was the reigning Duke of Brunswick from 2 November 1913 to 8 November 1918. He was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians had deposed from the Hanoverian throne in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.

In 1934, Adolf Hitler, in his ambition to link the British and German royal houses, asked for Frederica's parents to arrange for the marriage of their seventeen-year-old daughter to the Prince of Wales. [4] [5] In her memoirs, Frederica's mother described that she and her husband were "shattered" and such a possibility "had never entered our minds". [6] Victoria Louise herself had once been considered as a potential bride for the very same person prior to her marriage. Moreover, the age difference was too great (the Prince of Wales was twenty-two years Frederica's senior), and her parents were unwilling to "put any such pressure" on their daughter. [6]

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Edward VIII King of the United Kingdom and its dominions in 1936

Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.

Marriage

Prince Paul of Greece, her mother's paternal first cousin, proposed to her during the summer of 1936, while he was in Berlin attending the 1936 Summer Olympics. Paul was a son of King Constantine I and Frederica's grand-aunt Sophia. Their engagement was announced officially on 28 September 1937, and Britain's King George VI gave his consent pursuant to the Royal Marriages Act 1772 on 26 December 1937. [3] They married in Athens on 9 January 1938. [2] Frederica became Hereditary Princess of Greece, her husband being heir presumptive to his childless elder brother, King George II.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

1936 Summer Olympics games of the XI Olympiad, celebrated in Berlin in 1936

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona. It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

Constantine I of Greece King of Greece

Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece expanded to include Thessaloniki, doubling in area and population. He succeeded to the throne of Greece on 18 March 1913, following his father's assassination.

During the early part of their marriage, they resided at a Villa in Psychiko in the suburbs of Athens. Ten months after their marriage, their first child, the future Queen Sofia of Spain, was born on 2 November 1938. On 2 June 1940, Frederica gave birth to the future King Constantine II.

Constantine II of Greece Former King of Greece

Constantine II reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.

War and exile

At the peak of World War II, in April 1941, the Greek Royal Family was evacuated to Crete in a Sunderland flying boat. Shortly afterwards, the German forces attacked Crete. Frederica and her family were evacuated again, setting up a government-in-exile office in London.

In exile, King George II and the rest of the Greek Royal Family settled in South Africa. Here Frederica's last child, Princess Irene, was born on 11 May 1942. The South African leader, General Jan Smuts, served as her godfather. The family eventually settled in Egypt in February 1944.

After the war, the 1946 Greek referendum restored King George to the throne. The Hereditary Prince and Princess returned to their villa in Psychiko.

Queen consort

On 1 April 1947, George II died and Frederica's husband ascended the throne as Paul I, with Frederica as queen consort. Communist political instability in Northern Greece led to the Greek Civil War. The King and Queen toured Northern Greece under severe security to try to appeal for loyalty in the summer of 1947.

Queen Frederica was constantly attacked for her German ancestry. [7] Left-wing politicians in Greece repeatedly used the fact that the Kaiser was her grandfather, and that she had brothers who were members of the SS, as propaganda against her. [8] She was also criticized variously as "very Prussian" and "was a Nazi". [8] When she was in London representing her sick husband at the wedding of his first cousin Prince Philip to King George VI's elder daughter Princess Elizabeth in November 1947, Winston Churchill remarked on the Kaiser being her grandfather. Queen Frederica had replied acknowledging the fact, but reminding him that she was also descended from Queen Victoria, and that her father would be the British king if the country had operated under Salic Law (allowing only males to inherit the crown). [9]

Queen Frederica with King Paul, while visiting the USS Providence (CL-82), at Athens, circa May 1947 Paul and Frederika of Greece.jpg
Queen Frederica with King Paul, while visiting the USS Providence (CL-82), at Athens, circa May 1947
Queen Frederica's personal standard Personal flag of Queen frederica of Greece.svg
Queen Frederica's personal standard

During the civil war, Queen Frederica set the Queen's Camps or Child Cities (translation of: Παιδο(υ)πόλεις / Paidopoleis or Paidupoleis) a network of 53 camps around Greece where she would kidnap children of members of DSE and former partisans. [10] [11] In these camps children were indoctrinated with anticommunism and many of them were sent to work in tobacco or textile factories. [12] [13]

The role of these Queen's Camps is disputed as a means of propaganda by the monarchy through the educational program.[ citation needed ] There were allegations, generally by opposition or communist sources, which held that children were illegally adopted by American families while they were in the Queen's Camps. These allegations proved to be real. [14] [15] [16]

The Greek Civil War ended in August 1949. The Sovereigns took this opportunity to strengthen the monarchy, they paid official visits to Marshal Josip Broz Tito in Belgrade, Presidents Luigi Einaudi of Italy in Rome, Theodor Heuss of West Germany, and Bechara El Khoury of Lebanon, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari of India, King George VI of the United Kingdom, and the United States as guest of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. However, at home in Greece and abroad in the United Kingdom, Queen Frederica was targeted by the opposition, because as a girl she had belonged to the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls), a branch of the Hitler Youth group for young women; her supporters argued that evading membership in the group would be difficult under the existing political climate in Nazi Germany at the time.

Her 16 November 1953 appearance in Life as America's guest was taken on one of the many state visits she paid around the world. Also that year she appeared on the cover of Time . On 14 May 1962 her eldest daughter Sofia married Prince Juan Carlos of Spain, (later King Juan Carlos I of Spain) in Athens.

Frederika has been described as "inherently undemocratic". [17] [18] She was notorious for her numerous arbitrary and unconstitutional interventions in Greek politics [19] and clashes with democratically elected governments. She actively politicked against the election of Alexander Papagos. [20] At home in Greece and abroad in the United Kingdom, she was targeted by the opposition. In 1963 while visiting London, rioting by Greek leftists demonstrating against the situation with the political prisoners of the Greek civil war, forced her to temporarily seek refuge in a stranger's house. Her interference in politics was harshly criticized and possibly was a significant factor in the strengthening of republican sentiments.[ citation needed ]

On the cover of Time, 1953 Time Magazine Cover Frederika of Greece Oct 1953.jpg
On the cover of Time, 1953

Queen dowager

On 6 March 1964, King Paul died of cancer. When her son, the new King, married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark later that year on 18 September, Queen Frederica stepped back from the majority of her public duties in favor of her daughter-in-law. She remained a figure of controversy and was accused in the press of being the éminence grise behind the throne. [21]

She retired to the countryside where she lived an almost reclusive life. However, she continued to attend Royal events that were family-oriented, such as the baptisms of her grandchildren in both Spain and Greece.

Exile

King Constantine II's clashes with the democratically elected Prime Minister George Papandreou Sr. were blamed by critics for causing the destabilisation that led to a military coup on 21 April 1967 and the rise of the regime of the colonels. [ citation needed ] Faced with a difficult situation, King Constantine initially collaborated with the military dictatorship, [ citation needed ] swearing in their government under a royalist prime minister. Later that year he attempted a counter-coup in an attempt to restore democracy, whose failure forced him into exile. Following this, the junta appointed a Regent to carry out the tasks of the exiled Monarch.

In 1971, Frederica published an autobiography, A Measure of Understanding. [22]

On 1 June 1973 the junta abolished the Greek Monarchy without the consent of the Greek people and then attempted to legitimize its actions through a 1973 plebiscite that was widely suspected of being rigged. The new head-of-state became President of Greece George Papadopoulos.

The dictatorship ended on 24 July 1974 and the pre-junta constitutional monarchy was never restored. A plebiscite was held on 8 December 1974 in which Constantine (who was able to campaign only from outside the country) freely admitted his past errors, promised to support democracy, and in particular, promised to keep his mother Frederica away from Greece and out of Greek politics. However, 69% of Greeks voted to make Greece a democratic republic.

Death

Frederica died on 6 February 1981 in exile in Madrid during ophthalmic surgery. In its obituary of the former Queen, The New York Times reported that she died during "eyelid surgery," [ citation needed ] which led to frequent but unsubstantiated rumours that she died while undergoing cosmetic surgery. [ citation needed ] Other sources state that her cause of death was a heart attack [23] while undergoing the removal of cataracts.

She was interred at Tatoi (the Royal family's palace and burial ground in Greece). Her son and his family were allowed to attend the service but had to leave immediately afterwards.

Honours

Styles of
Queen Frederica of the Hellenes
Coat of Arms of Frederica of Hanover.svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty

National honours

Foreign honours

Ancestors

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References

  1. 1 2 Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd (1973). Burke’s Guide to the Royal Family. Burke’s Peerage Ltd. pp. 290, 300. ISBN   0-220-66222-3.
  2. 1 2 "Haus Braunschweig-Lûneburg (Maison de Brunswick-Lunebourg)". Almanach de Gotha (in French). Gotha: Justus Perthes. 1942. p. 39.
  3. 1 2 "The London Gazette". The Stationery Office. 31 December 1937: 8169. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  4. Viktoria Luise, HRH (1977). The Kaiser's daughter. W. H. Allen. p. 188. ISBN   9780491018081.
  5. Petropoulos, Jonathan (2006). Royals and the Reich: The Princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN   9780195161335.
  6. 1 2 Viktoria Luise, p.188
  7. Van der Kiste, John (1999). Kings of the Hellenes: The Greek Kings, 1863-1974. Sutton Publishing Ltd. p. 178. ISBN   9780750921473.
  8. 1 2 Van der Kiste, p.178
  9. Van der Kiste, p.177
  10. Σύλλογος Πολιτικών Εξορίστων Γυναικών,Στρατόπεδα Γυναικών (Χίος, Τρίκερι, Μακρόνησος, Αϊ-Στράτης 1948-1954), εκδ. Αλφειός, 2006, ISBN   960-87931-8-1
  11. https://www.alphatv.gr/index.asp?a_id=76&news_id=26761
  12. http://www.topontiki.gr/article/207038/oi-paidoypoleis-tis-freikis-ena-arrostimeno-shedio-apo-enan-nosiro-noy
  13. http://www.katiousa.gr/istoria/paidomazoma-kai-oi-paidoupoleis-tis-freiderikis/
  14. https://www.rizospastis.gr/story.do?id=3777192
  15. https://www.alfavita.gr/koinonia/197305_paidomazoma-i-freideriki-kai-doylemporio-tis-ethnikofrosynis
  16. http://www.efsyn.gr/arthro/i-latremeni-freideriki
  17. Kaloudis, George Stergiou Modern Greek democracy: the end of a long journey, University Press Of America, Inc., 2000 p. 35
  18. Pettifer, James The Greeks:the land and people since the war, Viking, 1993, p20
  19. Keeley, Robert V., The Colonels' Coup and the American Embassy: A Diplomat's View of the Breakdown of Democracy in Cold War Greece, Penn State University Press 2001, p36
  20. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,818978-6,00.html
  21. Vickers, Hugo (2003). Alice: Princess Andrew of Greece. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 387. ISBN   9780312302399.
  22. Publisher: Macmillan (1971), ISBN   0333124545
  23. Van der Kiste, p.185
  24. Jørgen Pedersen: Riddere af Elefantordenen 1559–2009, Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2009. ISBN   8776744345
  25. Sitio web del Quirinal
Frederica of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 18 April 1917 Died: 6 February 1981
Greek royalty
Preceded by
Princess Elisabeth of Romania
Queen consort of the Hellenes
1 April 1947 – 6 March 1964
Vacant
Title next held by
Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark