Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

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Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth.jpg

Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Born(1711-05-10)10 May 1711
Weferlingen
Died 26 February 1763(1763-02-26) (aged 51)
Bayreuth
Noble family House of Hohenzollern
Spouse(s) Wilhelmine of Prussia
Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Issue

Father George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Mother Dorothea von Holstein-Beck

Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (May 10, 1711 in Weferlingen February 26, 1763 in Bayreuth), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

Weferlingen Stadtteil of Oebisfelde-Weferlingen in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Weferlingen is a village and a former municipality in the Börde district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 January 2010, it has been part of the town Oebisfelde-Weferlingen.

Bayreuth Place in Bavaria, Germany

Bayreuth is a medium-sized city in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the early 21st century, it is the capital of Upper Franconia and has a population of 72,148 (2015). It is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.

House of Hohenzollern dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania

The House of Hohenzollern[ˈhoːəntsɔlɐn] is a German dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

Contents

He was the eldest son of Georg Frederick Karl, nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach, by his wife Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck.

George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a German prince, member of the House of Hohenzollern, nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (1708–35) and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1726–35).

Life

Born a minor member of the house of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Frederick's fate changed in 1726, when his father inherited the principality of Bayreuth after a long dispute with the kingdom of Prussia over his rights of succession. The sixteen-year-old Frederick became the Hereditary Margrave of Bayreuth. In 1735, on his father's death, Frederick became the new Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

Frederick has the reputation of being an enlightened monarch. In Bayreuth, Frederick is referred to as "the Beloved." In his residence of Bayreuth, he promoted the sciences and arts and owned numerous buildings. Frederick received a good education and studied eight years at the Calvinistic Genovese University. Frederick was totally unprepared for his tasks as a sovereign, however, because his father and his ministers had completely excluded him from all the government affairs.

His wife, Wilhelmine, with her strong personality, tried to influence the weak and unstable Frederick in favour of Prussia, her homeland, but she was not able to overcome the influence of his ministers. His wife finally did succeed in gaining influence, however, and a young secretary, Philipp Elrodt, was appointed to handle financial matters. His position soon became more equivalent to "prime minister." In this role, Philipp attacked government corruption and cronyism, uncovered irregularities in the finances of the margraviate, retired old debts, and identified new sources of income. As a result of this fiscal reform, Frederick was able to increase Wilhelmine's allowance, and she purchased a summer residence called the Eremitage.

The cultured margrave showed his appreciation of art and science by establishing the margraviate's Regional University in Bayreuth in 1742, which was moved one year later, in 1743, to Erlangen. In addition, he created the Bayreuth Academy of Arts (German: Bayreuther Kunstakademie) in 1756 and from 1744 to 1748 allowed it to establish the Margravial Opera House (German: Markgräfliches Opernhaus ) as a richly-appointed baroque theater in Bayreuth. Numerous other construction projects were also completed, including the transformation and extension of the existing Eremitage Museum into the New Eremitage Museum Castle with the Temple of the Sun (1749–1753) and the building of the new Margravial Castle (1754) after the old castle had burned. The new castle was finished after the death of his first wife; in her honour, the castle was renamed after her.

Erlangen Place in Bavaria, Germany

Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is the seat of the administrative district Erlangen-Höchstadt and with 113,752 inhabitants it is the smallest of the eight major cities in Bavaria. The number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1974, making Erlangen a major city.

Frederick was appointed Generalfeldmarschall of the Franconian Circle, but kept his country out of disputes between Austria and Prussia, even during the Seven Years' War.

Generalfeldmarschall was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire (Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall); in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to Großadmiral in the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine, a five-star rank, comparable to OF-10 in today's NATO naval forces.

Franconian Circle imperial circle of the Holy Roman Empire

The Franconian Circle was an Imperial Circle established in 1500 in the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the eastern part of the former Franconian stem duchy — roughly corresponding with the present-day Bavarian Regierungsbezirke of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia — while western Rhenish Franconia belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle. The title of a "Duke of Franconia" was claimed by the Würzburg bishops.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

His name has been added to the official name of the University of Erlangen, which he founded: the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) (English: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg ).

Marriages and issue

In Berlin on November 20, 1731, Frederick married Wilhelmine of Prussia. He had been betrothed to Wilhelmine's younger sister, Sophie, but King Frederick Wilhelm I decided to have his oldest surviving daughter, Wilhelmine, marry him at the last moment. The groom was not consulted in this decision.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Wilhelmine of Prussia, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia was a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia and composer. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, and granddaughter of George I of Great Britain. In 1731, she married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. The baroque buildings and parks built during her reign shape much of the present appearance of the town of Bayreuth, Germany.

Frederick William I of Prussia King of Prussia

Frederick William I, known as the "Soldier King", was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740, as well as Prince of Neuchâtel. He was succeeded by his son, Frederick the Great.

From the beginning, the marriage went well. The young couple liked each other, and Wilhelmine ignored his lisp. Although Wilhelmine was not particularly beautiful, she had a cheerful, intellectual and pleasant personality. She described Frederick as good-hearted and charitable, but also a little frivolous. The union produced only one child, a daughter:

  1. Elisabeth Friederike Sophie (b. Bayreuth, August 30, 1732 – d. Bayreuth, April 6, 1780). Described by Giacomo Casanova as the most beautiful girl in Germany, she was married on September 26, 1748 to Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg. After producing a short-living daughter, Princess Fredericka Wilhelmine Augusta Luisa Charlotte of Württemberg, they were separated in 1756, but never divorced.

In Brunswick on September 20, 1759, about a year after Wilhelmine's death from illness, Frederick married Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Their marriage was childless. Without any male issue, he was succeeded on his death by his uncle, Frederick Christian.

Frederick also had a mistress, Wilhelmine Dorothee von der Marwitz.

Ancestry

In fiction

Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Born: 10 May 1711 Died: 26 February 1763
Preceded by
Georg Frederick Karl
Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
1735–1763
Succeeded by
Frederick Christian

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