This article does not cite any sources . (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth|
Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
|Born||10 May 1711|
|Died|| 26 February 1763 51) (aged|
|Noble family||House of Hohenzollern|
|Spouse(s)|| Wilhelmine of Prussia |
Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
|Father||George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth|
|Mother||Dorothea von Holstein-Beck|
Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (May 10, 1711 in Weferlingen – February 26, 1763 in Bayreuth), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Weferlingen is a village and a former municipality in the Börde district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Since 1 January 2010, it has been part of the town Oebisfelde-Weferlingen.
Bayreuth is a medium-sized city in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the early 21st century, it is the capital of Upper Franconia and has a population of 72,148 (2015). It is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.
The House of Hohenzollern[ˈhoːəntsɔlɐn] is a German dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.
He was the eldest son of Georg Frederick Karl, nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach, by his wife Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck.
George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a German prince, member of the House of Hohenzollern, nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (1708–35) and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1726–35).
Born a minor member of the house of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Frederick's fate changed in 1726, when his father inherited the principality of Bayreuth after a long dispute with the kingdom of Prussia over his rights of succession. The sixteen-year-old Frederick became the Hereditary Margrave of Bayreuth. In 1735, on his father's death, Frederick became the new Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Frederick has the reputation of being an enlightened monarch. In Bayreuth, Frederick is referred to as "the Beloved." In his residence of Bayreuth, he promoted the sciences and arts and owned numerous buildings. Frederick received a good education and studied eight years at the Calvinistic Genovese University. Frederick was totally unprepared for his tasks as a sovereign, however, because his father and his ministers had completely excluded him from all the government affairs.
His wife, Wilhelmine, with her strong personality, tried to influence the weak and unstable Frederick in favour of Prussia, her homeland, but she was not able to overcome the influence of his ministers. His wife finally did succeed in gaining influence, however, and a young secretary, Philipp Elrodt, was appointed to handle financial matters. His position soon became more equivalent to "prime minister." In this role, Philipp attacked government corruption and cronyism, uncovered irregularities in the finances of the margraviate, retired old debts, and identified new sources of income. As a result of this fiscal reform, Frederick was able to increase Wilhelmine's allowance, and she purchased a summer residence called the Eremitage.
The cultured margrave showed his appreciation of art and science by establishing the margraviate's Regional University in Bayreuth in 1742, which was moved one year later, in 1743, to Erlangen. In addition, he created the Bayreuth Academy of Arts (German: Bayreuther Kunstakademie) in 1756 and from 1744 to 1748 allowed it to establish the Margravial Opera House (German: Markgräfliches Opernhaus ) as a richly-appointed baroque theater in Bayreuth. Numerous other construction projects were also completed, including the transformation and extension of the existing Eremitage Museum into the New Eremitage Museum Castle with the Temple of the Sun (1749–1753) and the building of the new Margravial Castle (1754) after the old castle had burned. The new castle was finished after the death of his first wife; in her honour, the castle was renamed after her.
Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is the seat of the administrative district Erlangen-Höchstadt and with 113,752 inhabitants it is the smallest of the eight major cities in Bavaria. The number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1974, making Erlangen a major city.
Frederick was appointed Generalfeldmarschall of the Franconian Circle, but kept his country out of disputes between Austria and Prussia, even during the Seven Years' War.
Generalfeldmarschall was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire (Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall); in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to Großadmiral in the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine, a five-star rank, comparable to OF-10 in today's NATO naval forces.
The Franconian Circle was an Imperial Circle established in 1500 in the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the eastern part of the former Franconian stem duchy — roughly corresponding with the present-day Bavarian Regierungsbezirke of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia — while western Rhenish Franconia belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle. The title of a "Duke of Franconia" was claimed by the Würzburg bishops.
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.
His name has been added to the official name of the University of Erlangen, which he founded: the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) (English: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg ).
In Berlin on November 20, 1731, Frederick married Wilhelmine of Prussia. He had been betrothed to Wilhelmine's younger sister, Sophie, but King Frederick Wilhelm I decided to have his oldest surviving daughter, Wilhelmine, marry him at the last moment. The groom was not consulted in this decision.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia was a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia and composer. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, and granddaughter of George I of Great Britain. In 1731, she married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. The baroque buildings and parks built during her reign shape much of the present appearance of the town of Bayreuth, Germany.
Frederick William I, known as the "Soldier King", was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740, as well as Prince of Neuchâtel. He was succeeded by his son, Frederick the Great.
From the beginning, the marriage went well. The young couple liked each other, and Wilhelmine ignored his lisp. Although Wilhelmine was not particularly beautiful, she had a cheerful, intellectual and pleasant personality. She described Frederick as good-hearted and charitable, but also a little frivolous. The union produced only one child, a daughter:
In Brunswick on September 20, 1759, about a year after Wilhelmine's death from illness, Frederick married Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Their marriage was childless. Without any male issue, he was succeeded on his death by his uncle, Frederick Christian.
Frederick also had a mistress, Wilhelmine Dorothee von der Marwitz.
|Ancestors of Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth|
Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-BayreuthBorn: 10 May 1711 Died: 26 February 1763
Georg Frederick Karl
| Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth |
| Succeeded by|
Frederick I of Ansbach and Bayreuth was born at Ansbach as the eldest son of Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg by his second wife Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. His elder half-brother was the Elector Johann Cicero of Brandenburg. Friedrich succeeded his father as Margrave of Ansbach in 1486 and his younger brother Siegmund as Margrave of Bayreuth in 1495.
Joachim Frederick, of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg was the fourth son of Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis. He was born in Stuttgart. From 1795 until 1797 he was Duke of Württemberg.
The Principality of Bayreuth or Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth was an immediate territory of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty. Since Burgrave Frederick VI of Nuremberg was enfeoffed with the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1415/17, the Hohenzollern princes transferred the margravial title to their Franconian possessions, though the principality never had been a march. Until 1604 they used Plassenburg Castle in Kulmbach as their residence, hence their territory was officially called the Principality of Kulmbach or Margraviate of Brandenburg-Kulmbach until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.
The Margravial Opera House is a Baroque opera house in the town of Bayreuth, Germany, built between 1745 and 1750. It is one of Europe's few surviving theatres of the period and has been extensively restored. On 30 June 2012, the opera house was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia was the ninth child and fifth daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. By marriage, she was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Brandenburg-Schwedt was a secundogeniture of the Hohenzollern margraves of Brandenburg, established by Prince Philip William who took his residence at Schwedt Castle in 1689. By appanage, they administered the manors of Schwedt and Vierraden on the Oder river as well as Wildenbruch in Pomerania. Though prosperous, the cadet branch never obtained Imperial immediacy.
George William of Brandenburg-Bayreuth was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Erdmann August of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Hereditary Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Christian Heinrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach, was a German prince and member of the House of Hohenzollern and nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach.
Frederick Christian of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, was a German princess of the House of Hohenzollern and the Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.
Daniel de Superville was a Dutch physician who in 1742 founded the University of Erlangen in Germany. He served as chancellor of the university until 1748. De Superville also wrote several treatises on anatomy.
Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She was the eldest daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and his wife, Philippine Charlotte of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.
Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg, was a Duchess consort of Courland by marriage to Duke Frederick Casimir Kettler of Courland, a Margravine consort of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and a Duchess consort of Saxe-Meiningen by marriage to Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. She was joint regent in Courland during the minority of her son Frederick William, Duke of Courland from 1698 until 1701.
Sophie Christiane of Wolfstein was a Countess of Wolfstein and Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach by marriage.
Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels was a German aristocrat and culture patron, Countess of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to George William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.