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|Frederick Augustus II|
|King of Saxony|
|Reign||6 June 1836 – 9 August 1854|
|Born||18 May 1797|
Pillnitz, Dresden, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
|Died||9 August 1854 57) (aged|
Karrösten, Austrian Empire
|Issue||Theodor Uhlig (illegitimate)|
|Father||Prince Maximilian of Saxony|
|Mother||Princess Caroline of Parma|
Frederick Augustus II (German : Friedrich August II.; 18 May 1797 in Dresden – 9 August 1854 in Brennbüchel, Karrösten, Tyrol) was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.
He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony – younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony – by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, Princess of Parma.
From his birth, it was clear that one day Frederick Augustus would become the ruler of Saxony. His father was the only son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony who left surviving male issue. When the King Frederick Augustus I died (1827) and Anton succeeded him as King, Frederick Augustus became second in line to the throne, preceded only by his father Maximilian.
He was an officer in the War of the Sixth Coalition. However, he had little interest in military affairs.
The July Revolution of 1830 in France marked the beginning of disturbances in Saxony that autumn. The people claimed a change in the constitution and demanded a young regent of the kingdom to share the government with the King Anton. On 1 September the Prince Maximilian renounced his rights of succession in favor of his son Frederick Augustus, who was proclaimed Prince Co-Regent (de: Prinz-Mitregenten) of Saxony. On 2 February 1832 Frederick Augustus brought Free Autonomy to the cities. Also, by an edict of 17 March of that year, the farmers were freed from the corvée and hereditary submission.
On 6 June 1836, King Anton died and Frederick Augustus succeeded him. As an intelligent man, he was quickly popular with the people as he had been since the time of his regency. The new king solved political questions only from a pure sense of duty. Mostly he preferred to leave these things on the hands of his ministers.
A standardized jurisdiction for Saxony created the Criminal Code of 1836. During the Revolutionary disturbances of 1848 (March Revolution), he appointed liberal ministers in the government, lifted censorship, and remitted a liberal electoral law. Later his attitude changed. On 28 April Frederick August II dissolved the Parliament. In 1849, Frederick Augustus was forced to flee to the Königstein Fortress. The May Uprising was crushed by Saxon and Prussian troops and Frederick was able to return after only a few days.
In 1844 Frederick Augustus, accompanied by his personal physician Carl Gustav Carus, made an informal (incognito) visit to England and Scotland. Among places they visited were Lyme Regis where he purchased from the local fossil collector and dealer, Mary Anning, an ichthyosaur skeleton for his own extensive natural history collection. It was not a state visit, but the King was the guest of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Windsor Castle, visited many of the sights in London and in the university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, and toured widely in England, Wales and Scotland.
During a journey in Tyrol, he had an accident in Brennbüchel in which he fell in front of a horse that stepped on his head. On 8 August 1854, he died in the Gasthof Neuner. He was buried on 16 August in the Katholische Hofkirche of Dresden. In his memory, the Dowager Queen Maria arranged to establish the Königskapelle (King's Chapel) at the accident place, which was consecrated one year later, some of the last members of the Saxon royal family, including Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen, are buried beside the chapel.
In Vienna on 26 September 1819 (by proxy) and again in Dresden on 7 October 1819 (in person), Frederick Augustus married firstly with the Archduchess Maria Caroline of Austria (Maria Karoline Ferdinande Theresia Josephine Demetria), daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. They had no children.
In Dresden on 24 April 1833 Frederick Augustus married secondly with the Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria (Maria Anna Leopoldine Elisabeth Wilhelmine), daughter of the King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. Like his first marriage, this was childless.
The musician Theodor Uhlig (1822–1853) was an illegitimate son of Frederick Augustus.
Without legitimate issue, after his death Frederick Augustus was succeeded by his younger brother, Johann.
|Ancestors of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony|
Frederick Augustus II of SaxonyBorn: 18 May 1797 Died: 9 August 1854
| King of Saxony |
Anthony, was a King of Saxony (1827–1836) from the House of Wettin. He became known as Anton der Gütige,.
Frederick Augustus I was a member of the House of Wettin who reigned as the last Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 and as King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827. He was also Duke of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815.
Frederick Christian was the Prince-Elector of Saxony for fewer than three months in 1763. He was a member of the House of Wettin. He was the third but eldest surviving son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria.
Augustus II, most commonly known as Augustus the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in the years 1697–1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin.
Augustus III was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1733 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire where he was known as Frederick Augustus II.
Maximilian I Joseph was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.
John was a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.
Prince Maximilian of Saxony was a German prince and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the sixth but third and youngest surviving son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, and the composer Duchess Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria.
Maria Josepha of Austria was the Queen of Poland by marriage to Augustus III. From 1711 to 1717, she was heir presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. Her sister Maria Amalia became Electress of Bavaria.
The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. It comprised a territory of some 40,000 square kilometers. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom.
Maria Antonia, Princess of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony was a German princess, composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà and Talestri, regina delle amazoni. She was also the Regent of Saxony in 1763-1768. Baptised Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa, she was known as Maria Antonia.
Archduchess Maria Carolina Ferdinanda of Austria was Crown Princess of Saxony as the wife of Frederick Augustus, Crown Prince of Saxony.
Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He was the son of Christian III of Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken and a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. He was the father of the Bavarian King Maximilian I Joseph.
Charles II August Christian was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1775 to 1795. A member of the Palatine House of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach, he was the elder brother of the first King of Bavaria, Maximilian I, and of Queen Amalia of Saxony.
Amalie Auguste was a Princess of Bavaria and Queen of Saxony.
Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa of Parma was a Princess of Parma by birth, and Princess of Saxony by marriage to Prince Maximilian of Saxony. Carolina was the eldest child of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, and his wife Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria.
Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria was Queen Consort of Saxony from 1836 to 1854.
Franz Xavier of Saxony was a Saxon prince and member of the House of Wettin. He was the fourth but second surviving son of Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and Maria Josepha of Austria.
Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler was the last Electress and first Queen of Saxony and Duchess of Warsaw.
Anton Egon, a member of the Swabian House of Fürstenberg, was Imperial Prince and Princely Landgrave of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg from 1674 until his death. He also served as governor of the Electorate of Saxony under the Wettin prince-elector Augustus II the Strong.