Frederick H. Gillett

Last updated
Frederick H. Gillett
FrederickHGillett.jpg
37th Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
In office
May 19, 1919 March 3, 1925
Preceded by Champ Clark
Succeeded by Nicholas Longworth
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Massachusetts's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1893 March 3, 1925
Preceded by Elijah A. Morse
Succeeded by George B. Churchill
Leader of the
House Republican Conference
In office
May 19, 1919 March 3, 1925
Preceded by James Robert Mann
Succeeded by Nicholas Longworth
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
March 4, 1925 March 3, 1931
Preceded by David I. Walsh
Succeeded by Marcus A. Coolidge
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
In office
1890–1891
Personal details
Born
Frederick Huntington Gillett

(1851-10-16)October 16, 1851
Westfield, Massachusetts
DiedJuly 31, 1935(1935-07-31) (aged 83)
Springfield, Massachusetts
Political party Republican
Spouse(s)Christine Rice Hoar
Alma mater Amherst College
Harvard Law School
Profession Lawyer

Frederick Huntington Gillett ( /ɪˈlɛt/ ; October 16, 1851 – July 31, 1935) was an American politician who served in the Massachusetts state government and both houses of the U.S. Congress between 1879 and 1931, including six years as Speaker of the House.

Contents

Early life

Frederick H. Gillett was born in Westfield, Massachusetts, to Edward Bates Gillett (1817–1899) and Lucy Fowler Gillett (1830–1916). He graduated from Amherst College, where he was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, in 1874 and Harvard Law School in 1877. He entered the practice of law in Springfield in 1877.

Westfield, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Westfield is a city in Hampden County, in the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts, United States. Westfield was first settled in 1660. It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 41,094 at the 2010 census.

Amherst College liberal arts college in Massachusetts

Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. Founded in 1821 as an attempt to relocate Williams College by its then-president Zephaniah Swift Moore, Amherst is the third oldest institution of higher education in Massachusetts. The institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Jeffery, Lord Amherst, Commander-in-Chief of British forces of North America during the French and Indian War. Originally established as a men's college, Amherst became coeducational in 1975.

Alpha Delta Phi North American collegiate fraternity

Alpha Delta Phi (ΑΔΦ), commonly known as Alpha Delt, ADPhi, or ADP, is a North American Greek-letter social college fraternity. Alpha Delta Phi was originally founded as a literary society by Samuel Eells in 1832 at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. Its more than 50,000 alumni include former presidents and senators of the United States, and justices of the Supreme Court.

Career

Gillett was the Assistant Attorney General of Massachusetts from 1879 to 1882. For two one-year terms he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He was elected to the Fifty-third United States Congress in 1892. [1]

Massachusetts House of Representatives lower house of U.S. state legislature

The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is composed of 160 members elected from 14 counties each divided into single-member electoral districts across the Commonwealth. The House of Representatives convenes at the Massachusetts State House in Boston.

A Republican, Gillett served in the United States House of Representatives from 1893 to 1925. On January 24, 1914, he introduced legislation to initiate the adoption of an Anti-Polygamy Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. [2]

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Republicans won a net total of 24 seats in the 1918 elections, increasing the size of their majority in the House. Gillett was nominated by the Republican caucus for Speaker of the House in the upcoming 66th United States Congress. [3] On May 19, 1919, Congress convened, and he was elected speaker, defeating the Democratic incumbent Champ Clark 228–172. [4] Gillett was expected to exercise less control than his predecessor, since he was characterized by one reporter as someone who did not drink coffee in the morning "for fear it would keep him awake all day". [5] He was reelected as speaker in 1921 and again in 1923. [6]

1918 United States House of Representatives elections House elections for the 66th U.S. Congress

The 1918 United States House of Representatives elections were held November 5, 1918, which occurred in the middle of President Woodrow Wilson's second term.

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Presiding Officer of the US House of Representatives

The speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the speaker usually does not personally preside over debates. That duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the speaker regularly participate in floor debates.

66th United States Congress

The Sixty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprising the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1919, to March 4, 1921, during the last two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

He decided to run for the United States Senate in 1924. He won the Republican primary easily over two other candidates [7] and then narrowly defeated incumbent Senator David I. Walsh in the Republican landslide of November 1924 led by President Calvin Coolidge, a former governor of Massachusetts. [8] Time magazine chose him for its November 17, 1924, cover. [9] He served one term in the Senate from 1925 to 1931, and decided not to seek re-election in the face of a difficult primary challenge. [10] In June 1930, he declined to state his position on prohibition or its repeal when queried by prohibition advocates. [11]

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

David I. Walsh U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, Democrat, 1919-1925, 1926-47

David Ignatius Walsh was a United States politician from Massachusetts. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 46th Governor of Massachusetts before serving several terms in the United States Senate.

1924 United States presidential election Election of 1924

The 1924 United States presidential election was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924. In a three-way contest, incumbent Republican President Calvin Coolidge won election to a full term.

Personal life

On November 25, 1915, Gillett married Christine Rice Hoar, the widow of his former colleague in Congress, Rockwood Hoar. [12] In 1934 he published a biography of George Frisbie Hoar, an earlier congressman and senator from Massachusetts, and his wife's father-in-law from her previous marriage. [13]

During his time in Washington, Gillett spent his free time driving his 1926 Pontiac Coupe and playing golf in the morning. In retirement he wintered in Pasadena, California. He died in a hospital in Springfield, Massachusetts, on July 31, 1935.

Legacy

Frederick Gillett in 1920 Frederick Gillett.jpg
Frederick Gillett in 1920

As of 2019, Gillett is the most recent Speaker of the House to have also served in the U.S. Senate. He was also the longest-tenured incumbent congressman to have ever been elected to the Senate until June 2013, when Representative Ed Markey was elected to the same Senate seat that Gillett held. [14]

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References

  1. "Gillett Dies at 83; A Former Senator" (PDF). New York Times. July 31, 1935. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  2. Iversen, Joan Smyth (1997). The Antipolygamy Controversy in U.S. Women's Movements: 1880 - 1925. NY: Routledge. p. 244.
  3. "Gillett Chosen for Speakership of Next House" (PDF). New York Times. February 28, 1919. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  4. Glass, Andrew (May 19, 2010). "GOP assumes control of Congress, May 19, 1919". Politico. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  5. Margulies, Herbert F. (1996). Reconciliation and Revival: James R. Mann and the House Republicans in the Wilson Era. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 191–8.
  6. Heitshusen, Valerie; Beth, Richard S. (January 4, 2019). "Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913–2019" (PDF). CRS Report (RL30857). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  7. "Gillett is Victor in Senate Contest; Couzens is Trailing" (PDF). New York Times. September 10, 1924. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  8. "Republicans Make Gains in Congress" (PDF). New York Times. November 5, 1924. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  9. "Frederick Gillett". Time. November 17, 1924. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  10. "Observations from Times Watch-Towers" (PDF). New York Times. September 8, 1929. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  11. "Women Taking Poll Say Many Senators Didge the Dry Issue" (PDF). New York Times. June 9, 1930. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  12. "Gillett-Hoar Wedding" (PDF). New York Times. November 26, 1915. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  13. "Senator Hoar" (PDF). New York Times. December 16, 1934. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  14. Levenson, Michael (June 25, 2013). "Markey wins US Senate special election". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Elijah A. Morse
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1925
Succeeded by
George B. Churchill
Political offices
Preceded by
Champ Clark
Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
May 19, 1919 – March 4, 1921;
April 11, 1921 – March 4, 1923;
December 3, 1923 – March 4, 1925
Succeeded by
Nicholas Longworth
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
David I. Walsh
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts
March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1931
Served alongside: William M. Butler, David I. Walsh
Succeeded by
Marcus A. Coolidge