The Earl of Bristol
Frederick Augustus Hervey
1 August 1730
|Died||8 July 1803 72) (aged|
Albano, Papal States
|Resting place||Ickworth Parish Church|
|Other names||The Earl-Bishop|
|Alma mater||Corpus Christi College, Cambridge|
|Known for||Patron of the arts and landowner|
|Title||Bishop of Cloyne|
Bishop of Derry
Earl of Bristol
Baron Hervey and Howard de Walden
Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, – 8 July 1803), was an 18th-century Anglican prelate.(1 August 1730
Elected Bishop of Cloyne in 1767 and translated to the see of Derry in 1768, Hervey served as Lord Bishop of Derry until his death in 1803.
He is remembered for designing mansions at Downhill and Ballyscullion, and he was known as the Edifying Bishop or the Earl-Bishop (in allusion to prince-bishop).
Frederick Hervey was born in Suffolk, and attended Westminster School before going up to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he read Law. He took an MA degree in 1754 and was later awarded a DD (Cantab) in 1770.
Accorded the courtesy style The Honourable after his father's death in 1743, both of his brothers died without an heir. Thus he succeeded his immediate elder brother, Admiral Augustus Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, in the title in December 1779, becoming the 4th earl.He also inherited the Hervey family's extensive ancestral estates centred on Ickworth House in Suffolk.
Hervey conceived the redevelopment of the Ickworth estate to a standard appropriate to his family's wealth, with the added practical purpose of housing his extensive art collection. Work started in 1794, but so ambitious was the project that by the time of his death in 1803 only the Rotunda had been constructed. However, his son Frederick (later Marquess of Bristol) took over and completed his father's vision for Ickworth House, eventually completing the wings and its gardens in 1830.
In 1799 the Howard de Walden barony by writ was called out of abeyance by the House of Lords Committee of Privileges in the 4th Earl of Bristol's favour. Thus he succeeded as 5th Baron Howard de Walden, a title which devolved upon him via his grandmother (Elizabeth, Countess of Bristol, the 1st earl's 2nd wife), who was daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Felton and great-great-granddaughter of Sir Thomas Howard, KG (created a baron 1597).
Styled Bishop Hervey after his consecration on 31 May 1767, the following year he was translated as Lord Bishop of Derry, which became his formal ecclesiastical style until his death in 1803.
Hervey was ordained in 1754 as a Fellow of Corpus Christi College and then became Clerk of the Privy Seal in 1756 and Principal Clerk in 1761 before appointment as a Royal chaplain in 1763.
Hervey then set off on an extended Grand Tour while awaiting ecclesiastical preferment. During his European travels, he developed his already insatiable passion for art.
His eldest brother, George, 2nd Earl of Bristol, became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1766 and helped to secure his election as Bishop of Cloyne in 1767. Hervey displayed great enthusiasm for improving the property of the see of Cloyne which opened the way for his translation to the well endowed bishopric of Derry a year later. As Bishop of Derry, Hervey quickly developed a reputation for being "the most worldly, most eccentric, most talked-about priest in the Church of Ireland".
Hervey was Derry's most generous philanthropist, although some of the clergy in his diocese came to regard him as cheerfully sadistic, for such instances as when he instructed any portly priests coveting plum promotions to compete in midnight runs through bogs and marshland.
Given his family's wealth, Hervey both enjoyed personal luxury and expended large sums on building roads and developing agricultural enterprise within his diocese, including within the City of Derry.
Hervey was especially keen on architectural design and built mansions at Downhill and Ballyscullion; he then filled them with works of art from Italy and elsewhere.
Hervey favoured absolute religious equality, and opposed the feudal system of tithes. Having again passed some time in Italy, he returned to Ireland and in 1782 threw himself ardently into the Irish Volunteer Movement, quickly attaining a prominent position among the volunteers. With much pomp, he arrived at an Irish nationalist convention held at Dublin in November 1783.Buoyed by his status and popularity Bishop Hervey let slip some scurrilous talk of rebellion which led the British government to contemplate his arrest.
After this Hervey took no further part in British politics, spending his later years mainly on the continent of Europe. In 1798 he was imprisoned by the French at Milan for suspected espionage and was held in custody for eighteen months.
Upon his release, Hervey headed for Rome. En route at Albano, he needed overnight accommodation, which was offered by an Italian peasant by way of an outhouse; he and his wife were opposed to welcoming a Protestant into their house. The Lord Bishop died there outdoors at Albano. The earl's body was repatriated to England before being buried at Ickworth.
Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1782, the following year Hervey received the Freedom of the City of Dublin as well as of Derry.
Varying estimates have been found of his character. He was considered clever and cultured, but licentious and eccentric. He was a great collector of art and in later life, he openly professed materialistic opinions. Hervey fell in love with Wilhelmina, Countess von Lichtenau, King Frederick William II of Prussia's mistress, and by his bearing and often unusual and ostentatious style of dress he gave fresh point to Voltaire's original saying: "when God created the human race, he made men, women and Herveys".
During his European travels, and especially during his frequent visits to Rome, Hervey was known to walk around wearing a broad-brimmed white hat, many gold chains and red breeches, in what was perceived as a possible attempt to upstage his Catholic rivals.
As a bishop, Hervey was industrious and vigilant(despite his long absences from Ireland ) albeit having once declared himself an agnostic. King George III, bemused by his behaviour, began referring to Bishop Hervey as "that wicked prelate"!
It is said that Hervey's knowledge of fine things in Europe and love of travelling and staying in luxury inspired the fashion for naming a hotel the Hotel Bristol. The use of this name is meant to be synonymous with the finest accommodation and living throughout the Continent; the implication being that if Hervey were in town, that is where he would stay.
The Hon. Frederick Hervey married, in 1752, Elizabeth (*1733-02-01; †1800-12-19), daughter of Sir Jermyn Davers Bt MP, a great-granddaughter of Thomas, 2nd Baron Jermyn, as well as being sister and heiress of Sir Charles Davers Bt MP (1737–1807).
By their marriage, Hervey had four sons and three daughters:
In 1782, after 30 years of marriage, Hervey and his wife separated. The two never saw each other again, although Hervey regularly corresponded with his children, including the youngest daughter Louisa, who lived with her mother.
When Hervey died in 1803 in Lazio, Italy, his son Frederick succeeded as 5th Earl of Bristol as well as to the family estates including Ickworth House. The title of Baron Howard de Walden however passed to his great-grandson Charles Ellis, son of the 1st Baron Seaford, son of The Hon. Elizabeth Hervey (only child of Jack, Lord Hervey).
Marquess of Bristol is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom held by the Hervey family since 1826. The Marquess's subsidiary titles are: Earl of Bristol, Earl Jermyn, of Horningsheath in the County of Suffolk (1826), and Baron Hervey, of Ickworth in the County of Suffolk (1703). The Barony of Hervey is in the Peerage of England, the Earldom of Bristol in the Peerage of Great Britain and the Earldom of Jermyn in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Earl Jermyn is used as courtesy title by the Marquess's eldest son and heir. The Marquess of Bristol also holds the office of Hereditary High Steward of the Liberty of St Edmund. The present holder of these titles is Frederick Hervey, the 8th Marquess and 12th Earl of Bristol.
John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, was an English courtier and political writer. Heir to the Earl of Bristol, he obtained the key patronage of Walpole, and was involved in many court intrigues and literary quarrels, being apparently caricatured by Pope and Fielding. His memoirs of the early reign of George II were too revealing to be published in his time and did not appear for more than a century.
Frederick William Hervey, 1st Marquess of Bristol, styled Lord Hervey between 1796 and 1803 and known as The Earl of Bristol between 1803 and 1826, was a British peer.
Baron Seaford, of Seaford in the County of Sussex, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 1 July 1826 for Charles Ellis, a Jamaican sugar planter and slave-owner who had earlier represented Heytesbury, Seaford and East Grinstead in the House of Commons. In 1798 he married the Hon. Elizabeth Catherine Caroline Hervey, daughter of John Hervey, Lord Hervey, eldest son of Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol and 5th Baron Howard de Walden. In 1803 Lord Seaford's four-year-old son Charles Ellis inherited the barony of Howard de Walden from his great-grandfather and became the sixth Baron Howard de Walden. In 1845 he also succeeded his father as second Baron Seaford.
Baron Howard de Walden is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ of summons in 1597 by Queen Elizabeth I for Admiral Lord Thomas Howard, a younger son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, by his second wife, the Honourable Margaret Audley, daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden.
Frederick William Augustus Hervey, 8th Marquess of Bristol is a British peer. He succeeded his elder half-brother the 7th Marquess (1954–1999) in January 1999 as Marquess of Bristol. He is also the 12th Earl of Bristol, Earl Jermyn of Horningsheath in the County of Suffolk, 13th Baron Hervey of Ickworth in the County of Suffolk, and Hereditary High Steward of the Liberty of St Edmund, which encompasses the whole former county of West Suffolk.
Ickworth House is a country house near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England. It is a neoclassical building set in parkland. The house was the residence of the Marquess of Bristol before being sold to the National Trust in 1998.
Charles Augustus Ellis, 6th Baron Howard de Walden and 2nd Baron Seaford, was a British diplomat and politician.
Victor Frederick Cochrane Hervey, 6th Marquess of Bristol, was a British aristocrat, hereditary peer and businessman. He was a member of the House of Lords, Chancellor of the International Monarchist League, and an active businessman who later became a tax exile in Monaco.
Herbert Arthur Robert Hervey, 5th Marquess of Bristol, styled Lord Herbert Hervey from 1907 to 1951, was a British peer and politician.
Ballyscullion is a small village and civil parish in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 291 people. The civil parish of Ballyscullion covers areas of County Antrim as well as County Londonderry. The village is situated within Mid-Ulster District.
Captain John Augustus Hervey, Lord Hervey, RN was a British diplomat.
Elizabeth Christiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire was an English aristocrat and letter writer. She is best known as Lady Elizabeth Foster, the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the affections of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire and later marrying him. Several of her letters are preserved.
Frederick William Hervey, 2nd Marquess of Bristol PC, FSA, styled Lord Hervey from 1803 to 1826 and Earl Jermyn from 1826 to 1859, was a British Tory politician. He served as Treasurer of the Household under Sir Robert Peel between 1841 and 1846.
Horringer is a village and civil parish in the West Suffolk district of Suffolk in eastern England. It lies on the A143 about two miles south-west of Bury St Edmunds. The population in 2011 was 1055.
Lord Arthur Charles Hervey was an English bishop who served as Bishop of Bath and Wells from 1869 to 1894. He was usually known by his aristocratic courtesy title, "Lord", rather than the style appropriate to a bishop, the Right Reverend.
Mary Hervey, Lady Hervey was an English courtier.
Ballyscullion House refers to two country houses built for the Hervey family near Bellaghy in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, close to Lough Beg at north-west corner of Lough Neagh.
Sir Charles Davers, 6th Baronet was a British Army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1802.
Louisa Theodosia Jenkinson, Countess of Liverpool was a British noblewoman and the first wife of Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, who served as prime minister from 1812 to 1827.