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|Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
|Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
|Born||15 July 1646|
Gotha, Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
|Died||2 August 1691 45) (aged|
|Spouse|| Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels |
Christine of Baden-Durlach
| Anna Sophie, Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt |
Dorothea Marie, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen
|House||House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
|Father||Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg|
|Mother||Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg|
Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (15 July 1646 Gotha, Duchy of Saxe-Gotha – 2 August 1691 Friedrichswerth), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was the fourth but eldest surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg and Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg.
Saxe-Gotha was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in the former Landgraviate of Thuringia. The ducal residence was erected at Gotha.
Friedrichswerth is a village and a former municipality in the district of Gotha, in Thuringia, Germany. Since 1 January 2019, it is part of the municipality Nessetal.
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany. The extinction of the line in 1825 led to a major re-organisation of the Thuringian states.
When Ernst inherited the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (1672), he made Frederick the regent of that duchy. In 1674 Ernst, who was already ill, made Frederick the regent of his entire lands.
After the death of his father (1675) Frederick assumed the throne of both duchies. However, on the basis of his family's house law, he had to allow his six younger brothers to take part in the government. At first, they agreed to a common household of all seven brothers in the Schloss Friedenstein, though this arrangement endured only until 1676.
Afterwards, negotiations began for the division of the paternal inheritance. This was finally accomplished on 24 February 1680; Frederick kept Gotha, Tenneberg, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Georgenthal, Schwarzwald, Reinhardsbrunn, Volkenrode, Oberkranichfeld, Orlamünde, Altenburg and Tonna. These towns virtually formed the old duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. They consisted of three large and coherent areas around Gotha, Kahla and Altenburg, as well as six smaller enclaves.
Wachsenburg Castle is a castle in Amt Wachsenburg in the Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany. It is one of the Drei Gleichen, three hilltop castles east of Gotha. It was originally built in the 10th century. The castle was extensively reconstructed in the 17th and 19th century. The well-preserved castle now houses a museum, a hotel and a restaurant.
Ichtershausen is a village and a former municipality in the district Ilm-Kreis, in Thuringia, Germany. Since 31 December 2012, it is part of the municipality Amt Wachsenburg.
Georgenthal is a municipality in the district of Gotha, in Thuringia, Germany.
Frederick continued the work of his father. In order to prevent future disputes between his descendants, he established primogeniture for his house in 1685 (with Imperial assent granted in 1688). Around 1680 he established himself in the Lustschloss Friedrichswerth, near the village of Erffa, approximately 20 km of Gotha, which was renamed in his honour Friedrichswerth.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, a child other than the eldest male, a daughter, illegitimate child or a collateral relative. In some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter. The descendant of a deceased elder sibling inherits before a living younger sibling by right of substitution for the deceased heir. In the absence of any children, brothers succeed, individually, to the inheritance by seniority of age. Among siblings, sons usually inherit before daughters. In the absence of male descendants in the male-line, there are variations of primogeniture which allocate the inheritance to a daughter or a brother or, in the absence of either, to another collateral relative, in a specified order.
In 1683 Frederick created the (still in existence today) Theatre of Gotha (Gothaer Schloßtheater). He was also an eager diary writer; these diaries became one of the most important sources of his time. Frederick took part in the Great Turkish War against the Turks, and in the War of the Grand Alliance against France. He ruined the finances of his small duchy, however, using them to maintain a standing army, which by the time of his death counted over 10,000 men.
The Great Turkish War or the War of the Holy League was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and Poland, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.
Frederick married firstly in Halle on 14 November 1669, Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels. They had eight children:
In Ansbach on 14 August 1681, Frederick married secondly Christine of Baden-Durlach. They had no children.
|Ancestors of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|
Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg, was the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Saxe-Hildburghausen was an Ernestine duchy in the southern side of the present State of Thuringia in Germany. It existed from 1680 to 1826 but its name and borders are currently used by the District of Hildburghausen.
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty. Established in 1699, the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield line lasted until the reshuffle of the Ernestine territories that occurred following the extinction of the Saxe-Gotha line in 1825, in which the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld line received Gotha, but lost Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen.
Duchess Anna Sophie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Duchess in Saxony by birth, and by marriage a Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels was a German noblewoman.
Johann Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was a reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Albert V was a duke of Saxe-Coburg.
Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen was a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen was a German (Saxon) nobleman.
Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Karl Friedrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, was a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg, was a princess of Saxe-Altenburg and, by marriage, duchess of Saxe-Gotha.
Ernest I, called "Ernest The Pious", was a duke of Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg. The duchies were later merged into Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was the wife of Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. She was the daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and his first wife, Magdalena Sybille of Saxe-Weissenfels. She married Ernst Ludwig I on the 19 September 1704.
Saxe-Römhild was an Ernestine duchy in the southern foothills of the Thuringian Forest. It existed for only 30 years, from 1680 to 1710.
Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt was a landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen.
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Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-AltenburgBorn: 15 July 1646 Died: 2 August 1691
As Duke of Saxe-Gotha
| Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg |