Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

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Frederick II
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Christian Schilbach - Portrat des Herzogs Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Reign 16911732
Predecessor Frederick I
Successor Frederick III
Regent Bernhard I and Heinrich
Born(1676-07-28)28 July 1676
Gotha, Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Died 23 March 1732(1732-03-23) (aged 55)
Altenburg
Spouse Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Issue
among others...
Frederick III
Prince William
Prince John August
Fredericka, Duchess of Saxe-Weisselfels
Augusta, Princess of Wales
Prince John Adolf
House Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Father Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
Religion Lutheran

Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (28 July 1676, in Gotha 23 March 1732, in Altenburg), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

Altenburg Place in Thuringia, Germany

Altenburg is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located 40 kilometres south of Leipzig, 90 kilometres west of Dresden and 100 kilometres east of Erfurt. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district and part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production region between Gera, Zwickau and Chemnitz with more than 1 million inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of 33,000. Today, the city and its rural county is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region.

Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany. The extinction of the line in 1825 led to a major re-organisation of the Thuringian states.

Contents

He was the fifth child and first son of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels.

Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg First Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. He was the fourth but eldest surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg and Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg.

Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels German noble

Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels was a German noblewoman.

After the death of his father, in 1691, Frederick II assumed the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

Because he was still under age, a guardianship and co-regency was formed between his uncles, the dukes Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen and Heinrich of Saxe-Römhild. In 1693, after he returned from a journey to Holland and England, he wrote to the emperor for a license of adult age and took independent control of the government of his duchy. Frederick was a splendor-loving baroque ruler; maintaining his court and standing army, which he had taken over from his father and even expanded, devoured a considerable amount of his income. As a solution, Frederick hired out his soldiers to foreign princes, which caused him great difficulties in 1702, when the King Louis XIV of France hired his troops and used them in his war against the Emperor.

Holland Region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands

Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is also frequently used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. This usage is commonly accepted in other countries, and sometimes employed by the Dutch themselves. However, some in the Netherlands, particularly those from regions outside Holland, may find it undesirable or misrepresentative to use the term for the whole country.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarra, from 1643 to 1715

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.

Relating to domestic affairs, Frederick essentially continued the policy of his father. He created an orphanage in Altenburg (1715), a workhouse and a lunatic asylum in Kahla (1726), as well as the Magdalenenstift - in honor of his mother and wife (both with the same name) - (1705), an endowment for unmarried noble women. For 100,000 thaler from his private property, he bought the famous numismatic collection of Prince Anton Günther of Schwarzburg Arnstadt, which formed the basis of the current collection of coins (Münzkabinetts) at Schloss Friedenstein.

Kahla Place in Thuringia, Germany

Kahla is a town in the Saale-Holzland district, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated on the river Saale, 14 km south of Jena.

Anton Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt was a Count of Schwarzburg and Hohenstein and Lord of Sondershausen, Arnstadt and Leutenberg from 1666 until his death. In 1697, he was raised to Prince of Schwarzburg.

By accumulation of parts of Saxe-Coburg (dissolved in 1699), Saxe-Eisenberg (dissolved in 1707) and Saxe-Römhild (dissolved in 1710), he succeeded to all, however only at long hereditary disputes under the other Ernestine Duchies, which went only to 1735 with an arbitral award of the Emperor finally to end reaching in each case area increases for his country.

Issue

At Friedenstein Castle in Gotha on 7 June 1696, he married his first cousin, Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst.
They had nineteen children:

  1. Sophie (b. Gotha, 30 May 1697 – d. of smallpox, Gotha, 29 November 1703).
  2. Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 14 April 1699 – d. Gotha, 10 March 1772).
  3. Stillborn son (Gotha, 22 April 1700).
  4. Wilhelm (b. Gotha, 12 March 1701 – d. Gräfentonna, 31 May 1771), married on 8 November 1742 to Anna of Holstein-Gottorp. Their marriage was childless.
  5. Karl Frederick (b. Gotha, 20 September 1702 – d. [of smallpox?] Gotha, 21 November 1703)
  6. Stillborn daughter (b. and d. Gotha, 8 May 1703).
  7. Johann August (b. Gotha, 17 February 1704 – d. Stadtroda, 8 May 1767).
  8. Christian (b. Gotha, 27 February 1705 – d. of smallpox, Gotha, 5 March 1705).
  9. Christian Wilhelm (b. Gotha, 28 May 1706 – d. Stadtroda, 19 July 1748), married on 27 May 1743 to Luise Reuss of Schleiz. Their marriage was childless.
  10. Ludwig Ernst (b. Gotha, 28 December 1707 – d. Gotha, 13 August 1763)
  11. Emanuel (b. Gotha, 5 April 1709 – d. Gotha, 10 October 1710).
  12. Moritz (b. Altenburg, 11 May 1711 – d. Altenburg, 3 September 1777).
  13. Sophie (b. Altenburg, 23 August 1712 – d. Altenburg, 12 November 1712).
  14. Karl (b. Gotha, 17 April 1714 – d. Gotha, 10 July 1715).
  15. Fredericka (b. Gotha, 17 July 1715 – d. Langensalza, 12 May 1775), married on 27 November 1734 to Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels.
  16. Stillborn son (Gotha, 30 November 1716).
  17. Magdalena Sibylle (b. Gotha, 15 August 1718 – d. Gotha, 9 November 1718).
  18. Augusta (b. Gotha, 30 November 1719 – d. Carlton House, 8 February 1772), married on 8 May 1736 to Frederick, Prince of Wales. They had 9 children, their second child later became King George III of Great Britain.
  19. Johann Adolf (b. Gotha, 18 May 1721 – d. Friedrichstanneck, 29 April 1799).

Ancestry

Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Born: 28 July 1676 Died: 23 March 1732
Preceded by
Frederick I
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
16911732
Succeeded by
Frederick III

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