Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine

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Frederick IV by Anton Boys Frederick IV of Lorraine.jpg
Frederick IV by Anton Boys
Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine.png

Frederick IV (French : Ferry) (15 April 1282 21 April 1329 [1] ), called the Fighter, was the Duke of Lorraine from 1312 to his death.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Contents

Biography

Frederick was born in Gondreville, the son and successor of Theobald II and Isabella of Rumigny.

Gondreville, Meurthe-et-Moselle Commune in Grand Est, France

Gondreville is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. It was a base for the United States Air Service during World War I.

Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine

Theobald II was the Duke of Lorraine from 1303 until his death in 1312. He was the son and successor of Frederick III and Margaret, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre.

On 18 October 1314, at the Diet of Frankfurt, the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire failed to elect as successor to Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, either the Habsburg claimant, Frederick the Handsome, the duke of Austria, or the Wittelsbach, Louis IV of Bavaria. By marriage to Elisabeth, daughter of Albert I of Germany, Frederick was the brother-in-law of Frederick the Handsome, called Frederick III of Germany by his supporters, of whom Frederick of Lorraine was one. On 28 September 1322, at the Battle of Mühldorf, both Fredericks were captured. This was an opportunity for Charles IV of France to strengthen the Lorrainer ties to France and he quickly procured the duke's release on the promise that Lorraine would not interfere in imperial affairs.

Frankfurt Place in Hesse, Germany

Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, and its 746,878 (2017) inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area.

Prince-elector members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire

The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the lectoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

Holy Roman Empire varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

In 1324, he participated in an expedition in Aquitaine against Edward II of England's estates, for Charles IV had built a fortress illegally on Edward's territory and had sent his uncle, Count Charles III of Valois, against the English possessions after Hugh le Despenser and the Younger Despenser imprisoned Isabella of France, Charles IV's sister and Edward's queen. He took part in the War of Metz in 1325 and 1326. He joined Philip VI of France, Charles of Valois's son, on his succession in 1328 and died in the Battle of Cassel.

Aquitaine Region in France

Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne, is a historical region of France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.

Edward II of England 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward II, also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307. He married Isabella, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns.

Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester

Hugh le Despenser, sometimes referred to as "the Elder Despenser," was for a time the chief adviser to King Edward II of England.

Personal life

In 1304, Frederick IV married Elisabeth of Austria (1285–1352), daughter of Albert I of Austria the Emperor. They had the following children:

Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine

Rudolph, called the Valiant, was the Duke of Lorraine from 1329 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick IV and Elisabeth, daughter of Albert I of Germany. Though he was but nine years of age when his father died and he succeeded to the duchy under the regency of his mother, he was a warrior prince, taking part in four separate wars in Lorraine, France, Brittany, and Iberia. He was killed at the Battle of Crécy.

Auberive Commune in Grand Est, France

Auberive is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in the Grand Est region in northeastern France.

Freiburg im Breisgau Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. A famous old German university town, and archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial, intellectual, and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region. The city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, and held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) from 2003 to 2015.

See also

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References

  1. Lorraine Medieval Lands
Preceded by
Theobald II
Duke of Lorraine
1312–1329
Succeeded by
Rudolph