Frederick I of Württemberg

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Frederick I
Seele-Friedrich I..jpg
Duke, Elector, then King of Württemberg
Reign22 December 1797 – 30 October 1816
Coronation 1 January 1806
Predecessor Frederick II Eugene
Successor William I
Born(1754-11-06)6 November 1754
Treptow on der Rega, Prussia (now Trzebiatów, Poland)
Died30 October 1816(1816-10-30) (aged 61)
Stuttgart, Kingdom of Württemberg, Germany
Burial1 November 1816
Schlosskirche, Ludwigsburg, Germany
Issue William I
Catharina, Queen of Westphalia
Duchess Sophia Dorothea
Prince Paul
Father Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg
Mother Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt
Religion Lutheranism

Frederick I (German : Friedrich Wilhelm Karl; 6 November 1754 30 October 1816) was the ruler of Württemberg from 1797 to his death. He was the last Duke of Württemberg from 1797 to 1803, then the first and only Elector of Württemberg from 1803 to 1806, before raising Württemberg to a kingdom in 1806 with the approval of Napoleon I. He was known for his size: at 2.12 m (6 ft 11 in) and about 200 kg (440 lb).

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to the German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Württemberg Describes Württemburg in different forms from 1092 until 1945 - not to be confused with articles on parts of this period.

Württemberg is a historical German territory roughly corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia. Together with Baden and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg. Württemberg was formerly also spelled Würtemberg and Wirtemberg.

Duchy of Württemberg former German state (1495-1806)

The Duchy of Württemberg was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a member of the Holy Roman Empire from 1495 to 1806. The dukedom's long survival for nearly four centuries was mainly due to its size, being larger than its immediate neighbors. During the Protestant Reformation, Württemberg faced great pressure from the Holy Roman Empire to remain a member. Württemberg resisted repeated French invasions in the 17th and 18th centuries. Württemberg was directly in the path of French and Austrian armies who were engaged in the long rivalry between the House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg. In 1803, Napoleon raised the duchy to be the Electorate of Württemberg of the Holy Roman Empire. On 1 January 1806, the last Elector assumed the title of King of Württemberg. Later that year, on 6 August 1806, the last Emperor, Francis II, abolished the Holy Roman Empire.


Early life

In Prussia

Copy by Erhardt of an English portrait of Frederick as a young man. Friedrich I - Jugendbildnis.jpg
Copy by Erhardt of an English portrait of Frederick as a young man.

Born in Treptow an der Rega, today Trzebiatów, Poland, Frederick was the eldest son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, and Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Frederick's father was the third son of Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, and Frederick was thus the nephew of the long-reigning duke Charles Eugene (German : Karl Eugen). Since neither Duke Charles Eugene nor his next brother, Louis Eugene (German : Ludwig Eugen), had any sons, it was expected that Frederick's father (also named Frederick) would eventually succeed to the Duchy, and would be succeeded in turn by Frederick.

Trzebiatów Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Trzebiatów is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 10,119 inhabitants (2016). Trzebiatów is located on the Rega River in the north-western part of Poland, roughly 9 kilometers south of the Baltic coast.

Poland Republic in Central Europe

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg Duke of Wurttemburg

Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg was the fourth son of Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis. He was born in Stuttgart. From 1795 until 1797 he was Duke of Württemberg.

That eventuality was however many years in the future, and the birth of a legitimate son to either of his uncles would preempt Frederick's hopes conclusively. Further, his uncle the Duke was not disposed to give any member of his family any role in affairs of government. Frederick therefore determined - like his father - on a military career at the court of Frederick the Great. This later drew Frederick and his family into the Prussian king's network of marriage alliances - in 1776 his sister Sophie would marry to Tsesarevich Paul, future Emperor of Russia and son of Empress Catherine II. These family ties to Russia had immediate consequences for Frederick and far-reaching ones for Württemberg during the reorganisation of Europe in the wake of the 1814 Congress of Vienna.

Frederick the Great King of Prussia

Frederick II ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king, at 46 years. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most historically Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people and eventually the rest of Germany.

Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg) Empress consort of Russia

Maria Feodorovna was Empress consort of Russia as the second wife of Tsar Paul I.

Paul I of Russia Emperor of All Russia

Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov.

Augusta of Brunswick. Auguste von Braunschweig-Wolfenbuttel.jpg
Augusta of Brunswick.

In June 1774 he entered the Prussian Army as an oberst in the Kürassierregiment Lölhöffel, rising to a commander in the same unit in December 1776. He fought with it in the War of the Bavarian Succession. In 1780 he took over the 2nd Dragoon Regiment (Krockow). Frederick married Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (sixteen years old and thus ten years his junior) on 15 October 1780 at Braunschweig. She was the eldest daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Augusta of Great Britain and thus a niece of George III of Great Britain and sister to Caroline of Brunswick, the future wife of George IV. The marriage was not a happy one - even during her first pregnancy in 1781 she wished to separate but was persuaded to stay with Frederick by her father. Though they had four children, Frederick was rumored to be bisexual, with a coterie of young noblemen[ citation needed ].

War of the Bavarian Succession 18th-century war against the Austrian Habsburgs and

The War of the Bavarian Succession was a dispute between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and an alliance of Saxony and Prussia over succession to the Electorate of Bavaria after the extinction of its ruling House of Wittelsbach. The Habsburgs sought to acquire Bavaria, and the alliance opposed them, favoring another branch of the Wittelsbachs. Both sides mobilized large armies, but the only fighting in the war was a few minor skirmishes. However, thousands of soldiers died from disease and starvation, earning the conflict the name Kartoffelkrieg in Prussia and Saxony; in Habsburg Austria, it was sometimes called the Zwetschgenrummel.

Braunschweig City and district in Lower Saxony, Germany

Braunschweig, also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker River which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser Rivers. In 2016, it had a population of 250,704.

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick German general

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. His titles are usually shortened to Duke of Brunswick in English-language sources.

He had a good relationship with the King of Prussia and regularly took part in cabinet meetings, though this was clouded by his sister Elizabeth's 1781 marriage to Francis of Austria, later the last Holy Roman Emperor and the first Emperor of Austria. Frederick the Great feared that Prussia would become isolated by a closer relationship between Russia and Austria, whose rulers were both Frederick of Württemberg's sisters and (probably wrongly) blamed him for Francis' marriage.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the first Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the Grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

In Russia

In 1781 Frederick resigned from the Prussian Army as a major general and the following year he accompanied Sophie and her husband to Russia, after a Grand Tour of Europe that the imperial couple had undertaken. Pleased with the well-spoken and confident young man, Catherine II appointed Frederick Governor-General of Eastern Finland, with his seat at Viipuri. From June to October 1783 he was also in command of a 15000-20000 strong corps in Kherson during the Russo-Turkish War, but he was not significantly involved in combat.

Grand Tour Journey around Europe for cultural education

The Grand Tour was the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age.

Governor-General of Finland position

Governor-General of Finland ; was the military commander and the highest administrator of Finland sporadically under Swedish rule in the 17th and 18th centuries and continuously in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland between 1809 and 1917.

Old Finland

Old Finland is a name used for the areas that Russia gained from Sweden in the Great Northern War and in the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743). Old Finland was joined to the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland as Viipuri province in 1812.

Frederick's relationship with his wife became more and more strained. He was reportedly violent towards her and after a play during a visit to Saint Petersburg in December 1786, Augusta asked for protection from Empress Catherine. She gave Augusta asylum and ordered Frederick to leave Russia. When Sophie protested at the treatment of her brother, Catherine replied, "It is not I who cover the Prince of Württemberg with opprobrium: on the contrary, it is I who try to bury abominations and it is my duty to suppress any further ones." Catherine's relationship with Frederick's brother-in-law Paul had also broken down and so Frederick had to help protect his sister as she came under fire from Catherine. Augusta was sent to live at Lohde Castle in Western Estonia but died on 27 September 1788 after miscarrying an illegitimate child and being refused any medical help to cover up the pregnancy. In the same year, Frederick sold his residence in Vyborg, known as Monrepos.

'The Bridal Night' by James Gilray, satirising Frederick's marriage to the Princess Royal. The bridal night by James Gillray.jpg
'The Bridal Night' by James Gilray, satirising Frederick's marriage to the Princess Royal.

In the meantime, Frederick's succession to the throne of Württemberg had become more and more likely. In June 1789 he traveled to Paris to see the first stages of the French Revolution at first hand, before moving to Ludwigsburg the following year, much to the displeasure of his uncle Carl Eugen, who was still on the throne. His father came to the throne in 1795 and finally Frederick gained his long-wished political influences. His Brunswick-born father helped him make contact with the British royal family - Frederick's first wife had been a niece of George III. On 18 May 1797, Frederick married George's eldest daughter Charlotte at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace.


Duke and Elector

On 22 December 1797, Frederick's father, who had succeeded his brother as Duke of Württemberg two years before, died, and Frederick became Duke of Württemberg as Frederick III. He was not to enjoy his reign undisturbed for long, however. In 1800, the French army occupied Württemberg and the Duke and Duchess fled to Vienna. In 1801, Duke Frederick ceded the enclave of Montbéliard to the French Republic, and received Ellwangen in exchange two years later.

In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , which reorganized the Empire as a result of the French annexation of the west bank of the Rhine, the Duke of Württemberg was raised to the dignity of Imperial Elector. Frederick assumed the title Prince-Elector (German : Kurfürst ) on 25 February 1803, and was thereafter known as the Elector of Württemberg . The reorganization of the Empire also secured the new Elector control of various ecclesiastical territories and former free cities, thus greatly increasing the size of his domains.


Crown of the Kingdom of Wurttemberg. Wurttembergische Konigskrone-MFr-3.jpg
Crown of the Kingdom of Württemberg.

In exchange for providing France with a large auxiliary force, Napoleon allowed Frederick to raise Württemberg to a kingdom on 26 December 1805. Friedrick was formally crowned king at Stuttgart on 1 January 1806, and took the regnal name of King Frederick I. Soon after, Württemberg seceded from the Holy Roman Empire and joined Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine. Once again, the assumption of a new title also meant territorial expansion, as the territories of various nearby princes were mediatized and annexed by Württemberg. As a symbol of his alliance with Napoleon, Frederick's daughter, Princess Catharina, was married to Napoleon's youngest brother, Jérôme Bonaparte.

The newly elevated king's alliance with France technically made him the enemy of his father-in-law, George III. However, the King's dynastic connections would enable him to act as a go-between with Britain and various continental powers. In 1810, Frederick banished the composer Carl Maria von Weber from Württemberg on the pretext that Weber had mismanaged the funds of Frederick's brother, Louis, for whom Weber had served as secretary since 1807.

During the German Campaign of 1813, Frederick changed sides and went over to the Allies, where his status as the brother-in-law of the British Prince Regent (later George IV) and uncle to the Russian Emperor Alexander I helped his standing. After the fall of Napoleon, he attended the Congress of Vienna and was confirmed as King. At Vienna, Frederick and his ministers were very concerned to make sure that Württemberg would be able to retain all the territories it had gained in the past fifteen years. Frederick's harsh treatment of the mediatized [ citation needed ] princes within his domain made him one of the principal targets of the organization of dispossessed princes, which hoped to gain the support of the Powers in regaining their lost sovereignty. In the end, however, Austria, which was seen as the natural ally of the princes, was more interested in alliance with the medium-sized German states like Württemberg than in asserting its traditional role as protector of the smaller sovereigns of the old Empire; and Frederick was allowed to retain his dubiously acquired lands. Frederick, along with the other German princes, joined the new German Confederation in 1815. He died in Stuttgart in October of the next year.

When he became King, he granted his children and further male-line descendants the titles Princes and Princesses of Württemberg with the style Royal Highness , and he styled his siblings as Royal Highnesses with the titles Dukes and Duchesses of Württemberg.

He was very tall and obese: behind his back he was known as "The Great Belly-Gerent". Napoleon remarked that God had created the Prince to demonstrate the utmost extent to which the human skin could be stretched without bursting. [1] In return, Frederick wondered how so much poison could fit in such a small head as Napoleon's.[ citation needed ]

Marriages and children

Frederick was married twice. On 15 October 1780, Frederick married Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. They had four children:

On 18 May 1797, Frederick married Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King George III. The couple had only one child, a stillborn daughter delivered on 27 April 1798.



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  1. David, Saul (1998). Prince of Pleasure . New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 200. ISBN   0-87113-739-9.
  2. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 111.
Frederick I of Württemberg
Born: 6 November 1754 Died: 30 October 1816
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick II Eugene
Duke of Württemberg
Change of title
New title
Elevation in rank
Elector of Württemberg
King of Württemberg
Succeeded by
William I