The Earl of Derby
|6th Governor General of Canada|
11 June 1888 –18 September 1893
|Prime Minister||Canadian: |
John A. Macdonald
Marquess of Salisbury
William Ewart Gladstone
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Lansdowne|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Aberdeen|
|President of the Board of Trade|
3 August 1886 –21 February 1888
|Prime Minister||The Marquess of Salisbury|
|Preceded by||A. J. Mundella|
|Succeeded by||Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
24 June 1885 –28 January 1886
|Prime Minister||The Marquess of Salisbury|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Derby|
|Succeeded by||The Earl Granville|
|Secretary of State for War|
2 April 1878 –21 April 1880
|Prime Minister||The Earl of Beaconsfield|
|Preceded by||Gathorne Hardy|
|Succeeded by||Hugh Childers|
|Born||15 January 1841|
|Died||14 June 1908 67) (aged|
Holwood, Kent, UK
|Spouse(s)||Lady Constance Villiers |
|Alma mater|| Eton |
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
|Years of service||1862–1865|
Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby , KG , GCB , GCVO , PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908), styled as Hon. Frederick Stanley from 1844–86 and as Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886–93, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England and is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was also one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame.
Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, sometimes informally called the Tories, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 312 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 4 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.
Derby was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, and the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale. He was born in London and was educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards, rising to the rank of Captain.
Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.
Emma Caroline Smith-Stanley was the Countess of Derby and wife of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times in the mid-19th century.
Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, was a British landowner and politician.
Derby left the army for politics, serving as a Conservative Member of Parliament (for Preston from 1865 to 1868, North Lancashire from 1868 to 1885 and Blackpool from 1885 to 1886). In government, he served as a Civil Lord of the Admiralty (1868), Financial Secretary to the War Office (1874–1878), Secretary to the Treasury (1878), War Secretary (1878–1880) and Colonial Secretary (1885–1886).In 1886, he was created Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster. He served as President of the Board of Trade (1886–1888), remaining in that office until he was appointed Governor General of Canada.
Preston is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Sir Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party.
North Lancashire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was represented by two Members of Parliament. The constituency was created by the Great Reform Act of 1832 by the splitting of Lancashire constituency into Northern and Southern divisions.
Blackpool was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Blackpool in Lancashire. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Derby was a Freemason.
Stanley was appointed the Governor General of Canada and Commander in Chief of Prince Edward Island on 1 May 1888.During his term as Governor General, he travelled often and widely throughout the country. His visit to western Canada in 1889 gave him a lasting appreciation of the region's great natural beauty as well as permitting him to meet the people of Canada's First Nations and many western ranchers and farmers. During his visit he dedicated Stanley Park, which is named after him. He also experienced the joys of fishing and avidly pursued the sport whenever his busy schedule allowed. As governor general, Stanley was the third holder of that office to whom Queen Victoria granted the power of granting pardons to offenders or remitting sentences and fines and the power of mitigating capital or any other sentence.
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873. Its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents.
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit. The Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.
Stanley Park is a 405-hectare (1,001-acre) public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is mostly surrounded by waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay.
When Sir John A. Macdonald died in office of heart failure on 6 June 1891, Stanley lost the close friendship he had enjoyed with the Prime Minister. He asked Sir John Abbott to take over as prime minister. Once the government was in place, Abbott resigned for health reasons and turned the government over to Sir John Thompson. Stanley helped cement the non-political role of the governor general when, in 1891, he refused to agree to a controversial motion in the House of Commons. The motion called on him as governor general to disallow the government of Quebec's Jesuit Estates Act, which authorized paying $400,000 as compensation for land granted to the Jesuits by the King of France.The opposition to the bill was introduced by the other provinces who were motivated by mistrust of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Stanley declined to interfere, citing the proposed disallowal as unconstitutional. In holding to this decision, he gained popularity by refusing to compromise the viceregal position of political neutrality.
Sir John Alexander Macdonald was the first prime minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government. The current, and 23rd, Prime Minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2015 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life.
Sir John Sparrow David Thompson was a Canadian lawyer, judge, and politician who served as the fourth prime minister of Canada, in office from 1892 until his death. He had previously been premier of Nova Scotia for a brief period in 1882.
Stanley's wife, whom Sir Wilfrid Laurier described as "an able and witty woman", made a lasting contribution during her husband's term of office. In 1891, she founded the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses on Rideau Street, the first nursing school in Ottawa. She was also an enthusiastic fan of hockey games at the Rideau Rink.
Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier was the seventh prime minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911.
The Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses was the first nursing school in Ottawa, Ontario, located on Rideau Street. It was founded in 1891 by Constance Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Preston and later Countess of Derby. She was the wife of Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, who served as Governor General of Canada from 1888-1893.
Ottawa is the capital of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). As of June 16, 2019, Ottawa has a city population of 1,000,000, and as of 2016 has a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada.
Stanley's sons became avid ice hockey players in Canada, playing in amateur leagues in Ottawa, and Lord and Lady Stanley became staunch hockey fans. In 1892, Stanley gave Canada a treasured national icon, the Stanley Cup, known originally as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup. He originally donated the trophy as a challenge cup for Canada's best amateur hockey club, but in 1909, it became contested by professional teams exclusively. Since 1926, only teams of the National Hockey League have competed for the trophy. This now-famous cup bears Stanley's name as tribute to his encouragement and love of outdoor life and sport in Canada. In recognition of this, he was inducted into the Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945 in the "Honoured Builders" category. The original size of the Stanley Cup was 7 inches (180 mm) and is now around 36 inches (910 mm) and 35 pounds (16 kg).
Stanley's term as Governor General of Canada was due to end in September 1893. However, in April of that year, his elder brother, the 15th Earl of Derby, died. Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby. As a result, Stanley, now known as Lord Derby, left Canada on 15 July 1893 and returned to England. An administrator was appointed to fulfil his duties until Lord Aberdeen was sworn in that September.
Also in 1893, Toronto's "New Fort York" (built in 1841) was renamed The Stanley Barracks in honour of Lord Stanley. Back with his family in England, he soon became the Lord Mayor of Liverpool and the first Chancellor of the University of Liverpool. Stanley Park, Liverpool is also named after him. In November 1901 Lord Derby was elected Mayor of Preston for the following year,and took part in the 1902 Preston Guild. During the last years of his life, he increasingly dedicated himself to philanthropic work. He helped fund the Coronation Park, Ormskirk, in 1905.
Derby married Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 31 May 1864.She was born in 1840. They had eight sons and two daughters (of whom one son and one daughter died as children). Her Ladyship remained and several of their children lived in Canada throughout his term as Governor General. She was responsible for the foundation of the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses in Ottawa, Ontario, as well as a Maternity Hospital. She was president of the $4,000 fund instituted by the women of Canada for the presentation of a wedding gift to the present Prince and Princess of Wales: a sleigh, robes, harness and horses and a canoe. In 1890 Prince George of Wales (the future King George V) was their guest at Rideau Hall. In 1903 King Edward VII was their guest at their residence, St. James Square, London, England.
Their second son, the Hon. Sir Victor Stanley (1867–1934), was an Admiral in the Royal Navy who married a Canadian lady, the daughter of Hon. C. E. Pooley, KC, of British Columbia.Their third son, the Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, and sixth son, the Hon. Sir George Frederick Stanley, were both politicians. Their fourth son, the Hon. Ferdinand Charles Stanley, was educated at Wellington and Sandhurst, before joining the King's Royal Rifle Corps in 1891, rising to the rank of Brigadier-General. He married the Hon. Alexandra Fellowes, the eldest daughter of the Baron de Ramsey; they lived at 8 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, London, now renamed Stanley House.
Their daughter, Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy, was their longest living child, living until 1963. She was instrumental in convincing her father to create the Stanley Cup.She is mentioned in one of the first games of women's hockey, played at Rideau Skating Rink in 1899. Her role as a women's hockey pioneer is recognized in women's hockey with both with the Isobel Gathorne-Hardy Award, given across women's hockey in Canada, and the Isobel Cup, the National Women's Hockey League's championship trophy.
Derby died on 14 June 1908, aged 67, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward, who also became a distinguished politician. Lady Derby died on 17 April 1922.
After Edward Whymper made the first ascent of Stanley Peak in 1901, he named the mountain after Lord Derby. Vancouver's Stanley Park and Stanley Theatre were also named after him,as was Stanley Park, Blackpool.
The Preston Squadron of cadets at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean was named in his honour. Stanley Park, an area that famously separates the home grounds of English Premier League football teams Liverpool F. C. and Everton F. C., was named after him. Stanley House Inn, named for Lord Stanley and was built as his summer residence in 1888 along the Cascapedia River.
The Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup is today known as the Stanley Cup and is awarded to the winning team of the National Hockey League playoffs each season. In October 2017, a monument commemorating the donation of the Stanley Cup was erected in Ottawa at Sparks Street and Elgin Street, near the location of the dinner party announcing the Cup at the Russell House, which has since been demolished.
Stanley Quay, later renamed Stanley Street, in Brisbane, Australia, was named after him at the time he was Colonial Secretary.
Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey was a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the ninth since Canadian Confederation. He was a radical Liberal aristocrat, founder of the Society of Apostles, and Aricles Club and a member of a string of liberal high society clubs in London. An active and articulate campaigner in late Victorian England he was associated with many of the leading Imperialists seeking change.
Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.
Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck, was the last Governor-General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. Prior to Confederation he was concurrently Lieutenant Governor of both Canada West and Canada East. He was the son of Charles Monck, 3rd Viscount Monck, and his wife Bridget née Willington.
Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, KG, of Knowsley Hall in Lancashire, was a politician, peer, landowner, builder, farmer, art collector, and naturalist. He was the patron of the writer Edward Lear.
Baron Stanley of Alderley, in the County of Chester, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1839 for the politician and landowner Sir John Stanley, 7th Baronet. Upon his death in 1850, he was succeeded as 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley and 8th Baronet of Alderley Hall by his son Edward, who was a prominent Liberal politician and notably served as President of the Board of Trade, Postmaster General and had in 1848 been created Baron Eddisbury, of Winnington in the County Palatine of Chester, in his own right. His wife Henrietta was a prominent campaigner for women's education. After his death, the Stanley of Alderley and Eddisbury baronies remained united; most holders have since chosen to be known as Lord Stanley of Alderley. The 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley had a career in the Diplomatic Service; as he was childless he was succeeded by his younger brother, the 4th Baron. He was Liberal Member of Parliament for Oldham. In 1909, the 4th Baron Stanley of Alderley acquired a further title when he succeeded his first cousin once removed, the Earl of Sheffield, according to a special remainder and thus inherited the title of 4th Baron Sheffield. After his death the titles passed to his son, the 5th Baron Stanley of Alderley. He was Liberal Member of Parliament for Eddisbury and also served as Governor of Victoria. His eldest son, the 6th Baron Stanley of Alderley, sold the family seat of Alderley Hall in 1938. He was married four times, the second time to Sylvia Ashley. On his death the titles passed to his younger brother, who preferred to be known as Lord Sheffield. He only held the titles for three months. As of 2013 the titles are held by the latter's cousin, the 9th Baron Stanley of Alderley, who succeeded his father in that year. He is the grandson of the Hon. Oliver Hugh Stanley, youngest son of the 4th Baron.
Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby PC, usually styled Lord Stanley from 1771 to 1776, was a British peer and politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He held office as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1783 in the Fox–North coalition and between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents.
Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby,, styled Mr Edward Stanley until 1886, then The Hon Edward Stanley and then Lord Stanley from 1893 to 1908, was a British soldier, Conservative politician, diplomat, and racehorse owner. He was twice Secretary of State for War and also served as British Ambassador to France.
William Wellesley-Pole, 3rd Earl of Mornington,, known as Lord Maryborough between 1821 and 1842, was an Anglo-Irish politician and an elder brother of the Duke of Wellington. His surname changed twice: he was born with the name Wesley, which he changed to Wesley-Pole following an inheritance in 1781. In 1789 the spelling was updated to Wellesley-Pole, just as other members of the family had changed Wesley to Wellesley.
Edward Montagu Cavendish Stanley, Lord Stanley, was a British Conservative politician. The eldest son of the 17th Earl of Derby, he held minor political office before being appointed Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in 1938, sitting in the cabinet alongside his brother Oliver Stanley. However, Stanley died only a few months after this appointment, aged 44, with his oldest son, Edward John Stanley, succeeding to the earldom in his stead.
William Philip Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton, also known as Lord Dashalong, was a sportsman, gambler and a friend of the Prince Regent.
(Marie) Evelyn Byng, Viscountess Byng of Vimy, also known as Lady Byng, was the wife of Lord Byng, the 12th Governor General of Canada (1921–1926).
Sir Arthur Stanley was a British Conservative politician
Edward Richard William Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby, is a British peer and landowner.
Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby was an English nobleman and politician. He was the only son of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby and Charlotte de La Trémouille.
Edward John Stanley, 18th Earl of Derby,, styled Lord Stanley from 1938 to 1948, was a British peer, landowner and businessman.
Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy was the daughter of former Governor General of Canada Lord Stanley of Preston. While living in Canada, Stanley helped to popularize ice hockey and is one of the first known women to play the game. The National Women's Hockey League's championship trophy is called the Isobel Cup in honor of her contributions to ice hockey.
John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, known as The Earl of Aberdeen from 1870 to 1916, was a Scottish politician. Born in Edinburgh, Hamilton-Gordon held office in several countries, serving twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and serving from 1893 to 1898 as the seventh Governor General of Canada.
In Canada, a number of sites and structures are named for Governors General of the country, the Canadian monarch's representative in the country.
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|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Charles Pascoe Grenfell
| Member of Parliament for Preston |
With: Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Marquess of Hartington
| Member of Parliament for North Lancashire |
With: John Wilson-Patten 1868–1874;
Thomas Henry Clifton 1874–1880;
Randle Joseph Feilden 1880–1885
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Blackpool |
Sir Matthew Ridley, Bt
| Financial Secretary to the War Office |
W. H. Smith
| Financial Secretary to the Treasury |
Sir Henry Selwin-Ibbetson, Bt
| Secretary of State for War |
The Earl of Derby
| Secretary of State for the Colonies |
The Earl Granville
A. J. Mundella
| President of the Board of Trade |
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bt
The Marquess of Lansdowne
| Governor General of Canada |
The Earl of Aberdeen
The Earl of Sefton
| Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire |
The Lord Shuttleworth
|Peerage of England|
| Earl of Derby |
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baron Stanley of Preston |