Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby

Last updated

The Earl of Derby
Lord Stanley of Preston.jpg
6th Governor General of Canada
In office
1 May 1888 18 September 1893
Alma mater Harrow
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
Signature Lord Stanley Signature.svg
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Branch/serviceFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1862–1865
Rank Captain
Unit Grenadier Guards

Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby , KG , GCB , GCVO , PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908) styled as Hon. Frederick Stanley from 1844 to 1886 and as The Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886 and 1893, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England and is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was also one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame.


Background and education

Stanley was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, and the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale. He was born in London, and educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards, rising to the rank of Captain before leaving the army for politics. [1] [2] He later served as Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the part-time 1st Royal Lancashire Militia (The Duke of Lancaster's Own) from 23 June 1874 (though his political duties often kept him away from the regiment's annual training) and became Honorary Colonel of its successor, the 3rd and 4th Battalions, King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment), from 27 February 1886 until his death. [3]

Political career

As the Hon Frederick Stanley he served as a Conservative Member of Parliament (for Preston from 1865 to 1868, North Lancashire from 1868 to 1885 and Blackpool from 1885 to 1886). In government, he served as a Civil Lord of the Admiralty (1868), Financial Secretary to the War Office (1874–1878), Secretary to the Treasury (1878), War Secretary (1878–1880) and Colonial Secretary (1885–1886). In 1886, he was created Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster. He served as President of the Board of Trade (1886–1888), remaining in that office until he was appointed Governor General of Canada. [1] [2]

Derby was a Freemason. [4]

Governor General of Canada

Ice Carnival in Rideau Rink in Lord Stanley's time 1888-1893 Ice carnival in Rideau Rink c1888.JPG
Ice Carnival in Rideau Rink in Lord Stanley's time 1888–1893

Stanley was appointed the Governor General of Canada and Commander in Chief of Prince Edward Island on 1 May 1888. [1] [2] During his term as Governor General, he travelled often and widely throughout the country. His visit to western Canada in 1889 gave him a lasting appreciation of the region's great natural beauty as well as permitting him to meet the people of Canada's First Nations and many western ranchers and farmers. During his visit, he dedicated Stanley Park, which is named after him. He also experienced the joys of fishing and avidly pursued the sport whenever his busy schedule allowed. As governor general, Stanley was the third holder of that office to whom Queen Victoria granted the power of granting pardons to offenders or remitting sentences and fines and the power of mitigating capital or any other sentence. [2]

When Prime Minister John A. Macdonald died in office of heart failure on 6 June 1891, Stanley lost the close friendship he had enjoyed with Macdonald. He asked John Abbott to take over as prime minister. Once the government was in place, Abbott resigned for health reasons and turned the government over to John Thompson. Stanley helped cement the non-political role of the governor general when, in 1891, he refused to agree to a controversial motion in the House of Commons. The motion called on him as governor general to disallow the government of Quebec's Jesuit Estates Act, which authorized paying $400,000 as compensation for land granted to the Jesuits by the King of France. [2] The opposition to the bill was introduced by the other provinces who were motivated by mistrust of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Stanley declined to interfere, citing the proposed disallowal as unconstitutional. In holding to this decision, he gained popularity by refusing to compromise the viceregal position of political neutrality.

Stanley's wife, whom Wilfrid Laurier described as "an able and witty woman", made a lasting contribution during her husband's term of office. In 1891, she founded the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses on Rideau Street, the first nursing school in Ottawa. She was also an enthusiastic fan of hockey games at the Rideau Rink.

Stanley Cup

A statue of Lord Stanley stands in Stanley Park, Vancouver. Buberel Lord Stanley statue.jpg
A statue of Lord Stanley stands in Stanley Park, Vancouver.

Stanley's sons became avid ice hockey players in Canada, playing in amateur leagues in Ottawa, and Lord and Lady Stanley became staunch hockey fans. In 1892, Stanley bequeathed to Canada a trophy today named in his honour as the Stanley Cup, known originally as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup. He originally donated the trophy as a challenge cup for Canada's best amateur hockey club, but in 1909, it became contested for by professional teams exclusively. Since 1926, only teams of the National Hockey League have competed for the trophy. This now-famous cup bears his name as a tribute to his encouragement and love of outdoor life and sport in Canada and in recognition, he was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945 in the "Honoured Builders" category. The original size of the trophy was 7 inches (180 mm) and is now around 36 inches (910 mm) and weighs 35 pounds (16 kg).

Later years

Frederick Arthur Stanley Frederick Arthur Stanley.jpg
Frederick Arthur Stanley

Stanley's term as Governor General of Canada was due to end in September 1893. However, in April of that year, his elder brother, the 15th Earl of Derby, died. Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby. [1] As a result, Stanley, now known as Lord Derby, left Canada on 15 July 1893 and returned to England. An administrator was appointed to fulfil his duties until Lord Aberdeen was sworn in that September.

Also in 1893, Toronto's "New Fort York" (built in 1841) was renamed The Stanley Barracks in honour of Lord Stanley. Back with his family in England, he soon became the Lord Mayor of Liverpool and the first Chancellor of the University of Liverpool. Stanley Park, Liverpool is also named after him. In November 1901 Lord Derby was elected Mayor of Preston for the following year, [1] [5] and took part in the 1902 Preston Guild. He later received the honorary freedom of the borough of Preston, with which his family had been associated for centuries. [6]

During the last years of his life, he increasingly dedicated himself to philanthropic work. He was founder president of the committee for the building of Liverpool Cathedral in 1901. [7] He helped fund the Coronation Park, Ormskirk, in 1905. [8]


Constance Stanley, Countess of Derby by William Notman Constance Derby Countess of Derby by William Notman.jpg
Constance Stanley, Countess of Derby by William Notman
The Earl of Derby Lordstanley.jpg
The Earl of Derby

Derby married Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 31 May 1864. [1] [2] She was born in 1840. They had eight sons and two daughters (of whom one son and one daughter died as children). Her Ladyship remained and several of their children lived in Canada throughout his term as Governor-General. She was responsible for the foundation of the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses in Ottawa, Ontario, as well as a Maternity Hospital. She was president of the $4,000 fund instituted by the women of Canada for the presentation of a wedding gift to the present Prince and Princess of Wales: a sleigh, robes, harnesses and horses and a canoe. In 1890 Prince George of Wales (the future King George V) was their guest at Rideau Hall. In 1903 King Edward VII was their guest at their residence, St. James Square, London, England.

Their 10 children (8 boys; 2 girls) were: [1]

Derby died on 14 June 1908, aged 67, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward, who also became a distinguished politician. Lady Derby died on 17 April 1922. [1]


After Edward Whymper made the first ascent of Stanley Peak in 1901, he named the mountain after Lord Derby. Vancouver's Stanley Park and Stanley Theatre were also named after him, [12] as was Stanley Park, Blackpool.

The Preston Squadron of cadets at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean was named in his honour. Stanley Park, an area that famously separates Anfield and Goodison Park, the home grounds of English Premier League football teams Liverpool F.C. and Everton F.C., was named after him. Stanley House Inn, named for Lord Stanley and was built as his summer residence in 1888 along the Cascapedia River.

The Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup is today known as the Stanley Cup and is awarded to the winning team of the National Hockey League playoffs each season. In October 2017, Lord Stanley's Gift Monument was erected in Ottawa at Sparks Street and Elgin Street, near the location of the dinner party announcing the Cup at the Russell House, which has since been demolished. [13]

Stanley Quay, later renamed Stanley Street, in Brisbane, Australia, was named after him at the time he was Colonial Secretary.

Honorary degrees

Honorific eponyms


Coat of arms of Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby
Coronet of a British Earl.svg
Arms of Stanley.svg
A cap of maintenance Gules turned up Ermine an eagle wings extended Or preying on an infant in its cradle proper swaddled Gules the cradle laced Or.
Argent on a bend Azure three stags' heads caboshed Or a crescent Azure for difference.
Dexter a griffin wings elevated sinister a stag each Or and ducally gorged with a line reflexed over the back and charged on the shoulder with a crescent Azure.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Burke's, 'Derby'.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Canada's Executive Head; Power and Emoluments of the Governor General. Almost Unlimited Authority Granted to Him – An Expensive Luxury for Canadians Who Want to Choose Their Own Governor", The New York Times , 5 November 1891.
  3. Williamson & Whalley, pp. 329–30; Appendix B.
  4. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon: A few famous freemasons.
  5. "Election of Mayors". The Times. No. 36609. London. 11 November 1901. p. 7.
  6. "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36932. London. 22 November 1902. p. 12.
  7. Riley, Ken (1987). Liverpool Cathedral. Fine Art Publications. pp. 16–17.Guide to the Anglican cathedral.
  8. Broady-Hawkes, Dot (21 June 2015). "Ormskirk Nostalgia: Happy birthday to Coronation Park – 120 years old this month". Southport Visitor.
  9. Morgan, Henry James, ed. (1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p.  323.
  10. "Cornwall Terrace". Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.
  11. "Biographies". Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  12. Mathison, Emily. "Things That Go Bump in the Night: Unearthly spirit sightings at a local landmark" Archived 29 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 9 May 2008.
  13. "Invitation: Monument Unveiling". 18 October 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  14. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. "Stanley Peak British Columbia #1538". Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  16. "Stanley Peak". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  17. "Peak Stanley". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  18. Stanley Street (Montreal)

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Derby</span> Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey</span> British politician and Governor General of Canada

Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey, was a British peer and politician who served as Governor General of Canada 1904–1911, the ninth since Canadian Confederation. He was a radical Liberal aristocrat and a member of a string of liberal high society clubs in London. An active and articulate campaigner in late Victorian England he was associated with many of the leading Imperialists seeking change.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck</span> British politician and first Governor General of Canada (1819–1894)

Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck was an Irish politician who served as the last governor-general of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby</span> British politician (1826–1893)

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs twice, from 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1878, and also twice as Colonial Secretary in 1858 and from 1882 to 1885.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby</span> British politician

Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, KG, of Knowsley Hall in Lancashire, was a politician, peer, landowner, builder, farmer, art collector and naturalist. He was the patron of the writer Edward Lear.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook</span>

Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook, was a prominent British statesman, Conservative politician and key ally of Benjamin Disraeli. He held cabinet office in every Conservative government between 1858 and 1892 and notably served as Home Secretary from 1867 to 1868, Secretary of State for War from 1874 to 1878 and Secretary of State for India until 1880. Gathorne-Hardy oversaw the British declaration of war for the Second Anglo-Afghan War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby</span> British peer and politician (1752–1834)

Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby PC, usually styled Lord Stanley from 1771 to 1776, was a British peer and politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He held office as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1783 in the Fox–North coalition and between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby</span> British politician

Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby,, styled Mr Edward Stanley until 1886, then The Hon Edward Stanley and then Lord Stanley from 1893 to 1908, was a British soldier, Conservative politician, diplomat, and racehorse owner. He was twice Secretary of State for War and also served as British Ambassador to France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oliver Stanley</span> British politician (1896–1950)

Oliver Frederick George Stanley was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his relatively early death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley (died 1938)</span>

Edward Montagu Cavendish Stanley, Lord Stanley, was a British Conservative politician. The eldest son of the 17th Earl of Derby, he held minor political office before being appointed Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in 1938, sitting in the cabinet alongside his brother Oliver Stanley. However, Stanley died only five months after this appointment, aged 44; his eldest son, Edward John Stanley, later succeeded to the earldom in his stead.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Earl of Lathom</span> British politician

Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Earl of Lathom, known as The Lord Skelmersdale between 1853 and 1880, was a British Conservative politician. He was a member of every Conservative administration between 1866 and 1898, and notably served three times as Lord Chamberlain of the Household under Lord Salisbury. Having succeeded his grandfather as Baron Skelmersdale in 1853, he was created Earl of Lathom in 1880.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arthur Stanley (politician)</span> British politician

Sir Arthur Stanley was a British Conservative politician, humanitarian, and Chairman of the Joint War Organisation of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England during World War I and World War II.

Edward Richard William Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby, is a British hereditary peer and landowner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archibald Acheson, 4th Earl of Gosford</span> British peer

Archibald Brabazon Sparrow Acheson, 4th Earl of Gosford, was a British peer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Crichton, 4th Earl Erne</span>

John Henry Crichton, 4th Earl Erne,, styled Viscount Crichton from 1842 to 1885, was an Anglo-Irish peer and Conservative politician.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby</span> English noble and politician (1689–1776)

Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby, known as Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet, from 1714 to 1736, was a British nobleman, peer, and politician.

Edward John Stanley, 18th Earl of Derby,, styled Lord Stanley from 1938 to 1948, was a British peer, landowner and businessman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy</span> British royal courtier and early pioneer of womens ice hockey

Lady Isobel Constance Mary Gathorne-Hardy was a British courtier, best known for helping to popularize ice hockey in the early days of the sport in Canada. The daughter of Lord Stanley of Preston, former Governor General of Canada, and Lady Constance Villiers, she was one of the earliest European women known to have played the sport. Today, she is celebrated as an early pioneer of women's ice hockey and the championship trophy of the Premier Hockey Federation (PHF) is called the Isobel Cup in her honor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gathorne-Hardy family</span> Surname list

Gathorne-Hardy is a British aristocratic family. The first part of the name is pronounced with a long 'a', i.e. as if "gay-thorn". The founder of the family was Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook, a prominent Tory politician and favourite of Queen Victoria who adopted the hyphenated surname Gathorne-Hardy. The "eccentric Gathorne-Hardys" as they are sometimes known, have produced many notable members of 19th and 20th century British society.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emma Caroline Smith-Stanley, Countess of Derby</span>

Emma Caroline Smith-Stanley was the Countess of Derby as the wife of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times in the mid-19th century.


Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Preston
With: Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for North Lancashire
With: John Wilson-Patten 1868–1874;
Thomas Henry Clifton 1874–1880;
Randle Joseph Feilden 1880–1885
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Blackpool
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Financial Secretary to the War Office
Succeeded by
Preceded by Financial Secretary to the Treasury
Succeeded by
Preceded by Secretary of State for War
Succeeded by
Preceded by Secretary of State for the Colonies
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the Board of Trade
Succeeded by
Government offices
Preceded by Governor General of Canada
Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
Preceded by Earl of Derby
Succeeded by
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Stanley of Preston
Succeeded by
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by President of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire
Succeeded by