Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby

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The Earl of Derby

Lord Stanley of Preston.jpg
6th Governor General of Canada
In office
11 June 1888 18 September 1893
Monarch Queen Victoria
Prime MinisterCanadian:
John A. Macdonald
John Abbott
John Thompson
British:
Marquess of Salisbury
William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by The Marquess of Lansdowne
Succeeded by The Earl of Aberdeen
President of the Board of Trade
In office
3 August 1886 21 February 1888
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by A. J. Mundella
Succeeded by Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
24 June 1885 28 January 1886
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by The Earl of Derby
Succeeded by The Earl Granville
Secretary of State for War
In office
2 April 1878 21 April 1880
MonarchVictoria
Prime Minister The Earl of Beaconsfield
Preceded by Gathorne Hardy
Succeeded by Hugh Childers
Personal details
Born(1841-01-15)15 January 1841
London, UK
Died14 June 1908(1908-06-14) (aged 67)
Holwood, Kent, UK
NationalityBritish
Canadian
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)Lady Constance Villiers
(1840–1922)
Children
Alma mater Eton
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
Signature Lord Stanley Signature.svg
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Branch/serviceFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1862–1865
Rank Captain
Unit Grenadier Guards

Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby , KG , GCB , GCVO , PC (15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908), styled as Hon. Frederick Stanley from 1844–86 and as Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886–93, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England and is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was also one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame.

Earl of Derby title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Conservative Party (UK) Political party in the United Kingdom

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, sometimes informally called the Tories, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 312 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 4 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.

Contents

Background and education

Derby was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, and the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale. He was born in London and was educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards, rising to the rank of Captain. [1]

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby British Prime Minister

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.

Emma Caroline Smith-Stanley, Countess of Derby

Emma Caroline Smith-Stanley was the Countess of Derby and wife of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times in the mid-19th century.

Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, was a British landowner and politician.

Political career

Derby left the army for politics, serving as a Conservative Member of Parliament (for Preston from 1865 to 1868, North Lancashire from 1868 to 1885 and Blackpool from 1885 to 1886). In government, he served as a Civil Lord of the Admiralty (1868), Financial Secretary to the War Office (1874–1878), Secretary to the Treasury (1878), War Secretary (1878–1880) and Colonial Secretary (1885–1886). [1] In 1886, he was created Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster. He served as President of the Board of Trade (1886–1888), remaining in that office until he was appointed Governor General of Canada. [1]

Preston (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983 onwards

Preston is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Sir Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party.

North Lancashire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was represented by two Members of Parliament. The constituency was created by the Great Reform Act of 1832 by the splitting of Lancashire constituency into Northern and Southern divisions.

Blackpool was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Blackpool in Lancashire. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Derby was a Freemason. [2]

Governor General of Canada

Ice Carnival in Rideau Rink in Lord Stanley's time 1888-1893 Ice carnival in Rideau Rink c1888.JPG
Ice Carnival in Rideau Rink in Lord Stanley's time 1888–1893

Stanley was appointed the Governor General of Canada and Commander in Chief of Prince Edward Island on 1 May 1888. [1] During his term as Governor General, he travelled often and widely throughout the country. His visit to western Canada in 1889 gave him a lasting appreciation of the region's great natural beauty as well as permitting him to meet the people of Canada's First Nations and many western ranchers and farmers. During his visit he dedicated Stanley Park, which is named after him. He also experienced the joys of fishing and avidly pursued the sport whenever his busy schedule allowed. As governor general, Stanley was the third holder of that office to whom Queen Victoria granted the power of granting pardons to offenders or remitting sentences and fines and the power of mitigating capital or any other sentence. [1]

Prince Edward Island Province of Canada

Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873. Its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents.

In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit. The Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

Stanley Park park in Vancouver, Canada

Stanley Park is a 405-hectare (1,001-acre) public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is mostly surrounded by waters of Burrard Inlet and English Bay.

When Sir John A. Macdonald died in office of heart failure on 6 June 1891, Stanley lost the close friendship he had enjoyed with the Prime Minister. He asked Sir John Abbott to take over as prime minister. Once the government was in place, Abbott resigned for health reasons and turned the government over to Sir John Thompson. Stanley helped cement the non-political role of the governor general when, in 1891, he refused to agree to a controversial motion in the House of Commons. The motion called on him as governor general to disallow the government of Quebec's Jesuit Estates Act, which authorized paying $400,000 as compensation for land granted to the Jesuits by the King of France. [1] The opposition to the bill was introduced by the other provinces who were motivated by mistrust of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Stanley declined to interfere, citing the proposed disallowal as unconstitutional. In holding to this decision, he gained popularity by refusing to compromise the viceregal position of political neutrality.

John A. Macdonald 1st Prime Minister of Canada

Sir John Alexander Macdonald was the first prime minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.

Prime Minister of Canada Head of government for Canada

The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government. The current, and 23rd, Prime Minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2015 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life.

John Sparrow David Thompson 4th Prime Minister of Canada

Sir John Sparrow David Thompson was a Canadian lawyer, judge, and politician who served as the fourth prime minister of Canada, in office from 1892 until his death. He had previously been premier of Nova Scotia for a brief period in 1882.

Stanley's wife, whom Sir Wilfrid Laurier described as "an able and witty woman", made a lasting contribution during her husband's term of office. In 1891, she founded the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses on Rideau Street, the first nursing school in Ottawa. She was also an enthusiastic fan of hockey games at the Rideau Rink.

Wilfrid Laurier 7th prime minister of Canada

Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier was the seventh prime minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911.

Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses

The Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses was the first nursing school in Ottawa, Ontario, located on Rideau Street. It was founded in 1891 by Constance Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Preston and later Countess of Derby. She was the wife of Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, who served as Governor General of Canada from 1888-1893.

Ottawa Federal capital city in Ontario, Canada

Ottawa is the capital of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). As of June 16, 2019, Ottawa has a city population of 1,000,000, and as of 2016 has a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada.

The NHL Stanley Cup

A statue of Lord Derby stands in Stanley Park, Vancouver. Buberel Lord Stanley statue.jpg
A statue of Lord Derby stands in Stanley Park, Vancouver.

Stanley's sons became avid ice hockey players in Canada, playing in amateur leagues in Ottawa, and Lord and Lady Stanley became staunch hockey fans. In 1892, Stanley gave Canada a treasured national icon, the Stanley Cup, known originally as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup. He originally donated the trophy as a challenge cup for Canada's best amateur hockey club, but in 1909, it became contested by professional teams exclusively. Since 1926, only teams of the National Hockey League have competed for the trophy. This now-famous cup bears Stanley's name as tribute to his encouragement and love of outdoor life and sport in Canada. In recognition of this, he was inducted into the Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945 in the "Honoured Builders" category. The original size of the Stanley Cup was 7 inches (180 mm) and is now around 36 inches (910 mm) and 35 pounds (16 kg).

Later years

Frederick Arthur Stanley Frederick Arthur Stanley.jpg
Frederick Arthur Stanley

Stanley's term as Governor General of Canada was due to end in September 1893. However, in April of that year, his elder brother, the 15th Earl of Derby, died. Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby. As a result, Stanley, now known as Lord Derby, left Canada on 15 July 1893 and returned to England. An administrator was appointed to fulfil his duties until Lord Aberdeen was sworn in that September.

Also in 1893, Toronto's "New Fort York" (built in 1841) was renamed The Stanley Barracks in honour of Lord Stanley. Back with his family in England, he soon became the Lord Mayor of Liverpool and the first Chancellor of the University of Liverpool. Stanley Park, Liverpool is also named after him. In November 1901 Lord Derby was elected Mayor of Preston for the following year, [3] and took part in the 1902 Preston Guild. During the last years of his life, he increasingly dedicated himself to philanthropic work. He helped fund the Coronation Park, Ormskirk, in 1905. [4]

Family

Constance Stanley, Countess of Derby by William Notman Constance Derby Countess of Derby by William Notman.jpg
Constance Stanley, Countess of Derby by William Notman
The Earl of Derby Lordstanley.jpg
The Earl of Derby

Derby married Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 31 May 1864. [1] She was born in 1840. They had eight sons and two daughters (of whom one son and one daughter died as children). Her Ladyship remained and several of their children lived in Canada throughout his term as Governor General. She was responsible for the foundation of the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses in Ottawa, Ontario, as well as a Maternity Hospital. She was president of the $4,000 fund instituted by the women of Canada for the presentation of a wedding gift to the present Prince and Princess of Wales: a sleigh, robes, harness and horses and a canoe. In 1890 Prince George of Wales (the future King George V) was their guest at Rideau Hall. In 1903 King Edward VII was their guest at their residence, St. James Square, London, England.

Their second son, the Hon. Sir Victor Stanley (1867–1934), was an Admiral in the Royal Navy who married a Canadian lady, the daughter of Hon. C. E. Pooley, KC, of British Columbia. [5] Their third son, the Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, and sixth son, the Hon. Sir George Frederick Stanley, were both politicians. Their fourth son, the Hon. Ferdinand Charles Stanley, was educated at Wellington and Sandhurst, before joining the King's Royal Rifle Corps in 1891, rising to the rank of Brigadier-General. He married the Hon. Alexandra Fellowes, the eldest daughter of the Baron de Ramsey; they lived at 8 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, London, now renamed Stanley House. [6]

Their daughter, Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy, was their longest living child, living until 1963. She was instrumental in convincing her father to create the Stanley Cup. [7] She is mentioned in one of the first games of women's hockey, played at Rideau Skating Rink in 1899. Her role as a women's hockey pioneer is recognized in women's hockey with both with the Isobel Gathorne-Hardy Award, given across women's hockey in Canada, and the Isobel Cup, the National Women's Hockey League's championship trophy.

Derby died on 14 June 1908, aged 67, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward, who also became a distinguished politician. Lady Derby died on 17 April 1922.

Legacy

After Edward Whymper made the first ascent of Stanley Peak in 1901, he named the mountain after Lord Derby. Vancouver's Stanley Park and Stanley Theatre were also named after him, [8] as was Stanley Park, Blackpool.

The Preston Squadron of cadets at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean was named in his honour. Stanley Park, an area that famously separates the home grounds of English Premier League football teams Liverpool F. C. and Everton F. C., was named after him. Stanley House Inn, named for Lord Stanley and was built as his summer residence in 1888 along the Cascapedia River.

The Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup is today known as the Stanley Cup and is awarded to the winning team of the National Hockey League playoffs each season. In October 2017, a monument commemorating the donation of the Stanley Cup was erected in Ottawa at Sparks Street and Elgin Street, near the location of the dinner party announcing the Cup at the Russell House, which has since been demolished. [9]

Stanley Quay, later renamed Stanley Street, in Brisbane, Australia, was named after him at the time he was Colonial Secretary.

Honorary degrees

Honorific eponyms

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Canada's Executive Head; Power and Emoluments of the Governor General. Almost Unlimited Authority Granted to Him – An Expensive Luxury for Canadians Who Want to Choose Their Own Governor," New York Times. 5 November 1891.
  2. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon: A few famous freemasons.
  3. "Election of Mayors". The Times (36609). London. 11 November 1901. p. 7.
  4. Broady-Hawkes, Dot (21 June 2015). "Ormskirk Nostalgia: Happy birthday to Coronation Park – 120 years old this month". Southport Visitor.
  5. Morgan, Henry James, ed. (1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p. 323.
  6. "Cornwall Terrace". Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.
  7. "Biographies". CBC.ca. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  8. Mathison, Emily. "Things That Go Bump in the Night: Unearthly spirit sightings at a local landmark" Archived 29 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 9 May 2008.
  9. "Invitation: Monument Unveiling". lordstanleysgift.com. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  10. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. "Stanley Peak British Columbia #1538". Bivouac.com. Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  12. Peakware.com (ed.). "Stanley Peak". Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  13. "Peak Stanley". Peakfinder.com. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  14. Stanley Street (Montreal)

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References

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Charles Pascoe Grenfell
Member of Parliament for Preston
18651868
With: Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Edward Hermon
Preceded by
Marquess of Hartington
John Wilson-Patten
Member of Parliament for North Lancashire
18681885
With: John Wilson-Patten 1868–1874;
Thomas Henry Clifton 1874–1880;
Randle Joseph Feilden 1880–1885
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Blackpool
18851886
Succeeded by
Sir Matthew Ridley, Bt
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Financial Secretary to the War Office
1874–1877
Succeeded by
Robert Loyd-Lindsay
Preceded by
W. H. Smith
Financial Secretary to the Treasury
1877–1878
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Selwin-Ibbetson, Bt
Preceded by
Gathorne Hardy
Secretary of State for War
1878–1880
Succeeded by
Hugh Childers
Preceded by
The Earl of Derby
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1885–1886
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Preceded by
A. J. Mundella
President of the Board of Trade
1886–1888
Succeeded by
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bt
Government offices
Preceded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Governor General of Canada
1888–1893
Succeeded by
The Earl of Aberdeen
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Sefton
Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire
1897–1908
Succeeded by
The Lord Shuttleworth
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Edward Stanley
Earl of Derby
1893–1908
Succeeded by
Edward Stanley
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Stanley of Preston
1886–1908
Succeeded by
Edward Stanley