The Earl of Derby
|6th Governor General of Canada|
11 June 1888 –18 September 1893
|Prime Minister||Canadian: |
Sir John A. Macdonald
Sir John Abbott
Sir John Thompson
The Marquess of Salisbury
William Ewart Gladstone
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Lansdowne|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Aberdeen|
|President of the Board of Trade|
3 August 1886 –21 February 1888
|Prime Minister||The Marquess of Salisbury|
|Preceded by||A. J. Mundella|
|Succeeded by||Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
24 June 1885 –28 January 1886
|Prime Minister||The Marquess of Salisbury|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Derby|
|Succeeded by||The Earl Granville|
|Secretary of State for War|
2 April 1878 –21 April 1880
|Prime Minister||The Earl of Beaconsfield|
|Preceded by||Gathorne Hardy|
|Succeeded by||Hugh Childers|
|Born||15 January 1841|
|Died||14 June 1908 67) (aged|
Holwood, Kent, UK
|Spouse(s)||Lady Constance Villiers |
|Alma mater|| Eton |
Royal Military College, Sandhurst
|Years of service||1862–1865|
Frederick Arthur Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby ,(15 January 1841 – 14 June 1908) styled as Hon. Frederick Stanley from 1844–86 and as Lord Stanley of Preston between 1886–93, was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who served as Colonial Secretary from 1885 to 1886 and the sixth Governor General of Canada from 1888 to 1893. An avid sportsman, he built Stanley House Stables in England and is famous in North America for presenting Canada with the Stanley Cup. Stanley was also one of the original inductees of the Hockey Hall of Fame.
Derby was the second son of Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, and the Hon. Emma Caroline, daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale. He was born in London and was educated at Eton and Sandhurst. He received a commission in the Grenadier Guards, rising to the rank of Captain.
Derby left the army for politics, serving as a Conservative Member of Parliament (for Preston from 1865 to 1868, North Lancashire from 1868 to 1885 and Blackpool from 1885 to 1886). In government, he served as a Civil Lord of the Admiralty (1868), Financial Secretary to the War Office (1874–1878), Secretary to the Treasury (1878), War Secretary (1878–1880) and Colonial Secretary (1885–1886).In 1886, he was created Baron Stanley of Preston, in the County Palatine of Lancaster. He served as President of the Board of Trade (1886–1888), remaining in that office until he was appointed Governor General of Canada.
Derby was a Freemason.
Stanley was appointed the Governor General of Canada and Commander in Chief of Prince Edward Island on 1 May 1888.During his term as Governor General, he travelled often and widely throughout the country. His visit to western Canada in 1889 gave him a lasting appreciation of the region's great natural beauty as well as permitting him to meet the people of Canada's First Nations and many western ranchers and farmers. During his visit he dedicated Stanley Park, which is named after him. He also experienced the joys of fishing and avidly pursued the sport whenever his busy schedule allowed. As governor general, Stanley was the third holder of that office to whom Queen Victoria granted the power of granting pardons to offenders or remitting sentences and fines and the power of mitigating capital or any other sentence.
When Sir John A. Macdonald died in office of heart failure on 6 June 1891, Stanley lost the close friendship he had enjoyed with the Prime Minister. He asked Sir John Abbott to take over as prime minister. Once the government was in place, Abbott resigned for health reasons and turned the government over to Sir John Thompson. Stanley helped cement the non-political role of the governor general when, in 1891, he refused to agree to a controversial motion in the House of Commons. The motion called on him as governor general to disallow the government of Quebec's Jesuit Estates Act, which authorized paying $400,000 as compensation for land granted to the Jesuits by the King of France.The opposition to the bill was introduced by the other provinces who were motivated by mistrust of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. Stanley declined to interfere, citing the proposed disallowal as unconstitutional. In holding to this decision, he gained popularity by refusing to compromise the viceregal position of political neutrality.
Stanley's wife, whom Sir Wilfrid Laurier described as "an able and witty woman", made a lasting contribution during her husband's term of office. In 1891, she founded the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses on Rideau Street, the first nursing school in Ottawa. She was also an enthusiastic fan of hockey games at the Rideau Rink.
Stanley's sons became avid ice hockey players in Canada, playing in amateur leagues in Ottawa, and Lord and Lady Stanley became staunch hockey fans. In 1892, Stanley gave Canada a treasured national icon, the Stanley Cup, known originally as the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup. He originally donated the trophy as a challenge cup for Canada's best amateur hockey club, but in 1909, it became contested by professional teams exclusively. Since 1926, only teams of the National Hockey League have competed for the trophy. This now-famous cup bears Stanley's name as tribute to his encouragement and love of outdoor life and sport in Canada. In recognition of this, he was inducted into the Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945 in the "Honoured Builders" category. The original size of the Stanley Cup was 7 inches (180 mm) and is now around 36 inches (910 mm) and 35 pounds (16 kg).
Stanley's term as Governor General of Canada was due to end in September 1893. However, in April of that year, his elder brother, the 15th Earl of Derby, died. Stanley succeeded him as the 16th Earl of Derby. As a result, Stanley, now known as Lord Derby, left Canada on 15 July 1893 and returned to England. An administrator was appointed to fulfil his duties until Lord Aberdeen was sworn in that September.
Also in 1893, Toronto's "New Fort York" (built in 1841) was renamed The Stanley Barracks in honour of Lord Stanley. Back with his family in England, he soon became the Lord Mayor of Liverpool and the first Chancellor of the University of Liverpool. Stanley Park, Liverpool is also named after him. In November 1901 Lord Derby was elected Mayor of Preston for the following year,and took part in the 1902 Preston Guild. During the last years of his life, he increasingly dedicated himself to philanthropic work. He helped fund the Coronation Park, Ormskirk, in 1905.
Derby married Lady Constance Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 31 May 1864.She was born in 1840. They had eight sons and two daughters (of whom one son and one daughter died as children). Her Ladyship remained and several of their children lived in Canada throughout his term as Governor General. She was responsible for the foundation of the Lady Stanley Institute for Trained Nurses in Ottawa, Ontario, as well as a Maternity Hospital. She was president of the $4,000 fund instituted by the women of Canada for the presentation of a wedding gift to the present Prince and Princess of Wales: a sleigh, robes, harness and horses and a canoe. In 1890 Prince George of Wales (the future King George V) was their guest at Rideau Hall. In 1903 King Edward VII was their guest at their residence, St. James Square, London, England.
their children were:
Derby died on 14 June 1908, aged 67, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward, who also became a distinguished politician. Lady Derby died on 17 April 1922.
After Edward Whymper made the first ascent of Stanley Peak in 1901, he named the mountain after Lord Derby. Vancouver's Stanley Park and Stanley Theatre were also named after him,as was Stanley Park, Blackpool.
The Preston Squadron of cadets at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean was named in his honour. Stanley Park, an area that famously separates the home grounds of English Premier League football teams Liverpool F. C. and Everton F. C., was named after him. Stanley House Inn, named for Lord Stanley and was built as his summer residence in 1888 along the Cascapedia River.
The Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup is today known as the Stanley Cup and is awarded to the winning team of the National Hockey League playoffs each season. In October 2017, Lord Stanley's Gift Monument was erected in Ottawa at Sparks Street and Elgin Street, near the location of the dinner party announcing the Cup at the Russell House, which has since been demolished.[?]
Stanley Quay, later renamed Stanley Street, in Brisbane, Australia, was named after him at the time he was Colonial Secretary.
Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.
Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey was a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the ninth since Canadian Confederation. He was a radical Liberal aristocrat and a member of a string of liberal high society clubs in London. An active and articulate campaigner in late Victorian England he was associated with many of the leading Imperialists seeking change.
Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.
Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount Monck was a British politician who served as the last Governor-General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. Prior to Confederation he was concurrently Lieutenant Governor of both Canada West and Canada East.
Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, KG, of Knowsley Hall in Lancashire, was a politician, peer, landowner, builder, farmer, art collector and naturalist. He was the patron of the writer Edward Lear.
Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby PC, usually styled Lord Stanley from 1771 to 1776, was a British peer and politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He held office as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1783 in the Fox–North coalition and between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents.
Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby,, styled Mr Edward Stanley until 1886, then The Hon Edward Stanley and then Lord Stanley from 1893 to 1908, was a British soldier, Conservative politician, diplomat, and racehorse owner. He was twice Secretary of State for War and also served as British Ambassador to France.
Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven PC, styled17th Baron Willoughby de Eresby between 1666 and 1701, and known as 4th Earl of Lindsey between 1701 and 1706, and as 1st Marquess of Lindsey between 1706 and 1715, was a British statesman and nobleman.
Oliver Frederick George Stanley, MP,, was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his relatively early death.
Edward Montagu Cavendish Stanley, Lord Stanley, was a British Conservative politician. The eldest son of the 17th Earl of Derby, he held minor political office before being appointed Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in 1938, sitting in the cabinet alongside his brother Oliver Stanley. However, Stanley died only a few months after this appointment, aged 44, with his eldest son, Edward John Stanley, succeeding to the earldom in his stead.
Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Earl of Lathom, known as The Lord Skelmersdale between 1853 and 1880, was a British Conservative politician. He was a member of every Conservative administration between 1866 and 1898, and notably served three times as Lord Chamberlain of the Household under Lord Salisbury. Having succeeded his grandfather as Baron Skelmersdale in 1853, he was created Earl of Lathom in 1880.
(Marie) Evelyn Byng, Viscountess Byng of Vimy, also known as Lady Byng, was the wife of Lord Byng, the 12th Governor General of Canada (1921–26).
David Boyle, 7th Earl of Glasgow,, was a British naval commander and colonial governor. He served as Governor of New Zealand between 1892 and 1897.
Sir Arthur Stanley was a British Conservative politician
Edward Richard William Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby, is a British hereditary peer and landowner.
Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby, known as Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet, from 1714 to 1736, was a British nobleman, peer, and politician.
Edward John Stanley, 18th Earl of Derby,, styled Lord Stanley from 1938 to 1948, was a British peer, landowner and businessman.
John Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley, known as Sir John Stanley, 7th Baronet, from 1807 to 1839, was a British peer and politician.
Lady Isobel Gathorne-Hardy was the daughter of former Governor General of Canada Lord Stanley of Preston. While living in Canada, Stanley helped to popularize ice hockey and is one of the first known women to play the game. The National Women's Hockey League's championship trophy is called the Isobel Cup in honor of her contributions to ice hockey.
In Canada, a number of sites and structures are named for Governors General of the country, the Canadian monarch's representative in the country.
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|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Charles Pascoe Grenfell
| Member of Parliament for Preston |
With: Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt
Marquess of Hartington
| Member of Parliament for North Lancashire |
With: John Wilson-Patten 1868–1874;
Thomas Henry Clifton 1874–1880;
Randle Joseph Feilden 1880–1885
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Blackpool |
Sir Matthew Ridley, Bt
| Financial Secretary to the War Office |
W. H. Smith
| Financial Secretary to the Treasury |
Sir Henry Selwin-Ibbetson, Bt
| Secretary of State for War |
The Earl of Derby
| Secretary of State for the Colonies |
The Earl Granville
A. J. Mundella
| President of the Board of Trade |
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Bt
The Marquess of Lansdowne
| Governor General of Canada |
The Earl of Aberdeen
The Earl of Sefton
| Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire |
The Lord Shuttleworth
|Peerage of England|
| Earl of Derby |
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baron Stanley of Preston |