Painting by Otto Bache, 1910
| King of Denmark |
|Reign||29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912|
|Born||Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg|
3 June 1843
Yellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
|Died||14 May 1912 68) (aged|
Hamburg, German Empire
Louise of Sweden (m. 1869)
|Father||Christian IX of Denmark|
|Mother||Louise of Hesse-Kassel|
Frederick VIII (Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl) (3 June 1843 – 14 May 1912) was King of Denmark from 1906 to 1912. Before his accession to the throne at age 62, he served as crown prince for over 42 years. During the long reign of his father, King Christian IX, he was largely excluded from influence and political power.
Frederick was born on 3 June 1843 in the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen as Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a junior male line of the House of Oldenburg, which was descended from Christian III of Denmark and which had ruled as non-sovereign dukes in Schleswig-Holstein for eight generations, including Frederick's grandfather. Frederick's parents were Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Louise of Hesse-Kassel.
In 1853, his father was chosen as the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, because Frederick's mother, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, was a close relative of the last Danish king of the Oldenburg main line (the other heirs of the House of Hesse renounced their claims to the Danish throne in favour of Louise and her husband). Accordingly, Frederick became a Prince of Denmark in 1853.
After his confirmation in 1860, Frederick was given a military education. In 1863, Prince Frederick was sent to do studies at the University of Oxford but when his father ascended the throne in November that year, he became Crown Prince and returned to Denmark. As Crown Prince of Denmark, he was given a seat in the State Council and subsequently assisted his father in the duties of government. In 1864, he formally took part in the Second Schleswig War against Prussia.
Louise of Hesse wanted her eldest son to marry as well as had her two daughters; Alexandra and Dagmar. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom had two yet unmarried daughters, Princess Helena and Princess Louise, and Louise tried to marry Frederick to one of them. However, the British Queen didn't want her daughters to marry the heirs to foreign crowns, as this would force them to live abroad. She preferred German princes who could establish homes in the UK. In addition, Victoria had always been pro-German and another Danish alliance (Frederick's sister, Alexandra, had married Victoria's eldest son, Edward, Prince of Wales), would not have been in line with her German interests.
In July 1868, Frederick became engaged to Princess Louise of Sweden, the 17-year-old only daughter of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway. Princess Louise belonged to the Bernadotte dynasty, which had ruled in Sweden since 1818, when the founder, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, one of Napoleon Bonaparte's generals, was elected crown prince of Sweden in 1810 and later succeeded the throne as Charles XIV of Sweden in 1818. He married Désirée Clary, who had once been engaged to the French Emperor. Charles XIV's son, Oscar I of Sweden, married Josephine of Leuchtenberg, granddaughter of Napoleon's first wife, the Empress Josephine. King Oscar I and Queen Josephine were Princess Louise's paternal grandparents.
The marriage was suggested as a way of creating friendship between Denmark and Sweden. The two countries were in a tense situation after Sweden had not assisted Denmark during the war with Prussia in 1864. Frederick and Louise had met for the first time in 1862, but in 1868 Frederick was invited to Sweden to get to know Louise, and their meeting was described as a success. They became engaged the same year. She was the first Swedish princess to be married into the Danish royal house since the Middle Ages, and the marriage was welcomed in all three Scandinavian countries as a symbol of the new Scandinavism.
Crown Prince Frederick and Louise of Sweden married at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 28 July 1869. The couple resided at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, spending the summers at Charlottenlund Palace north of the city. They had four sons and four daughters. The eldest sons, Christian X of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway became kings of Denmark and Norway respectively.
Frederick became king of Denmark as Frederick VIII upon Christian IX's death on 29 January 1906. He was 62 years old at the time and had been Crown Prince for 43 years. In many ways Frederick VIII was a liberal ruler who was much more favorable to the new parliamentarian system than his father had been. He was reform-minded and democratically inclined. However, because of his very late accession to the throne he had only six years as king and he was weakened by ill health.
On his return journey from a trip to Nice, King Frederick made a short stop in Hamburg, staying at the Hotel Hamburger Hof. The evening of his arrival on 14 May 1912, Frederick (incognito) took a walk on the Jungfernstieg. While walking he became faint and collapsed on a park bench and died. He was discovered by a police officer who took him to a Hafen hospital where he was pronounced dead. His cause of death was announced as a paralysis-attack. He was interred with other members of the Danish royal family in Roskilde Cathedral near Copenhagen.
The royal families of Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Luxembourg are descended from King Frederick VIII. Denmark through his eldest son Christian X of Denmark, Norway's family goes through the line of his son, Haakon VII of Norway, and the families of Belgium and Luxembourg are descended from his daughter, Princess Ingeborg of Denmark.
Frederick VIII of Denmark
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
His full style was Frederick VIII, By the Grace of God, King of Denmark, of the Wends and of the Goths; Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, the Ditmarsh, Lauenburg and Oldenburg
King Frederick VIII Land in Greenland is named after him.
|Ancestors of Frederick VIII of Denmark|
|Christian X of Denmark||26 September 1870||20 April 1947||Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin|| Frederik IX of Denmark |
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark
|Haakon VII of Norway||3 August 1872||21 September 1957||Princess Maud of Wales||Olav V of Norway|
|Princess Louise of Denmark||17 February 1875||4 April 1906||Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe||Marie Louise, Princess Friedrich Sigismund of Prussia|
Prince Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe
Stephanie, Princess Viktor Adolf of Bentheim and Steinfurt
|Prince Harald of Denmark||8 October 1876||30 March 1949||Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg|| Feodora, Princess Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe |
Caroline-Mathilde, Hereditary Princess of Denmark
Alexandrine-Louise, Countess Luitpold of Castell-Castell
Prince Gorm of Denmark
Count Oluf of Rosenborg
|Princess Ingeborg of Denmark||2 August 1878||12 March 1958||Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland|| Margaretha, Princess Axel of Denmark |
Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway
Astrid, Queen of the Belgians
Prince Carl, Duke of Östergötland
|Princess Thyra of Denmark||4 March 1880||2 November 1945||unmarried||none|
|Prince Gustav of Denmark||4 March 1887||5 October 1944||unmarried||none|
|Princess Dagmar of Denmark||23 May 1890||11 October 1961||Jørgen Castenskiold||Carl Castenskiold|
Christian Frederik Castenskjold
Charles XV also Carl ; Swedish: Karl XV and Norwegian: Karl IV was King of Sweden and Norway from 1859 until his death. Though known as King Charles XV in Sweden, he was actually the ninth Swedish king by that name, as his predecessor Charles IX had adopted a numeral according to a fictitious history of Sweden.
Haakon VII was the King of Norway from 1905 until his death in 1957.
Christian X was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947, and the only King of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. He was a member of the House of Glücksburg and the first monarch since King Frederick VII that was born into the Danish royal family; both his father and his grandfather were born as princes of a ducal family from Schleswig. Among his siblings was King Haakon VII of Norway.
Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.
Oscar II was the King of Sweden from 1872 until his death, and was also the final King of Norway from the House of Bernadotte until being deposed in 1905.
Christian VIII was the king of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814.
Frederick IX was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972.
Frederick VII was King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863. He was the last Danish monarch of the older Royal branch of the House of Oldenburg and also the last king of Denmark to rule as an absolute monarch. During his reign, he signed a constitution that established a Danish parliament and made the country a constitutional monarchy. Frederick's motto was Folkets Kærlighed, min Styrke .
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814, making him the last king of Denmark–Norway. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's mental illness and was referred to as the "Crown Prince Regent" (kronprinsregent). For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, succeeding Danish monarchs have also chosen mottos in the Danish language rather than the formerly customary Latin.
George V was the last King of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign ended during the unification of Germany.
Prince Carl of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Västergötland was a Swedish prince. Through his daughters, for whom he arranged excellent dynastic marriages, he is an ancestor of several members of European royal houses today, including the reigning monarchs King Harald V of Norway, King Philippe of Belgium, and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg.
Louise of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark by marriage to King Christian IX of Denmark.
Frederick I was the sovereign Grand Duke of Baden, reigning from 1856 to 1907.
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark, was the younger son and child of Christian X and Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Frederick II was the last sovereign Grand Duke of Baden, reigning from 1907 until the abolition of the German monarchies in 1918. The state of Baden originated from the area of the Grand Duchy. In 1951-1952, it became part of the new state of Baden-Württemberg.
Prince Valdemar of Denmark was the third son and youngest child of Christian IX and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. He had a lifelong naval career.
Charles Alexander was the ruler of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as its grand duke from 1853 until his death.
Prince Harald of Denmark was a member of the Danish Royal Family. He was the third son and fourth child of Frederick VIII of Denmark and his wife, Lovisa of Sweden, and thus brother to Christian X of Denmark.
Frederick Francis IV was the last Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and regent of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He inherited the throne when he was fifteen years old in 1897 and was forced to renounce it in 1918.
Prince Viggo, Count of Rosenborg was a Danish prince. He was born in Copenhagen the youngest son of Prince Valdemar of Denmark and Princess Marie of Orléans. He was also the youngest grandson of Christian IX of Denmark.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frederick VIII of Denmark .|
Cadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 3 June 1843 Died: 14 May 1912
| King of Denmark |