Fredericton

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Fredericton
The City of Fredericton [lower-alpha 1]
FrederictonSkyline2013.jpg
Nashwaak River, Fredericton, NB (29905645230).jpg
Christ Church Cathedral, Fredericton 3.jpg
Fredericton, New Brunswick.jpg
From top to bottom; left to right: Fredericton skyline, Pedestrian bridge of the Nashwaak River, Christ Church Cathedral, New Brunswick Legislative Building
FrederictonNBCAFlag.jpg
Nicknames: 
Freddy, Freddy Beach
Motto(s): 
"Fredericopolis, silvae filia nobilis"  (Latin)
"Fredericton, noble daughter of the forest"
Fredericton
Interactive map outlining Fredericton
Canada New Brunswick location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Fredericton
Location within New Brunswick
Canada relief map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Fredericton
Location within Canada
Coordinates: 45°57′49″N66°38′35″W / 45.96361°N 66.64306°W / 45.96361; -66.64306 Coordinates: 45°57′49″N66°38′35″W / 45.96361°N 66.64306°W / 45.96361; -66.64306
CountryCanada
Province New Brunswick
County(s) York, Sunbury
Metropolitan area Greater Fredericton
Erected1786
Incorporated1848
Named for Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Government
  Type Fredericton City Council
  Mayor Kate Rogers [2]
   MPs Jenica Atwin (Lib.)
Richard Bragdon (Con.)
   MLAs Jill Green (PC)
David Coon (Green)
Kris Austin (PC)
Dominic Cardy (PC)
Ryan Cullins (PC)
Area
[3]
   City 132.57 km2 (51.19 sq mi)
  Metro
[4]
5,745.41 km2 (2,218.32 sq mi)
Elevation
20−100 m (66−328 ft)
Population
 (2021) [3]
   City 63,116
  Density439.2/km2 (1,138/sq mi)
   Metro
[4]
108,610
  Metro density17.7/km2 (46/sq mi)
Demonym Frederictonian
Time zone UTC−04:00 (AST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−03:00 (ADT)
Postal code(s)
Area code 506
NTS Map 21G15 Fredericton
GNBC CodeDAFMJ [5]
Website www.fredericton.ca/en OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Fredericton ( /ˈfrɛ.drɪk.tən/ ; [6] French pronunciation:  [fʁɛdeʁiktœn] ) is the capital city of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the Saint John River, which flows west to east as it bisects the city. The river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 63,116 and a metropolitan population of 108,610 in the 2021 Canadian Census. [3] It is the third-largest city in the province after Moncton and Saint John.

Contents

An important cultural, artistic, and educational centre for the province, Fredericton is home to two universities, the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, and cultural institutions such as the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the Fredericton Region Museum, and The Playhouse, a performing arts venue. The city hosts the annual Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, attracting regional and international jazz, blues, rock, and world artists. Fredericton is also an important and vibrant centre point for the region's top visual artists; many of New Brunswick's notable artists live and work there today. Fredericton has also been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including Goodridge Roberts, and Molly and Bruno Bobak.

As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the public sector; however, the city also contains a growing IT and commercial sector. The city has the highest percentage of residents with post-secondary education in the province and the highest per capita income of any city in New Brunswick.

History

There is archaeological evidence of a camp in the area 12,000 years ago, [7] and Maliseets farmed several kilometres upriver. [8]

Colonists from the Kingdom of France in the late 1600s built Fort Nashwaak on the north side of the Saint John River, as the capital of Acadia. It withstood a British attack in 1696, but the capital was later moved to Port Royale. [9] In 1713 Acadians escaping the British takeover of Nova Scotia settled the site, naming it Pointe Ste-Anne. It was destroyed in 1758 when the population of about 83 were exiled during the expulsion of the Acadians.

It was in 1783, when United Empire Loyalists arrived from New England, that the history of modern Fredericton began. The following year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and became its own colony. Pointe-Ste-Anne was renamed "Fredericstown", after Frederick, second son of King George III. It became the capital of the new colony, being considered to have a better defensive position than larger Saint John. [9]

The streets were laid out in the typical grid pattern of the time, with the names reflecting loyalist tendencies: Charlotte, Brunswick, George, King, and Queen.

In 1785 it became the shire town of York County. In 1790 the New Brunswick Legislative Building was constructed. As a centre of government, it attracted educational institutions, with King's College (now the University of New Brunswick) being the first English-language university in Canada, and religious institutions, with Christ Church Cathedral being built as the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Fredericton in 1853. [10]

It was a British garrison town from 1784 to 1869, and the military compound is preserved as a National Historic Site of Canada. [11]

With the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program in the 1960s, county councils were abolished, and government services were centralized provincially in Fredericton, increasing jobs and population.

Geography

The Saint John River runs through Fredericton, with most of the city's post-war suburban development occurring on the gently sloping hills on either side of the river (although the downtown core is flat and lies low to the river).

At an altitude of about 17 m (56 ft) above sea level, Fredericton is nestled in the Pennsylvanian Basin. It differs markedly from the geologically older parts of the province. There are prominently two distinct areas in the region that are divided around the area of Wilsey Road, in the east end of the city. In the west side, the bedrock underneath the earth is topographically dominant, whereas the other is controlled by Pleistocene and recent deposits leading to the rivers (resulting in the area being shallow and wide). Fredericton and its surroundings are rich in water resources, which, coupled with highly arable soil, make the Fredericton region ideal for agriculture. The Saint John River and one of its major tributaries, the Nashwaak River, come together in Fredericton. The uninhabited parts of the city are heavily forested.

Climate

Fredericton
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
95
 
 
−4
−15
 
 
73
 
 
−2
−14
 
 
93
 
 
3
−8
 
 
86
 
 
10
−1
 
 
96
 
 
18
5
 
 
82
 
 
23
10
 
 
88
 
 
26
13
 
 
86
 
 
25
12
 
 
88
 
 
20
7
 
 
89
 
 
13
2
 
 
106
 
 
6
−3
 
 
95
 
 
1
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada [12]

Fredericton has a humid continental climate (Dfb) with short, warm summers and long, cold winters. On average, Fredericton receives approximately 1,100 mm (43 in) of precipitation per year.

Climate data for Fredericton CDA, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present [lower-alpha 2]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
26.5
(79.7)
30.5
(86.9)
35.5
(95.9)
35.6
(96.1)
36.1
(97.0)
38.9
(102.0)
33.7
(92.7)
28.9
(84.0)
21.7
(71.1)
16.1
(61.0)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F)−4.4
(24.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.8
(37.0)
9.9
(49.8)
17.6
(63.7)
22.7
(72.9)
25.4
(77.7)
24.5
(76.1)
19.6
(67.3)
12.8
(55.0)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
11.1
(52.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.4
(15.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
4.8
(40.6)
11.3
(52.3)
16.4
(61.5)
19.4
(66.9)
18.6
(65.5)
14.0
(57.2)
7.8
(46.0)
1.8
(35.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F)−14.4
(6.1)
−12.8
(9.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.1
(41.2)
10.1
(50.2)
13.3
(55.9)
12.6
(54.7)
8.3
(46.9)
2.8
(37.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
−9.5
(14.9)
0.5
(32.9)
Record low °C (°F)−38.9
(−38.0)
−38.3
(−36.9)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.7
(35.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−11.1
(12.0)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−35.6
(−32.1)
−38.9
(−38.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)101.9
(4.01)
70.1
(2.76)
90.1
(3.55)
81.6
(3.21)
103.8
(4.09)
86.3
(3.40)
89.0
(3.50)
85.9
(3.38)
94.7
(3.73)
89.7
(3.53)
109.9
(4.33)
91.8
(3.61)
1,094.7
(43.10)
Average rainfall mm (inches)42.4
(1.67)
31.7
(1.25)
45.2
(1.78)
68.1
(2.68)
103.1
(4.06)
86.3
(3.40)
89.0
(3.50)
85.9
(3.38)
94.7
(3.73)
89.3
(3.52)
96.3
(3.79)
54.0
(2.13)
885.9
(34.88)
Average snowfall cm (inches)63.6
(25.0)
39.1
(15.4)
42.4
(16.7)
13.5
(5.3)
0.6
(0.2)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.4
(0.2)
13.9
(5.5)
41.4
(16.3)
214.8
(84.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)12.610.212.412.614.913.614.512.713.713.513.812.5156.7
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)4.54.27.110.814.813.614.512.713.713.511.76.0126.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)9.47.27.02.40.30.00.00.00.00.113.27.537.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 119.5130.8148.9162.2206.9224.3239.7226.2172.4142.595.8102.21,971.2
Percent possible sunshine 42.444.840.440.044.747.750.451.645.741.933.637.843.4
Source: Environment Canada [13] [14] [15] [16]
Climate data for Fredericton Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high humidex 17.117.328.033.338.143.544.543.339.632.025.019.544.5
Record high °C (°F)14.6
(58.3)
18.6
(65.5)
27.2
(81.0)
30.3
(86.5)
35.2
(95.4)
35.3
(95.5)
36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99.0)
34.1
(93.4)
27.8
(82.0)
21.1
(70.0)
15.9
(60.6)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F)−3.8
(25.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.0
(37.4)
10.0
(50.0)
17.6
(63.7)
22.7
(72.9)
25.5
(77.9)
24.8
(76.6)
20.0
(68.0)
13.2
(55.8)
6.0
(42.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
11.4
(52.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.4
(15.1)
−7.9
(17.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
4.5
(40.1)
11.1
(52.0)
16.2
(61.2)
19.3
(66.7)
18.4
(65.1)
13.6
(56.5)
7.5
(45.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
5.6
(42.1)
Average low °C (°F)−15.0
(5.0)
−13.7
(7.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.6
(40.3)
9.7
(49.5)
13.0
(55.4)
12.1
(53.8)
7.1
(44.8)
1.6
(34.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
Record low °C (°F)−35.6
(−32.1)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−15.1
(4.8)
−6.7
(19.9)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.7
(35.1)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.9
(25.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−33.8
(−28.8)
−37.2
(−35.0)
Record low wind chill −45.1−46.4−38.0−26.1−12.5−4.30.00.0−6.6−13.1−26.5−42.2−46.4
Average precipitation mm (inches)95.3
(3.75)
73.1
(2.88)
93.2
(3.67)
85.9
(3.38)
96.2
(3.79)
82.4
(3.24)
88.3
(3.48)
85.6
(3.37)
87.5
(3.44)
89.1
(3.51)
106.3
(4.19)
94.9
(3.74)
1,077.7
(42.43)
Average rainfall mm (inches)38.0
(1.50)
31.4
(1.24)
46.7
(1.84)
68.3
(2.69)
94.5
(3.72)
82.4
(3.24)
88.3
(3.48)
85.6
(3.37)
87.5
(3.44)
88.2
(3.47)
92.9
(3.66)
55.3
(2.18)
859.1
(33.82)
Average snowfall cm (inches)69.9
(27.5)
47.5
(18.7)
49.4
(19.4)
18.6
(7.3)
1.4
(0.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(0.3)
14.3
(5.6)
50.5
(19.9)
252.3
(99.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)14.211.313.013.213.912.212.310.610.311.413.213.4148.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)5.14.37.310.813.812.212.310.610.311.311.16.3115.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)11.79.18.54.70.380.00.00.00.00.424.210.048.9
Average relative humidity (%)75.174.977.180.683.686.489.590.491.187.683.880.083.3
Source: Environment Canada [12] [17] [18]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18616,000    
19017,117+18.6%
194110,062*    
197645,248*    
200148,560    
201658,721+20.9%
202163,116+7.5%
*Boundary changes for 1941 and 1973

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Fredericton had a population of 63,116 living in 28,478 of its 29,892 total private dwellings, a change of

At the census metropolitan area (CMA) level in the 2021 census, the Fredericton CMA had a population of 108,610 living in 46,357 of its 48,761 total private dwellings, a change of

Fredericton's population is predominantly European Canadian. Indigenous peoples make up over 4% of the population and visible minorities make up approximately 10 percent, and include, in descending order of population, Chinese Canadians, Black Canadians, South Asian Canadians, Arab Canadians, and refugees from the Syrian Civil War. [21] [22]

English is spoken as a mother tongue by 83.7% of residents. Other mother tongues are French (7.8%), Chinese languages (2.1%), Arabic (1.7%), and Russian (0.6%). [23]

Those who declare a religion are predominantly Protestant. Fredericton has a synagogue, [24] a mosque, [25] a Hindu temple, [26] a Unitarian fellowship, [27] and a Shambhala Buddhist meditation centre. [28]

Religion [29] 2011 (%)2011 (Total)
No religion26.2%14,460
Catholic 24.9%13,740
Baptist 11.4%6,290
United Church 10.9%5,995
Anglican 9.4%5,160
Pentecostal 2.5%1,390

Economy

The Government of New Brunswick and the universities are the primary employers. The policies of centralizing provincial government functions during the 1960s led to an expansion of the population.

The 1960s also saw an expansion of the University of New Brunswick due to increased post-war university enrolment, as well as the construction of Saint Thomas University. The Law School, now the University of New Brunswick Faculty of Law moved from Saint John to the Fredericton area.

The city has been investing actively in IT infrastructure. The City of Fredericton won the "Judges Innovation Award" at the 2004 Canadian Information Productivity Awards due to their "Fred-eZone" free municipality wide Wi-Fi initiative. This and other innovations by the city's utelco, e-Novations, led Intel to do a case study on their successes. Fred-eZone spans much of the city's downtown and parts of surrounding residential areas, as well as peripheral commercial areas such as Fredericton's Regent Mall. In 2008 and 2009 the Intelligent Community Forum selected Fredericton as a Top 7 Intelligent Community, based partly on the city's work in the IT sector. [30]

Arts and culture

The Playhouse is the main venue for Theatre New Brunswick, the province's largest professional theatre company.

Festivals include the Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, the New Brunswick Summer Music Festival, the Silver Wave Film Festival and Symphony New Brunswick.

Fredericton has a long literary tradition, having been home to Jonathan Odell, Charles G. D. Roberts, Bliss Carman, and Francis Sherman. [31] Writers living in Fredericton include Raymond Fraser, Herb Curtis, David Adams Richards, Mark Anthony Jarman, and Gerard Beirne.

Architecture

Styles range from Victorian to modern. There are 12 National Historic Sites of Canada. [32]

Museums and historic buildings

Sports

There are no professional sports teams in Fredericton, although both universities have extensive athletic programs. The UNB Reds play in the Atlantic University Sport conference of U Sports [33] and St. Thomas Tommies play in the Atlantic Collegiate Athletic Association conference of the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association for most sports, although their women's hockey team, cross-country teams, and track & field teams play in the Atlantic University Sports conference of U Sports. [34]

Fredericton's high schools compete in a variety of sports in the New Brunswick Interscholastic Athletic Association.

UNB's men's hockey team are 8 time National Champions, and the highest attended sporting events in the city.

The Junior A hockey team is the Fredericton Red Wings. [35] The former Fredericton Express and Fredericton Canadiens were American Hockey League teams.

Each summer the Fredericton Loyalists host the New Brunswick Timber team which competes in the Rugby Canada Super League.

Parks and recreation

Trail system

Fredericton has a network of 25 trails totalling more than 85 km (53 mi) on both sides of the Saint John and Nashwaak Rivers. Many of the city trails are rail trails that follow old railway lines. These include the Fredericton Railway Bridge that spans 0.6 km (0.37 mi) across the Saint John River. The rail trail system in Fredericton is part of the Sentier NB Trail system and some of these trails are also part of the larger Trans-Canada Trail network.

Government

Fredericton City Hall is the seat of municipal government. City Hall Fredericton.jpg
Fredericton City Hall is the seat of municipal government.

Fredericton has a non-partisan and Mayor–council government. The mayor and council serve four-year terms with elections in May. The city is divided into 12 wards, (six on each side of the river, one councillor per ward.

The city includes the provincial ridings of Fredericton North, Fredericton-Grand Lake, Fredericton West-Hanwell, Oromocto-Lincoln-Fredericton, New Maryland-Sunbury and Fredericton South, which in 2014 elected the first-ever MLA for the Green Party of New Brunswick, party leader David Coon.

Federally, the city forms most of the riding of Fredericton.

Education and research

The Anglophone West School District and the District Scolaire Francophone Sud (District 1) run schools including Fredericton High School, École des Bâtisseurs, and the École Sainte-Anne. Leo Hayes High School is a public–private partnership

There are two universities, the UNB, and St. Thomas, the province's only Catholic university.

Colleges include the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, the New Brunswick Community College, and the Maritime College of Forest Technology.

For-profit universities include University of Fredericton and Yorkville University.

The Hugh John Flemming Forestry Centre researches in forestry management. Fredericton's Provincial Research Organization specializes in aquaculture, mining, manufacturing, energy and the environment. [36]

Transportation

Air service is provided out of the Fredericton International Airport.

Fredericton Transit provides bus service, though not on Sundays.

Fredericton started installing bicycle lanes in July 2008. [37]

Passenger rail service ended in the 1960s, [38] and freight in 1996. All railway tracks have been abandoned and removed.

Fredericton is served by the Maritime Bus fleet which provides connections to points throughout Eastern Canada. [39]

The Trans-Canada Highway passes along the southern municipal boundary. Routes 7 and 8 (the latter being a former alignment of the Trans-Canada) also pass through the city. Two highway bridges, the Westmorland Street Bridge and the Princess Margaret Bridge, cross the Saint John River. Those bridges feed into controlled-access roads (Routes 8 and 105 serving the city's north side).

Notes

  1. Even in French, the legal name is The City of Fredericton. [1]
  2. Extreme high and low temperatures in the table below are from Fredericton UNB (December 1871 to July 1913) and Fredericton CDA (August 1913 to present).

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">University of New Brunswick</span> Canadian university

The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a public university with two primary campuses in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English-language university in Canada, and among the oldest public universities in North America. UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution.

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The Nashwaak River, located in west-central New Brunswick, Canada, is a tributary of the Saint John River. It is 113 kilometres long. The river rises from Nashwaak Lake and flows south and east through uninhabited land and rapids to the village of Stanley. From Stanley, the Nashwaak flows southeast to Nashwaak Bridge and Taymouth, then south the through several rural communities such as Durham Bridge, the historic town of Nashwaak Village and Penniac before it reaches the town of Marysville. It flows into the Saint John River opposite downtown Fredericton.

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The history of Fredericton stretches from prehistory to the modern day. Fredericton, New Brunswick was first inhabited by the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet peoples. European settlement of the area began with the construction of Fort Nashwaak by the French in 1692. In 1783, the United Empire Loyalists settled Ste. Anne's Point, and in the next year, renamed the settlement Frederick's Town. The name was later shorted to Fredericton in April 1785.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marysville, New Brunswick</span> Human settlement in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Marysville is a suburb of Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. It is northeast of the city on the Nashwaak River about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of its confluence with the Saint John River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Gibson (industrialist)</span>

Alexander "Boss" Gibson was a Canadian industrialist in New Brunswick, Canada. His business interests included sawmills, railways, and a cotton mill. He founded the company town of Marysville, New Brunswick.

Geography of New Brunswick

New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces. While New Brunswick is one of Canada's Maritime Provinces, it differs from its neighbours both ethnoculturally and physiographically. Both Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island are either wholly or nearly surrounded by water and the ocean, therefore, tends to define their climate, economy and culture. New Brunswick, on the other hand, although having a significant seacoast, is sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean proper and has a large interior that is removed from oceanic effects. New Brunswick, therefore, tends to be defined by its rivers rather than its seacoast.

Douglas Parish, New Brunswick Parish in New Brunswick, Canada

Douglas is a civil parish in York County, New Brunswick, Canada.

Saint Marys Parish, New Brunswick Parish in New Brunswick, Canada

Saint Marys is a civil parish in York County, New Brunswick, Canada.

Stanley Parish, New Brunswick Parish in New Brunswick, Canada

Stanley is a civil parish in York County, New Brunswick, Canada.

Alma Parish, New Brunswick Parish in New Brunswick, Canada

Alma is a civil parish on the Bay of Fundy in the southwestern corner of Albert County, New Brunswick, Canada. It comprises one village and one local service district (LSD), both of which are members of the Southeast Regional Service Commission. The most notable feature of the parish is Fundy National Park, which takes up a majority of the parish's area.

Fredericton Marathon

The Fredericton Marathon is an annual marathon race held in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The Fredericton Marathon is the oldest annual marathon race in the province of New Brunswick, starting with only a few hundred runners in 1979, it has grown into one of the most well known marathons in the province, with the 2012 edition being the provincial half marathon championships and featuring over 1,300 runners. The race is a Boston Marathon qualifier, with 65 of the 166 finishers qualifying in the 2012 edition of the run, the most annually in the province. The race is held in mid-May, always one week before the Blue Nose Marathon in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Currently, the race is sponsored by Scotiabank and hosted by The Capital City Road Runners, a running club in the city.

Outline of New Brunswick Overview of and topical guide to New Brunswick

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Brunswick:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marysville Cotton Mill</span> Mill in Marysville, New Brunswick, Canada

The Marysville Cotton Mill, now known as Marysville Place, is an industrial building in Marysville, New Brunswick, that is a National Historic Site of Canada. It was built by Alexander Gibson in the mid 1880s as he expanded his industrial operations into textile manufacturing at the company town he had established.

References

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Further reading

See also