Fredrikstad

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Fredrikstad kommune
Fredrikstad bryggepromenade fra Krakeroybroa.JPG
2.10-old town fredrikstad.jpg
Fredrikstad komm.svg
Coat of arms
Norway Counties Ostfold Position.svg
Østfold within
Norway
NO 0106 Fredrikstad.svg
Fredrikstad within Østfold
Coordinates: 59°12′19″N10°57′0″E / 59.20528°N 10.95000°E / 59.20528; 10.95000 Coordinates: 59°12′19″N10°57′0″E / 59.20528°N 10.95000°E / 59.20528; 10.95000
Country Norway
County Østfold
District Eastern Norway
Administrative centreFredrikstad
Government
  Mayor (2011)Jon Ivar Nygård (Ap)
Area
  Total285.9 km2 (110.4 sq mi)
  Land283 km2 (109 sq mi)
Area rank#283 in Norway
Population
 (2018)
  Total81,000
  Rank#6 in Norway
  Density283/km2 (730/sq mi)
  Change (10 years)
8.6%
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code NO-0106
Official language form Bokmål
Website www.fredrikstad.kommune.no
Fredrikstad Cathedral Fredrikstad Cathedral01.JPG
Fredrikstad Cathedral
Ferrari 355 F1 Berlinetta on the Fredrikstad Bridge Ferrari 355 F1 Berlinetta on the Fredrikstad Bridge.jpg
Ferrari 355 F1 Berlinetta on the Fredrikstad Bridge
Old town Fredrikstad 2.10-old town fredrikstad.jpg
Old town Fredrikstad

Fredrikstad ( Loudspeaker.svg listen  ; previously Frederiksstad; literally Fredrik's Town) is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Fredrikstad.

Østfold County (fylke) of Norway

Østfold[²œstfɔl](listen) is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden, while Buskerud and Vestfold are on the other side of Oslofjord. The county's administrative seat is Sarpsborg.

Counties of Norway administrative regions that form the primary first-level subdivisions of Norway

Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties ; until 1918, they were known as amter. The counties form the first-level subdivisions of Norway and are further divided into 422 municipalities. The island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly at the national level. The capital Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality.

Contents

The city of Fredrikstad was founded in 1567 by King Frederick II, and established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Glemmen was merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1964. The rural municipalities of Borge, Onsøy, Kråkerøy, and Rolvsøy were merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1994.

Frederick II of Denmark King of Denmark and Norway

Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.

Formannskapsdistrikt is the name for Norwegian local self-government districts that were legally enacted on 1 January 1838. This system of municipalities was created in a bill approved by the Parliament of Norway and signed into law by King Carl Johan on 14 January 1837. The formannskaps law, which fulfilled an express requirement of the Constitution of Norway, required that every parish form a formannsskapsdistrikt (municipality) on 1 January 1838. In this way, the parishes of the state Church of Norway became worldly, administrative districts as well. In total, 396 formannsskapsdistrikts were created under this law, and different types of formannskapsdistrikts were created, also:

Glemmen

Glemmen is a parish and former municipality with the city of Fredrikstad, Østfold county, Norway.

The city straddles the river Glomma where it meets the Skagerrak. Along with neighboring Sarpsborg, Fredrikstad forms the fifth largest city in Norway: Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg. As of 1 January 2018, according to Statistics Norway, these two municipalities have a total population of 136,117 with 80,977 in Fredrikstad and 55,140 in Sarpsborg.

Glomma river in Norway

The Glomma, or Glåma, is Norway's longest and most voluminous river. With a total length of 621 kilometres, it has a drainage basin that covers fully 13% of Norway's surface area, all in the southern part of the country.

Skagerrak Sea between Denmark, Norway and Sweden

The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the west coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.

Sarpsborg Municipality in Østfold, Norway

Sarpsborg[ˈsɑʂ.bɔr] or [ˈsɑrps.bɔrg], historically Borg, is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Sarpsborg.

Fredrikstad was built at the mouth of Glomma as a replacement after Sarpsborg (15 kilometres (9 miles) upstream) was burnt down by the Swedish Army in the 1500s. Some of the citizens stayed behind and rebuilt their old town at its original site and got their city status back in 1839.

Swedish Army land warfare branch of Swedens military

The Swedish Army is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces whose main responsibility is land operations.

The city centre is on the west bank of the Glomma, while the old town on the east bank is Northern Europe's best preserved fortified town.

Fredrikstad Fortress

Fredrikstad fortress was a fortification in Fredrikstad, Norway. It was the base of the Østfold Regiment, with defence related responsibilities for the east side of Oslofjord.

Fredrikstad used to have a large sawmill industry and was an important harbour for timber export, then later on shipbuilding, until the main yard was closed in 1988. The main industries are currently various chemical plants and other light industry.

Shipbuilding construction of ships and floating vessels

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.

Industry production of goods or service of a given field within an economy

An industry is a sector that produces goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is an indicator of what industry it should be classified in. When a large corporate group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. The manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the development of steam power and the production of steel and coal.

Chemistry scientific discipline

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

In 2005, Fredrikstad was the final host port for the Tall Ships' Race, attracting thousands to the city. In 2019, it was the first host port.

General information

Name

The city was named after the Danish king Frederick II in 1569. The last element stad means "city".

Prior to 1877, the name was spelled Frederiksstad, then from 1877–1888 it was written as Fredriksstad, and finally since 1889 it has been spelled in its current form: Fredrikstad.

Coat-of-arms

The coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 21 April 1967. The old arms are based on the oldest known seal of the city, which dates from 1610. They showed a fortress being guarded by a bear. Strangely, Fredrikstad had no fortifications in 1610 (it received some at the end of the 17th century). Fredrikstad was founded by citizens of Sarpsborg and both the fortress and the bear are taken from the old arms of Sarpsborg. The composition of the seal was also used as arms since the beginning of the 19th century. The new arms were granted at the 400th anniversary of the city in 1967 and show a more modern variation on the fortress and bear. [2]

History

After Sarpsborg was burned to the ground during the Northern Seven Years' War, the ruling king, Frederik II of Denmark, decided by royal decree to rebuild the city 15 kilometres (9 mi) south of the original location. This new site's proximity to the sea and the accessible open land surrounding it made it a better location than the old one. The name Fredrikstad was first used in a letter from the King dated 6 February 1569. The temporary fortification built during the Hannibal War (1644–1645) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, became permanent in the 1660s.

The work on the fortifications was first led by Willem Coucheron and later Johan Caspar von Cicignon. During the next 60 years, several fortifications at the Fredrikstad Fortress were built, including Isegran, Kongsten, and Cicignon. In 1735, a suburb on the western side of Glomma, Vestsiden, was founded. This part later grew faster than the old city, and became the dominant city centre. Most of the buildings in the old city burned down during a fire in 1764.

In the 1840s, timber exporting from Fredrikstad started to gain momentum. In the 1860s, several steam powered saws were built along the river, and in 1879 the railway reached Fredrikstad, leading to further growth. With the decline of the timber exports as a result of the modernization of wood-processing industries in the early 1900s, Fredrikstad's production changed to other types of products. It later became one of Norway's most important industrial centres, famous for its large shipyard, Fredrikstad Mekaniske Verksted.

Education

Fredrikstad has three high schools. Frederik II secondary school offering general studies and financial / administrative studies. Frederik II high school is a merger of former Frydenberg gymnastic and Christianslund Handelsgymnasium.Glemmen high school offers professional training and study. Wang Toppidrett Fredrikstad offers sports, science, languages, social sciences and economics. In addition, one finds Steiner, which is a private educational alternative to primary school higher step.

Østfold University College offers higher education (master's and bachelor's studies) at the Academy of Performing Arts, Faculty of Health and Social Care and the Faculty of Engineering at Kråkerøy. Here we also find Østfold College, which offers short professional courses built on a craft / journeyman, authorization or at least five years' experience in technical sciences and health / social science.

Also the Department of Journalism has its seat in Fredrikstad. The department offers primarily continuing education of journalists and editors.

Fredrikstad Museum

Fredrikstad Museum is located in Old Fredrikstad. The museum shows the history of the city and the surrounding region. The museum also manages Elingaard Manor in Onsøy and Torgauten Fort. Fredrikstad Museum was founded in 1903. Since 2003, the museum's management has been located in Tøihuset in Old Town. [3]

Sport

Fredrikstad is home to nine time Norway football winners Fredrikstad FK who play at the Fredrikstad Stadion. It is also the city where the famous and successful manager for the norwegian nathional football team Egil Olsen were born and grew up. There is also an American football team, the Fredrikstad Eagles.

Fredrikstad also hosts a number of Norwegian floorball teams, like Slevik IBK, Fredrikstad IBK and St. Croix Pirates.

They also have a hockey team called Stjernen Hockey

Notable residents


Number of minorities (1st and 2nd generation) in Fredrikstad by country of origin in 2017 [4]
AncestryNumber
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 2,138
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1,386
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 1,225
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 828
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 714
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia-Herzegovina 626
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 501
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 374
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 366
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 341
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 283
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 268
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 253
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 247
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 228

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

The following cities are twinned with Fredrikstad: [5]

CityRegionCountry
Aalborg [6] Region Nordjylland logo.jpg North Denmark Region Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Húsavík Flag of Iceland.svg Suður-Þingeyjarsýsla Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland
Kotka [7] Kymenlaakson maakunnan vaakuna.svg Kymenlaakso Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Karlskoga Orebro lan vapen.svg Örebro Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Patzún Flag of Guatemala.svg Chimaltenango Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
San Martín Jilotepeque Flag of Guatemala.svg Chimaltenango Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
Zhuzhou Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Hunan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China

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Onsøy

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Greåker

Greåker is a borough in the city of Sarpsborg, Norway, located 7 km west of the city centre. Before 1992 Greåker was a part of Tune municipality. It is situated at the river Glomma between Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad.

Ørmen Village in Eastern Norway, Norway

Ørmen is a village in the municipality of Fredrikstad, Norway. In the past, the village was also a train station on the Østfold Line. The station was opened on 1 October 1914 although passenger service ended 1 April 1957. The station then functioned as a stop until it closed on 29 May 1983.

Julius Nicolai Jacobsen was a Norwegian businessperson and politician. He founded J. N. Jacobsen & Co. which became one of the country's larger forest product companies.

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Sarp Bridge bridge in Norway

Sarp Bridge is a series of bridges which span across Sarpefossen, a waterfall of the river Glomma in Sarpsborg, Norway. In the current arrangement, one bridge carries a pathway, one carries a single track of the Østfold Line and one carries two lanes of National Road 118. The road and pathway bridges are about 91 meters (299 ft) long, while the railway bridge is 247 meters (810 ft).

References

Footnotes

  1. Fredrikstad kommune
  2. Norske Kommunevåpen (1990). "Nye kommunevåbener i Norden" . Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  3. Fredrikstad museum (Østfoldmuseene Org) Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by immigration category, country background and percentages of the population". ssb.no. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2017.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. "Våre vennskapsbyer" (in Norwegian). Fredrikstad kommune. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2008.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. Hassinen, Raino. "Kotka - International co-operation: Twin Cities". City of Kotka. Retrieved 22 October 2013.

Literature

  • Aschehougs Konversasjonsleksikon, Bind 7. H. Aschehoug & Co, Oslo, 1969.