Fredrikstad within Østfold
|• Mayor (2011)||Jon Ivar Nygård (Ap)|
|• Total||285.9 km2 (110.4 sq mi)|
|• Land||283 km2 (109 sq mi)|
|Area rank||#283 in Norway|
|• Rank||#6 in Norway|
|• Density||283/km2 (730/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||8.6%|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-0106|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties ; until 1918, they were known as amter. The counties form the first-level subdivisions of Norway and are further divided into 422 municipalities. The island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly at the national level. The capital Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality.
The city of Fredrikstad was founded in 1567 by King Frederick II, and established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Glemmen was merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1964. The rural municipalities of Borge, Onsøy, Kråkerøy, and Rolvsøy were merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1994.
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Formannskapsdistrikt is the name for Norwegian local self-government districts that were legally enacted on 1 January 1838. This system of municipalities was created in a bill approved by the Parliament of Norway and signed into law by King Carl Johan on 14 January 1837. The formannskaps law, which fulfilled an express requirement of the Constitution of Norway, required that every parish form a formannsskapsdistrikt (municipality) on 1 January 1838. In this way, the parishes of the state Church of Norway became worldly, administrative districts as well. In total, 396 formannsskapsdistrikts were created under this law, and different types of formannskapsdistrikts were created, also:
Glemmen is a parish and former municipality with the city of Fredrikstad, Østfold county, Norway.
The city straddles the river Glomma where it meets the Skagerrak. Along with neighboring Sarpsborg, Fredrikstad forms the fifth largest city in Norway: Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg. As of 1 January 2018, according to Statistics Norway, these two municipalities have a total population of 136,117 with 80,977 in Fredrikstad and 55,140 in Sarpsborg.
The Glomma, or Glåma, is Norway's longest and most voluminous river. With a total length of 621 kilometres, it has a drainage basin that covers fully 13% of Norway's surface area, all in the southern part of the country.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the west coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
Sarpsborg[ˈsɑʂ.bɔr] or [ˈsɑrps.bɔrg], historically Borg, is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Sarpsborg.
Fredrikstad was built at the mouth of Glomma as a replacement after Sarpsborg (15 kilometres (9 miles) upstream) was burnt down by the Swedish Army in the 1500s. Some of the citizens stayed behind and rebuilt their old town at its original site and got their city status back in 1839.
The Swedish Army is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces whose main responsibility is land operations.
The city centre is on the west bank of the Glomma, while the old town on the east bank is Northern Europe's best preserved fortified town.
Fredrikstad fortress was a fortification in Fredrikstad, Norway. It was the base of the Østfold Regiment, with defence related responsibilities for the east side of Oslofjord.
Fredrikstad used to have a large sawmill industry and was an important harbour for timber export, then later on shipbuilding, until the main yard was closed in 1988. The main industries are currently various chemical plants and other light industry.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.
An industry is a sector that produces goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is an indicator of what industry it should be classified in. When a large corporate group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. The manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the development of steam power and the production of steel and coal.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.
In 2005, Fredrikstad was the final host port for the Tall Ships' Race, attracting thousands to the city. In 2019, it was the first host port.
The city was named after the Danish king Frederick II in 1569. The last element stad means "city".
Prior to 1877, the name was spelled Frederiksstad, then from 1877–1888 it was written as Fredriksstad, and finally since 1889 it has been spelled in its current form: Fredrikstad.
The coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 21 April 1967. The old arms are based on the oldest known seal of the city, which dates from 1610. They showed a fortress being guarded by a bear. Strangely, Fredrikstad had no fortifications in 1610 (it received some at the end of the 17th century). Fredrikstad was founded by citizens of Sarpsborg and both the fortress and the bear are taken from the old arms of Sarpsborg. The composition of the seal was also used as arms since the beginning of the 19th century. The new arms were granted at the 400th anniversary of the city in 1967 and show a more modern variation on the fortress and bear.
After Sarpsborg was burned to the ground during the Northern Seven Years' War, the ruling king, Frederik II of Denmark, decided by royal decree to rebuild the city 15 kilometres (9 mi) south of the original location. This new site's proximity to the sea and the accessible open land surrounding it made it a better location than the old one. The name Fredrikstad was first used in a letter from the King dated 6 February 1569. The temporary fortification built during the Hannibal War (1644–1645) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, became permanent in the 1660s.
The work on the fortifications was first led by Willem Coucheron and later Johan Caspar von Cicignon. During the next 60 years, several fortifications at the Fredrikstad Fortress were built, including Isegran, Kongsten, and Cicignon. In 1735, a suburb on the western side of Glomma, Vestsiden, was founded. This part later grew faster than the old city, and became the dominant city centre. Most of the buildings in the old city burned down during a fire in 1764.
In the 1840s, timber exporting from Fredrikstad started to gain momentum. In the 1860s, several steam powered saws were built along the river, and in 1879 the railway reached Fredrikstad, leading to further growth. With the decline of the timber exports as a result of the modernization of wood-processing industries in the early 1900s, Fredrikstad's production changed to other types of products. It later became one of Norway's most important industrial centres, famous for its large shipyard, Fredrikstad Mekaniske Verksted.
Fredrikstad has three high schools. Frederik II secondary school offering general studies and financial / administrative studies. Frederik II high school is a merger of former Frydenberg gymnastic and Christianslund Handelsgymnasium.Glemmen high school offers professional training and study. Wang Toppidrett Fredrikstad offers sports, science, languages, social sciences and economics. In addition, one finds Steiner, which is a private educational alternative to primary school higher step.
Østfold University College offers higher education (master's and bachelor's studies) at the Academy of Performing Arts, Faculty of Health and Social Care and the Faculty of Engineering at Kråkerøy. Here we also find Østfold College, which offers short professional courses built on a craft / journeyman, authorization or at least five years' experience in technical sciences and health / social science.
Also the Department of Journalism has its seat in Fredrikstad. The department offers primarily continuing education of journalists and editors.
Fredrikstad Museum is located in Old Fredrikstad. The museum shows the history of the city and the surrounding region. The museum also manages Elingaard Manor in Onsøy and Torgauten Fort. Fredrikstad Museum was founded in 1903. Since 2003, the museum's management has been located in Tøihuset in Old Town.
Fredrikstad is home to nine time Norway football winners Fredrikstad FK who play at the Fredrikstad Stadion. It is also the city where the famous and successful manager for the norwegian nathional football team Egil Olsen were born and grew up. There is also an American football team, the Fredrikstad Eagles.
Fredrikstad also hosts a number of Norwegian floorball teams, like Slevik IBK, Fredrikstad IBK and St. Croix Pirates.
They also have a hockey team called Stjernen Hockey
The following cities are twinned with Fredrikstad:
|San Martín Jilotepeque|
Fredriksten is a fortress in the city of Halden in Norway.
Johan Caspar von Cicignon was a Luxembourg-born soldier and military engineer who spent most of his career in the service of Denmark–Norway. He is most associated with the reconstruction of Trondheim, Norway after the great fire of 1681.
Kongsvinger Fortress is located in the city and municipality of Kongsvinger in the county of Hedmark, Norway. It is situated on a hill west and north of the Glomma river, standing astride the ancient Vinger Royal Road, which connected Norway and Värmland, Sweden as well as on the north-south Norwegian route along the Glomma. As Kongsvinger formed a key junction point for these routes, fortifications were constructed there to protect against invasion from the east.
Anthony Coucheron was an engineering officer. Coucheron played an important role in the history of Norwegian and Danish fortifications. As Sweden grew to be a great power in the 17th century, there were frequent wars in the Baltic region, and conflict was common along the borders between Sweden & Denmark-Norway. Easy invasions routes from Sweden were fortified on the Danish-Norwegian border with new or upgraded fortresses during this period, effectively establishing the modern borders between Norway & Sweden. Anthony Coucheron played a major role in fortification of the border, both in Norway and Denmark in addition, he participated with honor in combat during the Gyldenløve War.
Elvestad is a well-known traffic junction area and a village in the Hobøl municipality in the Østfold county, Norway. It is where the "Riksvei" (country road route 120 and Europe Way E18 cross each other. Riksvei 120 goes between Gardermoen airport via Gjerdrum municipality in the Akershus county and Moss City in the Østfold county.
Onsøy is a peninsula and a former municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre was Gressvik.
Kråkerøy is an island and a former municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
Borge is a parish and former municipality in Østfold county, Norway. Today it is located in the northeast part of Fredrikstad municipality, near the border with Sarpsborg.
Yven is a borough in the city of Sarpsborg in Østfold, Norway. It is located east of the city centre on the west side of the Glomma river between Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad. Yven was previously assigned to the former municipality of Tune. As of 1885, the village was estimated to have had 297 inhabitants.
Greåker is a borough in the city of Sarpsborg, Norway, located 7 km west of the city centre. Before 1992 Greåker was a part of Tune municipality. It is situated at the river Glomma between Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad.
Ørmen is a village in the municipality of Fredrikstad, Norway. In the past, the village was also a train station on the Østfold Line. The station was opened on 1 October 1914 although passenger service ended 1 April 1957. The station then functioned as a stop until it closed on 29 May 1983.
Julius Nicolai Jacobsen was a Norwegian businessperson and politician. He founded J. N. Jacobsen & Co. which became one of the country's larger forest product companies.
The 1st Division is a former unit in the Norwegian Army, responsible for the defence of Eastern Norway along with 2nd Division.
Sarp Bridge is a series of bridges which span across Sarpefossen, a waterfall of the river Glomma in Sarpsborg, Norway. In the current arrangement, one bridge carries a pathway, one carries a single track of the Østfold Line and one carries two lanes of National Road 118. The road and pathway bridges are about 91 meters (299 ft) long, while the railway bridge is 247 meters (810 ft).
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