Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt)

Last updated

Freedom and Justice Party

حزب الحرية و العدالة
Chairman Saad El-Katatni [1]
Vice Chairman Essam el-Erian
Secretary GeneralHussein Ibrahim [2]
Founded30 April 2011 (2011-04-30)
Banned9 August 2014 (2014-08-09) [3] (formally; continues to function underground) [4]
Headquarters20 King El-Salem Hameed Street Rhoda Island, Cairo
NewspaperFreedom and Justice
Membership (2011)8,821 [5]
Ideology Islamism [6] [7]
Social conservatism
Religious conservatism
Mixed economy [8]
Political position Right-wing
International affiliation Muslim Brotherhood
Colours         Green, blue
SloganWe hold good for Egypt
(Arabic: نحمل الخير لمصر)
House of Representatives
0 / 568

The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) (Arabic : حزب الحرية والعدالة, romanized: Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa al-ʿAdala) is an Egyptian Islamist political party. [6] The ex-president of the party, Mohamed Morsi, won the 2012 presidential election, [9] and in the 2011 parliamentary election it won more seats than any other party. It is nominally independent, but has strong links to the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, the largest political group in Egypt. [10] The party was banned and dissolved in 2014; however, it continues to function underground. [4]


The 2011–12 Egyptian Parliamentary election resulted in the FJP winning 47.2 per cent of all seats in the country's lower house of parliament, with fellow Islamist parties al Nour and al Wasat winning 24.7 and 2 per cent, respectively. [11] [12] [13] Both the FJP and the Salafist Al Nour Party have since denied alleged intentions of political unification. [14] [15]

The FJP originally stated that it would not field a candidate for the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, [16] [17] but in fact did so, first running Muslim Brotherhood leader Khairat al-Shater, and then after he was disqualified running Morsi. [18] The Muslim Brotherhood has been declared a terrorist group by the interim government, leaving the status of the FJP unclear. [19] On 15 April 2014, the Alexandria Court for Urgent Matters banned current and former members of the Muslim Brotherhood from running in the parliamentary elections. [20] On 9 August 2014, the Supreme Administrative Court ordered the dissolution of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party and the liquidation of its assets. [21]


The Muslim Brotherhood announced on 21 February 2011, in the aftermath of the 2011 Egyptian revolution, that it intended to found the Freedom and Justice Party, to be led by Saad El-Katatny. [22]

The party was officially founded on 30 April 2011, and it was announced that it would contest up to half the seats in the upcoming parliamentary election. It gained official status on 6 June 2011. [23] The Muslim Brotherhood's legislative body appointed Mohamed Morsi as president of the Freedom and Justice Party, Essam el-Erian as vice president, and Saad El-Katatny as secretary general. [24] [25] The three are former members of the Muslim Brotherhood "Guidance Office", or Maktab al-Irshad, the highest-level body of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. [10]

The party was expected to win "the vast majority" of the seats that it contested in the 2011 parliamentary election – i.e., just under half of the seats in parliament – as "no other party" had "anything close to the network of committed supporters" that it had. In addition, the MB worked with independent candidates promising them support. [10] On 24 June 2012, FJP's presidential candidate, Morsi, was announced as the winner of the election with 51.73% of the vote. Almost immediately afterward, he resigned from the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party.

On the party congress held on 19 October 2012, Katatni was elected president, el-Erian remained as vice president and Hussein Ibrahim as the new secretary-general.

By late 2012, the Freedom and Justice Party was no longer part of the Democratic Alliance coalition. [26] And as of early 2013, Egypt was said to have become "increasingly divided between two camps": that of President Morsi and "Islamist allies", and opposing them "moderate Muslims, Christians and liberals". [27]

In December 2013 the Muslim Brotherhood was declared a terrorist group by the interim government, leaving the status of the FJP unclear; [19] the FJP was formally banned by a court in August 2014. [28]

In June 2017 Cairo Criminal Court today decided to postpone the retrial of Mohammed Badi, leader of the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood, and his deputy Shater, and 10 others in the case of events "Guidance Bureau", to 10 next July meeting to attend the accused. [29]

Qandil government (2012–2013)

After 30 June 2012, when Morsi was sworn in as fifth and first democratically elected president of Egypt, Freedom and Justice Party became the principal governmental party. In the cabinet of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil, sworn in on 2 August 2012, FJP became the largest party in the government, taking 5 ministers, including ministry of Housing and Urban Development, ministry of higher Education, ministry of Manpower and Immigration, ministry of Media and ministry of State for Youth. On 27 August 2012, Morsi named 21 advisers and aides that included three women and two Christians and a large number of Islamist-leaning figures and the new governors to the 27 regions of the country, all coming from FJP. On 5 January 2013, ten ministers were changed, leading to an increase in the number of those who are member of the FJP in the cabinet. More specifically, the number of the FJP members in the cabinet became eight after the reshuffle. This reshuffle included the following ministries; ministry of finance, ministry of interior, ministry of state for local development, ministry of legal and parliamentary affairs, ministry of electricity, ministry of civil aviation, ministry of transportation, ministry of state for environmental affairs, ministry of local development and supply, and ministry of communication. On 7 May 2013, nine ministers were also changed in the cabinet, increasing the number of the FJP members to 12 out of total 35. The ministries reshuffled were as follows: Justice, Parliamentary Affairs, Petroleum, Antiquities, Agriculture, Finance, Planning and International Cooperation, Culture, and Investment. After Morsi's and FJP impossibility to redress the economy, they started to lose popularity and were criticized. On 30 June 2013, massive demonstrations were held across Egypt calling for President Morsi's resignation from office. Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, his supporters held demonstrations elsewhere in Cairo. On 3 July at 21:00 (GMT+2), Abdul Fatah al-Sisi announced a road map for the future, stating that Morsi was removed and that the head of the Constitutional Court had been appointed the Interim President of Egypt. Also, FJP ministers resigned or were deposed by the military. An Egyptian appeals court endorsed a verdict dismissing Qandil of his duties and sentencing him to one year in prison for not executing a court ruling. Ensuing protests in favour of Morsi were violently suppressed with the dispersal of pro-Morsi sit-ins on 14 August 2013, amid ongoing unrest. [30]

Lawsuit against Islamic parties

Though officially dissolved, the Freedom and Justice Party was one of the eleven Islamic parties targeted by a lawsuit in November 2014, when an organization named Popular Front for opposing the Brotherhoodization of Egypt sought to dissolve all political parties established "on a religious basis." [31] The Alexandria Urgent Matters Court however ruled on 26 November 2014 that it lacked jurisdiction. [32]

Political platform

On launching the new party, the Muslim Brotherhood confirmed that it did not object to women or Copts serving in a ministerial post (cabinet), [33] though it deems both "unsuitable" for the presidency. [34] The group supports a mixed economy with social justice, [8] [35] but without "manipulation or monopoly". The party's political program would include tourism as a main source of national income. [36]

The Freedom and Justice Party is based on Islamic law, "but will be acceptable to a wide segment of the population," said leading MB member Essam al Arian. [36] The party's membership is open to all Egyptians who accept the terms of its program. [37] The spokesperson for the party said that "when we talk about the slogans of the revolution – freedom, social justice, equality – all of these are in the Sharia (Islamic law)." [38] There is rivalry between the Freedom and Justice Party and the Salafis, who regard the Freedom and Justice Party as having 'watered down' its values. [39]

In an interview with Al-Alam TV that aired on 22 August 2012, Ahmad Sabi', the Freedom and Justice Party's media advisor stated (as translated by MEMRI) that the 1979 Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel were "a mark of shame upon the Egyptian people" and was "undermining Egypt's sovereignty" and "projects for the development of the Sinai." Sabi' also stated that the Accord "is an unjust and unfair agreement, which has isolated Egypt from its Arab and Islamic environments, and from the pan-Arab effort to liberate the land of Palestine and to support Palestinian resistance." [40] [41]

In the same interview, Sabi' stated:

In addition, carcinogenic pesticides were imported from the Zionist entity, and Egyptian agriculture was made available to the Zionist entity. This led to the destruction of various sectors in Egypt. Egypt now suffers from endemic diseases, such as various types of cancer, hepatitis and kidney infections. All these and other diseases are the result of the carcinogenic pesticides, which were brought here along with that agreement. [40]


List of leaders of the Freedom and Justice Party.

NumberPersonIn office
1. Mohamed Morsi 30 April 2011 – 24 June 2012
Essam el-Erian (acting)24 June 2012 – 19 October 2012
2. Saad El-Katatni 19 October 2012 – 9 August 2014

See also

Related Research Articles

Muslim Brotherhood Transnational Sunni Islamist organization

The Society of the Muslim Brothers, better known as the Muslim Brotherhood, is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928. Al-Banna's teachings spread far beyond Egypt, influencing today various Islamist movements from charitable organizations to political parties—not all using the same name.

2012 Egyptian presidential election election

A presidential election was held in Egypt in two rounds, the first on 23 and 24 May 2012 and the second on 16 and 17 June. The Muslim Brotherhood declared early 18 June 2012, that its candidate, Mohamed Morsi, won Egypt's presidential election, which would be the first victory of an Islamist as head of state in the Arab world. It was the second presidential election in Egypt's history with more than one candidate, following the 2005 election, and the first presidential election after the 2011 Egyptian revolution which ousted president Hosni Mubarak, during the Arab Spring. However, Morsi's presidency was brief and short-lived, and he later faced massive protests for and against his rule, only to be ousted in a military coup in July that year.

Mohamed Beltagy Egyptian politician

Mohamed Beltagy is an Egyptian physician and Muslim Brotherhood politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 2005 to 2010, and is currently the general secretary of the Freedom and Justice Party.

Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Sunni Islamist movement in Egypt

In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood – a Sunni Islamist religious, political, and social movement – is, or was, considered the largest, best-organized political force in Egypt, with adherents estimated to number between 2 and 2.5 million. Founded in Egypt by Hassan al-Banna in March 1928, the group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest, or one of its largest, organizations in Egypt, despite a succession of government crackdowns in 1948, 1954, 1965, and 2013 after plots, or alleged plots, of assassination and overthrow were uncovered.

2011–12 Egyptian parliamentary election election

Parliamentary elections were held in Egypt held from 28 November 2011 to 11 January 2012, following the revolution that ousted President Hosni Mubarak, after which the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) dissolved Parliament. However the dissolution was ruled unconstitutional and Parliament was reinstated. Originally, the elections had been scheduled to be held in September 2011, but was were postponed amid concerns that established parties would gain undue advantage.

Egyptian Crisis (2011–2014) timeline

The Egyptian Crisis began with the Egyptian revolution of 2011, when hundreds of thousands of Egyptians took to the streets in an ideologically and socially diverse mass protest movement that ultimately forced longtime president Hosni Mubarak from office. A protracted political crisis ensued, with the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces taking control of the country until a series of popular elections, which are thought to have been tampered with, brought the Muslim Brotherhood to power. However, disputes between elected Islamist president Mohamed Morsi and secularists continued until the anti-government protests in June 2013 that led to the overthrow of Morsi in 2013, in what has been variably described as a coup d'état or as an ending to the second revolution, or both. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who announced the overthrow of Morsi, then became the leader of Egypt the following year, winning election to the presidency in a landslide victory described by EU observers as free but not necessarily fair. Nonetheless, Sisi's election was widely recognized, and the political situation has largely stabilized since he officially took power; however, some protests have continued despite a government crackdown. The crisis has also spawned an ongoing insurgency led by Ansar Bait al-Maqdis in the Sinai Peninsula, which became increasingly intertwined with the regional conflict against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant later in 2014.

Al-Nour Party Egyptian political party

The al‑Nour Party, or "Party of The Light", is one of the political parties created in Egypt after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. It has an ultra-conservative Islamist ideology, which believes in implementing strict Sharia law. It has been described as the political arm of the Salafi Call Society, and "by far the most prominent" of the several new Salafi parties in Egypt, which it has surpassed by virtue of its "long organizational and administrative experience" and "charismatic leaders". Its political aim is to establish a theocratic state on the lines of Wahhabism like in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was found to be the main financer of the party according to the public German television news service ARD (broadcaster).

Mohamed Morsi Fifth President of Egypt

Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Issa Al-Ayyat was an Egyptian politician and engineer who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed him from office in a coup d'état after protests in June. An Islamist affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood organisation, Morsi led the Freedom and Justice Party from 2011 to 2012.

Saad El-Katatni Egyptian politician

Mohamed Saad Tawfik El-Katatni is an Egyptian Islamist politician who has been the chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) since October 2012. From January 2012 until its dissolution in September he was the first Speaker of the People's Assembly after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Prior to this, he served as the first secretary-general of the FJP and was a member of the Guidance Bureau of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Khairat el-Shater Muslim Brotherhood leader

Mohammed Khairat Saad el-Shater is an Egyptian engineer, businessman and Islamist political activist. A leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood, as the Deputy Supreme Guide, el-Shater was the initial candidate of the movement's Freedom and Justice Party during the 2012 Egyptian presidential election before being disqualified by the election commission. Previously, he was the deputy chairman of the Brotherhood.

Tarek Wafik Mohamed is an Egyptian politician and the former minister of housing of Egypt. He was part of the Qandil Cabinet. He was the first housing minister of Egypt who is a specialist in urban development.

Osama Yassin is the former minister of youth of Egypt. He was part of the Qandil Cabinet and one of the five Freedom and Justice (FJP) members in the first cabinet. He is also one of the leading members of the FJP.

The cabinet of Egyptian Prime Minister Hesham Qandil was sworn in on 2 August 2012. Qandil was appointed by President Mohamed Morsi, following the resignation of military-named premier Kamal Ganzouri. The cabinet consists of 36 ministers. The composition of the government is mostly formed by technocrats, with five Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) members and one member each from the Al-Wasat and Renaissance parties.

2012–2013 Egyptian protests

The 2012–2013 Egyptian protests were part of a large scale popular uprising in Egypt against then-President Mohamed Morsi. On 22 November 2012, millions of protesters began protesting against Morsi, after his government announced a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers. Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak era.

Rafik Habib is an Egyptian political researcher, and analyst, sometimes described as a Coptic intellectual. He serves as Senior Director for IT & Decision Support of CEOSS, an Egyptian, development organization.

Bassem Kamel Mohamed Ouda is an Egyptian politician who is a member of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) and the former minister of supply and interior trade. He is also allegedly a member of the Muslim Brotherhood.

June 2013 Egyptian protests Anti-government civil revolution in Egypt

The 30June protests occurred in Egypt on 30 June 2013, marking the one-year anniversary of Mohamed Morsi's inauguration as president. The events ended with the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after mass protests across Egypt demanding the immediate resignation of the president. The rallies were partly a response to Tamarod, an ostensibly grassroots movement that launched a petition in April earlier that year calling for the government to step down claiming to have collected 22 million signatures, a figure not verified by independent sources with skepticism over the rise in number by millions in a matter of days, with the Freedom and Justice Party putting the figure at 170,000 signatures. A counter campaign was launched in support of Morsi's presidency which claimed to have collected 11 million signatures. According to the Egyptian military, which calculated figured via helicopter scans of demonstration perimeters across the country, this was "the biggest protest in Egypt's history", with 32 million protesters.

Post-coup unrest in Egypt (2013–2014)

Protests against the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état erupted in July 2013. Immediately following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi by the Egyptian Armed Forces on 3 July 2013 amid demonstrations against Morsi's rule, many protesters amassed near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque to call for Morsi's return to power and condemn the military, while others demonstrated in support of the military and interim government. Deadly clashes such as Rabaa massacre continued for several days, with three particularly bloody incidents being described by Muslim Brotherhood officials as "massacres" perpetrated by security forces. During the month of Ramadan, prime minister Hazem al-Beblawy threatened to disperse the ongoing Pro-Morsi sit-ins in Rabaa al-Adaweya square and al-Nahda square. The government crackdown of these protests occurred in a violent dispersal on 14 August 2013. In mid-August, the violence directed by the army towards the protesters escalated, with hundreds killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.

Mohamed Soudan is a senior member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Organization and its now defunct political wing, the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP). He was foreign relations secretary underneath previous president, Mohamed Morsi, who was ousted in June 2013 after massive opposition demonstrations. Following the coup, Soudan fled to the U.K., where he has been living ever since.


  1. "Egypt's El-Katatni becomes new head of Muslim Brotherhood's FJP". Ahram Online. 19 October 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  2. "Brotherhood's Freedom & Justice Party elects new secretary-general". Ahram Online. 10 January 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  3. "Egypt court bans Muslim Brotherhood's political wing". BBC News. 9 August 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Al-Komi: Disbanding Freedom and Justice Party Will Not Stop Us Serving People". Ikhwanweb. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  5. "Länderbericht Parteienmonitor Ägypten 2011" (PDF) (in German). Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. 27 November 2011. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  6. 1 2 "Egypt's Islamists announce own political party", Dawn , 30 April 2011, archived from the original on 20 December 2013, retrieved 20 December 2013
  7. "Egypt Islamists form 'non-theocratic' party", The Peninsula , 1 May 2011, archived from the original on 30 November 2011, retrieved 20 December 2013
  8. 1 2 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Celebration in Egypt as Morsi declared winner". Al Jazeera. 24 June 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 Foreign Affairs magazine, September October 2011, "The Unbreakable Muslim Brotherhood", Eric Trager, pp. 114–222 (full text not available for free on internet)
  11. "Ahram, Electoral Results, Retrieved 3 February 2012". Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  12. "Egypt's MB wins most parliamentary seats". PressTV. 21 January 2012. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  13. "الأخبار – هيمنة الإسلاميين على برلمان مصر عربي". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  14. "Head of Salafist Al-Nour Party Rules Out Alliance with Muslim Brotherhood". Ahram Online. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  15. "FJP: No Alliance With Salafist Al Noor Party". Ikhwanweb. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  16. "Muslim Brotherhood's political party will not run for presidency". Ahram Online. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  17. "Brotherhood will not run for Egypt presidency". Middle East Online. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  18. "Egypt Brotherhood candidate: army wants to retain power". Al Akhbar. 18 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  19. 1 2 "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood declared 'terrorist group'". BBC News. 25 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  20. "Court bans Brotherhood members from running for elections". Cairo Post. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  21. "Egyptian court dissolves Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party". Ahram Online. 9 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  22. "Muslim Brotherhood to establish 'Freedom and Justice Party'". Egypt Independent. 21 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  23. Shehata, Said (25 November 2011). "Profiles of Egypt's political parties". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  24. "Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood selects hawkish leaders". Egypt Independent. 30 April 2011. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  25. "Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood sets up new party". BBC. 30 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  26. Enein, Ahmed Aboul. "All broken up: new coalitions form as old electoral alliances die out". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  27. "Coptic pope's criticism of president marks trend in Egypt, where no one is above the fray". Associated Press. 9 April 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  28. "Egypt: court dissolves Muslim Brotherhood's political wing". The Guardian . 9 August 2014. Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  29. "اخر اخبار مصر .. تأجيل محاكمة بديع والشاطر في "مكتب الإرشاد" لـ10 يوليو". Mogaz Masr. 9 June 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  30. "Egypt sides told to end 'dangerous stalemate' - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. 8 August 2013. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  31. Auf, Yussef (25 November 2014). "Political Islam's Fate in Egypt Lies in the Hands of the Courts". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  32. "Court claims no jurisdiction over religiously affiliated parties". Daily News Egypt . 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  33. MB announces establishment of political party: Freedom and Justice Archived 25 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine . IkhwanWeb. 21 February 2011.
  34. "Brotherhood sticks to ban on Christians and women for presidency". Egypt Independent. 14 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  35. "Khattab: Muslim Brotherhood Economic Program is Based on Free Market, Social Justice - Ikhwanweb". Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  36. 1 2 "Al-Arian: Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party to be based on Islamic Law". Egypt Independent. 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  37. MB form 'Freedom and Justice' political party Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Ahram. 22 February 2011.
  38. Muslim Brothers see corruption-free Egypt flourishing Archived 7 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Al Arabiya. 23 February 2011.
  39. "Opinion". Gulf Times. 5 December 2011. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  40. 1 2 Egyptian MB Media Advisor Ahmad Sabi': Camp David Accords Brought Cancer, Hepatitis, and Kidney Infections to Egypt Archived 1 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine , MEMRI, Clip No. 3556, 22 August 2012.
  41. Treaty with Israel has brought hepatitis, cancer to Egypt, must be changed, says adviser to Morsi's party Archived 3 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine by Greg Tepper, Times of Israel , 30 August 2012.