French First Republic

Last updated

French Republic
République française (French)
1792–1804
Flag of France (1790-1794).svg
Flag of France official.svg
Top: Flag
(1790–1794)
Bottom: Flag
(1794–1804)
Motto:  Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ou la Mort
("Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death")
Anthem:  Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin
("War Song for the Army of the Rhine")
France Departement 1801.svg
The French Republic in 1801, delineating departments
Capital
and largest city
Paris
Common languages
Religion
Demonym(s) French
Government
President of the National Convention  
 1792
Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (first)
 1795
Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu (last)
President of the Directory  
 1795–1799
By rotation: 3 months duration
First Consul  
 1799–1804
Napoléon Bonaparte
Legislature Parliament
Council of Ancients (1795–1799)
Historical era
21 September 1792
10 March 1793 – 27 July 1794
27 July 1794
6 September 1795
4 September 1797
18 June 1799
9 November 1799
24 December 1799
27 March 1802
  Napoleonic Wars begin
18 May 1803
 Napoleon proclaimed emperor
18 May 1804
Currency livre (to 1794), franc, assignat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of France (1790-1794).svg Kingdom of France
War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1785-1802).svg Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Swiss Confederacy
Austrian Low Countries Flag.svg Austrian Netherlands
Flag of Comtat Venaissin.svg Comtat Venaissin
Flag of Monaco.svg Principality of Monaco
Flag of Savoie.svg Duchy of Savoy
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Kingdom of France
Pavillon royal de la France.svg Early modern France
First French Empire Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1974, 2020-present).svg

In the history of France, the First Republic (French : Première République), sometimes referred to in historiography as Revolutionary France, and officially the French Republic (French : République française), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire on 18 May 1804 under Napoléon Bonaparte, although the form of the government changed several times.

Contents

This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

End of the monarchy in France

Under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. In July 1792, the Duke of Brunswick, commanding general of the Austro–Prussian Army, issued his Brunswick Manifesto, threatening the destruction of Paris should any harm come to King Louis XVI of France.

This foreign threat exacerbated France's political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion and sense of urgency among the various factions. In the insurrection of 10 August 1792, citizens rioted the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the King's Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. [1]

A renewed fear of anti-revolutionary action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the city's prisons. They killed over half of the prisoners, including nobles, clergymen, and political prisoners, but also common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves. Many victims were murdered in their cells: raped, stabbed, and/or slashed to death. This became known as the September Massacres. [2]

National Convention (1792-1795)

Republican symbols mix from christening wish of 1794 Coat of arms of the French First Republic.svg
Republican symbols mix from christening wish of 1794

As a result of the spike in public violence and the political instability of the constitutional monarchy, a party of six members of France's Legislative Assembly was assigned the task of overseeing elections. The resulting Convention was founded with the dual purpose of abolishing the monarchy and drafting a new constitution.

The convention's first act was to establish the French First Republic and officially strip the king of all political powers. Louis XVI, by then a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, he was executed. [3]

Throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, occupied instead with matters of war. Finally, on 6 April 1793, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety, and was given a monumental task: "To deal with the radical movements of the Enragés, food shortages and riots, the revolt in the Vendée and in Brittany, recent defeats of its armies, and the desertion of its commanding general." [4]

Most notably, the Committee of Public Safety instated a policy of terror, and the guillotine began to fall on perceived enemies of the republic at an ever-increasing rate, beginning the period known today as the Reign of Terror. [5]

Despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. However, the Committee of Public Safety was seen as an "emergency" government, and the rights guaranteed by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the new constitution were suspended under its control.

The constitution of the republic did not provide for a formal head of state or a head of government. It could be discussed whether the head of state would have been the president of the National Assembly under international law. However, this changed every two weeks and was therefore not formative.

Directory (1795-1799)

After the arrest and execution of Robespierre on 28 July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III. They reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body.

On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established. Under this system, France was led by a bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper chamber called the Council of Elders (with 250 members) and a lower chamber called the Council of Five Hundred (with, accordingly, 500 members), and a collective Executive of five members called the Directory (from which the historical period gets its name). Due to internal instability, caused by hyperinflation of the paper monies called Assignats, [6] and French military disasters in 1798 and 1799, the Directory lasted only four years, until overthrown in 1799.[ citation needed ]

Consulate (1799-1804)

The French Consulate era began with the coup of 18 Brumaire on 9 November 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory. Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul.

On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of the French by the Sénat conservateur. He would later proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Reign of Terror</span> 1793–1794 killings during the French Revolution

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the French Revolution</span> Timeline

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier</span>

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Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who became one of the best-known, influential and controversial figures of the French Revolution. As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, the right to vote for people of color, Jews, actors, domestic staff and the abolition of both clerical celibacy and French involvement in the Atlantic slave trade. In 1791, Robespierre was elected as "public accuser" and became an outspoken advocate for male citizens without a political voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and to the commissioned ranks of the army, for the right to petition and the right to bear arms in self defence. Robespierre played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy on 10 August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention. His goal was to create a one and indivisible France, equality before the law, to abolish prerogatives and to defend the principles of direct democracy. He earned the nickname "the incorruptible" for his adherence to strict moral values.

References

  1. Censer, Jack R.; Hunt, Lynn (2004), Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution, University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press
  2. Doyle (1989), pp. 191–192.
  3. Doyle (1989), p. 196.
  4. The French Revolution [videorecording]: liberté, egalité, fraternité, a hitler Jr. is born in blood / produced & directed by Doug Shultz; written by Doug Shultz, Hilary Sio, Thomas Emil. [New York, N.Y.]: History Channel: Distributed in the U.S. by New Video, 2005.
  5. "Robespierre and the Terror | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  6. "J.E. Sandrock: "Bank notes of the French Revolution" and First Republic" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  7. "Paris: Capital of the 19th Century". library.brown.edu. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2017.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 48°51′55″N02°19′38″E / 48.86528°N 2.32722°E / 48.86528; 2.32722