Fresno County, California

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Fresno County, California
County of Fresno
Fresno county courthouse.jpg
Millerton Lake State Recreation Area 3.jpg
Courtright Reservoir 2.jpg
Seal of Fresno County, California.png
Fresno County, California
Interactive map of Fresno County
Map of California highlighting Fresno County.svg
Location in the state of California
Coordinates: 36°45′N119°39′W / 36.75°N 119.65°W / 36.75; -119.65 Coordinates: 36°45′N119°39′W / 36.75°N 119.65°W / 36.75; -119.65
Country United States
State California
Region San Joaquin Valley
Metro area Fresno-Madera
Incorporated 1856
Named for The city of Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree")
County seat Fresno
Largest cityFresno
Incorporated cities15
  Type Council–CAO
  Body Board of Supervisors
  ChairSal Quintero
  Vice ChairNathan Magsig
  Board of Supervisors [1]
  • Brian Pacheco
  • Steve Brandau
  • Sal Quintero
  • Buddy Mendes
  • Nathan Magsig
  County Administrative OfficerPaul Nerland
  Total6,011 sq mi (15,570 km2)
  Land5,958 sq mi (15,430 km2)
  Water53 sq mi (140 km2)
Highest elevation
14,248 ft (4,343 m)
  Density170/sq mi (65/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Area code 559
FIPS code06-019
GNIS feature ID 277274

Fresno County ( /ˈfrɛzn/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 Census, the population was 1,008,654. [3] [4] The county seat is Fresno, [5] the fifth-most populous city in California.


Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the Central Valley, south of Stockton and north of Bakersfield. Since 2010, statewide droughts in California have further strained both Fresno County's and the entire Central Valley's water security. [6] [7]


The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, and was later settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War.

Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa, Merced and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree" [8] and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala , growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893. The original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the rapidly growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.[ citation needed ]

The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, and other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires also plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, and was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883.

At the same time residents brought irrigation, electricity, and extensive agriculture to the area. In 1865, William Helm brought his sheep to Fresno county, which was then a vast space of open land. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation. These canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County, also began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. Anthony Easterby and Clovis Cole developed extensive grain and cattle ranches. These and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.[ citation needed ]

The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s (decade), even though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; a dramatic oil gusher in 1909, the biggest in California up until that time, was an event of sufficient excitement to cause the Los Angeles Stock Exchange to close for a day so that its members could come by train to view it. The Coalinga field continues to produce oil, and is currently the eighth-largest field in the state. [9] [10]

More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons (950 m3) of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, and Kearney Mansion Museum.[ citation needed ]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles (15,570 km2), of which 5,958 square miles (15,430 km2) is land and 53 square miles (140 km2) (0.9%) is water. [11]

Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal. It is bordered on the west by the Coast Range and on the east by the Sierra Nevada. It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons (14,000,000 m3) of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States. In recent years, statewide droughts in California have further strained both Fresno's and the entire Central Valley's water security. [6] [7]

Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. However, Fresno was named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of which is still alive and standing.[ citation needed ]

National protected areas


A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, krauskopfite, walstromite, fresnoite, verplanckite, muirite, traskite, and kampfite. [12] [13]

In October 2019, the Bureau of Land Management ended a five-year moratorium on leasing federal land in California to fossil fuel companies, opening 725,000 acres (1100 sq. miles; 29,000 ha) to drilling in San Benito, Monterey, and Fresno counties. [14]


Historical population
1860 4,605
1870 6,33637.6%
1880 9,47849.6%
1890 32,026237.9%
1900 37,86218.2%
1910 75,65799.8%
1920 128,77970.2%
1930 144,37912.1%
1940 178,56523.7%
1950 276,51554.9%
1960 365,94532.3%
1970 413,05312.9%
1980 514,62124.6%
1990 667,49029.7%
2000 799,40719.8%
2010 930,45016.4%
2020 1,008,6548.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [15]
1790–1960 [16] 1900–1990 [17]
1990–2000 [18] 2010 [19] 2020 [20]

2020 census

Fresno County, California - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / EthnicityPop 2010 [19] Pop 2020 [20] % 2010% 2020
White alone (NH)304,522271,88932.73%26.96%
Black or African American alone (NH)45,00544,2954.84%4.39%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)5,9796,0740.64%0.60%
Asian alone (NH)86,856109,6659.33%10.87%
Pacific Islander alone (NH)1,0661,2330.11%0.12%
Some Other Race alone (NH)1,7445,2090.19%0.52%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)17,20829,5461.85%2.93%
Hispanic or Latino (any race)468,070540,74350.31%53.61%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2010 Census

The 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450.[ citation needed ] The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 (55.4%) White, 49,523 (5.3%) African American, 15,649 (1.7%) Native American, 89,357 (9.6%) Asian (3.3% Hmong, 1.7% Asian Indian, 1.0% Filipino, 0.8% Laotian, 0.6% Chinese, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Cambodian, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Korean, 0.1% Pakistani, 0.1% Thai), 1,405 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 217,085 (23.3%) from other races, and 42,286 (4.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons (50.3%). [21] 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent; 0.7% of its residents are Salvadoran, and 0.3% of its residents are Puerto Rican.


As of the census [22] of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, and 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile (52/km2). There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile (18/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, and 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In terms of ancestry, the county was 7.5% German, 6.6% Irish, 6.3% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language.

There were 252,940 households, out of which 41.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.2% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.59.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 32.1% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,725, and the median income for a family was $38,455. Males had a median income of $33,375 versus $26,501 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,495. About 17.6% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.7% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.

Fresno County is also known for having the highest rate of chlamydia in the state. In 2006 it had 545.2 cases per 100,000 people, compared with the statewide average of 363.5.

Metropolitan Statistical Area

The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Fresno County as the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. [23] The United States Census Bureau ranked the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 56th most populous metropolitan statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. [24]

The Office of Management and Budget has further designated the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as a component of the more extensive Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, [23] the 49th most populous combined statistical area and the 55th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. [24] [25]

Government and policing


The Government of Fresno County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, law, and the Charter of the County of Fresno. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Fresno County. The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas.

The County government is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, [26] District Attorney, Assessor-Recorder, Auditor-Controller/Treasurer-Tax Collector, and Clerk/Registrar of Voters, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator. As of February 2018 the members of the Fresno County Board of Supervisors are: [27]


County Sheriff

The Fresno County Sheriff provides court protection, jail administration, and coroner services for all of Fresno County and its population of approximately of 994,400 residents. They operate the Fresno County Jail in downtown Fresno. The department provides police patrol and detective services for the unincorporated areas of the county which encompasses approximately 250,000 residents, or 25% of the county's total population. The department also provides law enforcement services by contract with the city of San Joaquin, population 4100.

Municipal police

Municipal police departments in the county are: Fresno, population 500,000; Clovis, 110,000; Sanger, 25,000; Reedley, 24,000; Selma, 23,000; Coalinga, 17,000; Kerman, 14,000; Kingsburg, 12,000; Huron, 7,000; Firebaugh, 8,500; Fowler, 6,500.



Fresno County's voter registration shows a majority of Democratic voters. [28] Presidential elections have been competitive in recent decades. In 2020, Joe Biden became the first Democratic presidential candidate since Lyndon Johnson in 1964 to win a majority of the vote in Fresno County.

The cities of Clovis, Coalinga, and Kingsburg voted overwhelmingly for Governor Mitt Romney. Reedley did so by much lesser margins and is now a GOP-leaning "swing" city in the county. Huron, Mendota, Orange Cove, Parlier, Fowler, Firebaugh, Fresno, Kerman, Sanger, Selma and San Joaquin voted overwhelmingly for President Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012.[ citation needed ]

According to the California Secretary of State, in October 2012 there were 410,188 registered voters in Fresno County. 158,267 (38.6%) were registered Republican, 164,663 (40.1%) were registered Democratic, 19,841 (4.8%) are registered with other political parties, and 67,417 (16.4%) declined to state a political party.[ citation needed ] Republicans have a plurality or majority of voter roll registration in the cities of Clovis, Coalinga, Kingsburg, Reedley, and the unincorporated areas. The other cities and towns have Democratic pluralities or majorities.

From Fresno County's incorporation in 1856, it voted Democratic in every election until the 1904 election in California, when President Theodore Roosevelt stood for re-election. Fresno County backed Roosevelt over his Democratic opponent Alton B. Parker. This did not immediately change the county's voting tendencies, however. It supported southern Democrat Woodrow Wilson in the elections of 1912 and 1916.

Fresno County was generally Republican from the onset of the "roaring 1920s" until the Great Depression, when former President Franklin D. Roosevelt forged the New Deal Coalition that benefitted the agrarian county. From 1932 till 1976 the county consistently voted Democratic, barring Richard Nixon's landslide victory over former Senator George McGovern (D-SD) in the 1972 Presidential Election.

With former President Jimmy Carter's defeat by former President Reagan, Fresno became a GOP-leaning swing county: it barely favored Reagan's successor former President Bush and voted Democratic for Bill Clinton only in his 1992 presidential bid. Republicans won elections in Fresno County by increasing margins from 1996 to 2004, but when the GOP lost ground with Hispanic voters after 2004, the county swung Democratic, voting twice for Barack Obama, and then for Hillary Clinton in 2016. Until the 2020 election, with Joe Biden winning nearly 53% of the vote, the last time the Democratic nominee won with an absolute majority of the vote was the 1964 election.

United States presidential election results for Fresno County, California [29]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
2020 164,46445.07%193,02552.90%7,4282.04%
2016 124,04943.21%141,34149.24%21,6727.55%
2012 124,49047.94%129,12949.72%6,0782.34%
2008 131,01547.91%136,70649.99%5,7312.10%
2004 141,98857.38%103,15441.68%2,3210.94%
2000 117,34253.14%95,05943.05%8,4343.82%
1996 98,81347.42%94,44845.32%15,1327.26%
1992 89,13740.67%92,41842.17%37,60617.16%
1988 94,83549.95%92,63548.79%2,4001.26%
1984 104,75754.30%86,31544.74%1,8640.97%
1980 82,51551.13%65,25440.43%13,6178.44%
1976 72,53348.10%74,95849.71%3,3142.20%
1972 79,05150.44%72,68246.38%4,9863.18%
1968 59,90143.60%65,15347.42%12,3428.98%
1964 46,79234.33%89,37565.57%1410.10%
1960 57,93044.32%72,16455.21%6080.47%
1956 51,61143.33%67,23456.44%2700.23%
1952 54,62648.95%56,13550.30%8370.75%
1948 30,37937.20%47,76258.49%3,5244.32%
1944 22,66835.50%40,76963.84%4250.67%
1940 21,07929.79%48,86669.07%8051.14%
1936 11,54520.94%42,85977.75%7221.31%
1932 12,13426.07%32,52869.90%1,8754.03%
1928 20,68754.30%16,88444.32%5271.38%
1924 15,63544.01%4,61012.98%15,28243.02%
1920 14,62155.36%9,61336.39%2,1798.25%
1916 11,70741.07%14,24149.95%2,5608.98%
1912 8,83942.71%8,89142.96%2,96614.33%
1908 6,38450.89%4,74337.81%1,41811.30%
1904 4,92955.78%2,81531.86%1,09212.36%
1900 3,58547.34%3,59047.41%3985.26%
1896 2,68640.22%3,79056.75%2033.04%
1892 3,03137.18%3,45342.35%1,66920.47%
1888 2,46144.81%2,82251.38%2093.81%
1884 1,31441.89%1,70454.32%1193.79%
1880 61334.95%1,13364.60%80.46%

In the United States House of Representatives, Fresno County is split among four congressional districts: [30]

In the California State Senate, the county is split among 3 legislative districts: [35]

In the California State Assembly, Fresno County is split between the 23rd Assembly District , represented by Democrat Marc Berman, and the 31st Assembly District , represented by Democrat Joaquin Arambula. [36]

Fresno tends to remain socially conservative while being more moderate on economic issues, which can be seen in Fresno's support for socially conservative proposition amendments but occasionally voting for a Democratic Presidential Candidate if economic times are poor such as former President Bill Clinton's victory over incumbent former President George H.W. Bush in 1992 and President Barack Obama over Senator John McCain in 2008.

As of 2022, elections for president lean Democratic. Statewide races have historically been competitive. Elections for governor are considered safe for Republicans. This is a somewhat unusual difference in voting patterns for a California county. For example, although Fresno County gave a majority of its votes to Joe Biden in the 2020 presidential election and has voted for the Democrat running for president ever since 2008, it voted “Yes” in the 2021 California gubernatorial recall election and has voted for the Republican candidate for governor in every election since 1978.

On November 4, 2008, Fresno County voted 68.6% for Proposition 8, which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.

Voter registration statistics

Cities by population and voter registration


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.



Agriculture is the primary industry in Fresno County. [41] 1.88 million acres (0.76 million hectares; 7,600 square kilometres; 2,940 square miles) are under cultivation, almost half the total county area of 3.84 million acres (1.55 million hectares; 15,500 square kilometres; 6,000 square miles). [41] Ag production totaled $7.98 billion in 2017, making it the number one agricultural county in the nation. [41] Over 300 different crops are grown here. [41] Major crops and livestocks include:

The grape harvest brought in $1,046,356,645 in 2017. [41] Production is chronically threatened by the presence of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter and the disease it carries, Pierce's Disease. [42] [43] [44] [45] See Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter in California and Pierce's Disease in California.

The peach harvest was worth $264,139,238 in 2017. [41]

Fresno is the second highest cotton producer in the state, harvesting 223,443 bales in 2017. [46] This is a close second to neighboring Kings. [46]

Due to its tremendous agricultural success, the county also has a tremendous problem with glyphosate resistance. [47] Okada et al., 2013 finds a high degree of resistance in Marestail ( Conyza canadensis ). [47]

Companies based in Fresno County

Major employers


Tertiary education

Educational institutions in Fresno County include:

Within the California Community Colleges System, Fresno County is mostly covered by the State Center Community College District and the West Hills Community College District. The following campuses are in Fresno County: [50]

K-12 education

School districts include: [51]




Public libraries

In addition, the Fresno County Public Library operates public libraries throughout the county.


Major highways



Commercial service
General Aviation

Public transportation


Forestiere Underground Garden Forestiere Gardens.jpg
Forestiere Underground Garden



Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Fresno County. [52]

county seat

RankCity/Town/etc.Municipal typePopulation (2010 Census)
1 Fresno City494,665
2 Clovis City95,631
3 Sanger City24,270
4 Reedley City24,194
5 Selma City23,219
6 Parlier City14,494
7 Kerman City13,544
8 Coalinga City13,380
9 Kingsburg City11,382
10 Mendota City11,014
11 Orange Cove City9,078
12 Firebaugh City7,549
13 Huron City6,754
14 Fowler City5,570
15 Old Fig Garden CDP5,365
16 Mayfair CDP4,589
17 Sunnyside CDP4,235
18 San Joaquin City4,001
19 Tarpey Village CDP3,888
20 Squaw Valley CDP3,162
21 Riverdale CDP3,153
22 Caruthers CDP2,497
23 Auberry CDP2,369
24 Easton CDP2,083
25 Calwa CDP2,052
26 Laton CDP1,824
27 Del Rey CDP1,639
28 Biola CDP1,623
29 West Park CDP1,157
30 Minkler CDP1,003
31 Malaga CDP947
32 Tranquillity CDP799
33 Shaver Lake CDP634
34 Lanare CDP589
35 Friant CDP509
36 Cantua Creek CDP466
37 Centerville CDP392
38 Raisin City CDP380
39 Three Rocks CDP246
40 Fort Washington CDP233
41 Cold Springs Rancheria [53] AIAN 184
42 Big Creek CDP175
43 Bowles CDP166
44 Monmouth CDP152
45 Big Sandy Rancheria [54] AIAN118
46 Table Mountain Rancheria [55] AIAN64

See also


  1. 1 2 Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
  2. Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.

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Avenal is a city in Kings County, California, United States. Avenal is located 35 miles (56 km) southwest of Hanford, at an elevation of 807 ft (246 m). It is part of the Hanford–Corcoran Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kings County. In area, it is the fourth largest city in Kings County. The ZIP Code for this community is 93204, and telephone numbers use the sequence (559) 386-XXXX. The population was 15,505 in the 2010 census, which includes inmates at the Avenal State Prison, the first prison actively solicited by a community in the state of California. Many of the remaining residents largely either work at the prison or in the agriculture industry. The prison provides approximately 1,000 jobs to residents. The California Department of Finance estimated that Avenal's population was 13,496 on July 1, 2019. As of that date, Avenal State Prison held 4,165 inmates, which was about 32% of the total population of Avenal. Inmates are counted as city residents by both the United States Census and the California Department of Finance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">San Joaquin Valley</span> Area of the Central Valley in California

The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus, Merced, and Fresno counties, and parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California. Although the valley is predominantly rural, it has densely populated urban centers: Fresno, Bakersfield, Stockton, Modesto, Tulare, Visalia, Hanford, and Merced.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central California</span> Region of California in the United States

Central California is generally thought of as the middle third of the state, north of Southern California, which includes Los Angeles, and south of Northern California, which includes San Francisco. It includes the northern portion of the San Joaquin Valley, part of the Central Coast, the central hills of the California Coast Ranges and the foothills and mountain areas of the central Sierra Nevada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Area code 559</span> Telephone code in California

Area code 559 is a California telephone area code that was split from area code 209 on November 14, 1998.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">California's 21st congressional district</span> U.S. House district for California

California's 21st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California. It is located in the San Joaquin Valley and includes parts of Fresno County and Tulare County. Cities in the district include the majority of Fresno, the north side of Visalia, and all of Sanger, Selma, Kingsburg, Parlier, Reedley, Orange Cove, Dinuba, Orosi, Cutler, Farmersville, Woodlake and Exeter. The district is currently represented by Democrat Jim Costa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fresno County Public Library</span>

The Fresno County Public Library provides books, ebooks, music, movies, magazines, newspapers, reference assistance, wireless Internet access and a variety of other services at its 35 locations throughout Fresno County, California. The library system is headquartered in Fresno, at the Central Library.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fresno County Rural Transit Agency</span> Transportation in Fresno County, California, United States

Fresno County Rural Transit Agency (FCRTA) is the primary bus agency providing intra- and inter-city routes for smaller cities and unincorporated rural communities in Fresno County, California since 1979, including Coalinga, Firebaugh, Fowler, Huron, Kerman, Kingsburg, Mendota, Orange Cove, Reedley, Sanger, San Joaquin, and Selma. FCRTA riders may transfer to Fresno Area Express service within the county seat of Fresno, and FCRTA has additional transfer points connecting to neighboring agencies in Fresno, Kings, and Tulare counties, including Clovis Transit Stageline, Kings Area Regional Transit, and Dinuba Connection.


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