Friedebert Tuglas

Last updated
Friedebert Tuglas Friedebert Tuglas 1910.jpg
Friedebert Tuglas

Friedebert Tuglas, born Friedebert Mihkelson or Michelson (2 March 1886 – 15 April 1971) was an Estonian writer and critic who introduced Impressionism and Symbolism to Estonian literature. [1] Persecuted by the authorities in the beginning of 20th century, he later became an acknowledged representative of Estonian literature in the Soviet era [ citation needed ].



Tuglas was born in Ahja, the son of a carpenter, and studied at the Hugo Treffner Gymnasium from 1904 to 1905. After imprisonment for revolutionary activities, he went into exile in 1906, living in Finland, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and France, before returning to Estonia in time for the February revolution of 1917. [2]

His most famous short story is Popi ja Huhuu. He was the leader of Estonian literary group Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti) in the beginning of 20th century. He was one of the founders of the Estonian Writers' Union and served as its chairman in 1922, 1925–1927 and 1937–1939.

Tuglas was granted the title of People's Writer of the Estonian SSR in 1946. The same year he was elected a corresponding member of the Soviet Estonian Academy of Sciences. He subsequently fell into disfavor, officially blacklisted, deprived of his civil rights and excluded from membership in all institutions, including the Writers’ Union, from which he was expelled in 1950. [3]

Tuglas died in Tallinn in 1971, aged 85, not long after completing his memoirs, acknowledged as a major work in the writer's life. A museum commemorating his life was opened in Tallinn the same year. A short story prize commemorating Tuglas was established in 1971. [3]

A selection of Tuglas' stories is available in English entitled The Poet and the Idiot and Other Stories (Central European University Press, Budapest & New York, 2007, translated by Eric Dickens). A number of Tuglas' other stories were translated into English during Soviet times.

See also

Related Research Articles

Jaan Kross Estonian writer

Jaan Kross was an Estonian writer. He was nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in Literature during the early 1990s. He won the 1995 International Nonino Prize in Italy.

Marie Under Estonian poet

Marie Under was one of the greatest Estonian poets. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature no fewer than eight times.

Mats Traat Estonian poet and author

Mats Traat is an Estonian poet and author.

Peeter Sauter

Peeter Sauter is an Estonian author, translator and former actor.

Cinema of Estonia Overview of the cinema of Estonia

Cinema of Estonia is the film industry of the Republic of Estonia. The motion pictures have won international awards and each year new Estonian films are seen at film festivals around the globe.

Estonian literature is literature written in the Estonian language The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names. The earliest extant samples of connected Estonian are the so-called Kullamaa prayers dating from 1524 and 1528. The first known printed book is a bilingual German-Estonian translation of the Lutheran catechism by S.Wanradt and J. Koell (1535). For the use of priests an Estonian grammar was printed in German in 1637. The New Testament was translated into southern Estonian in 1686. The two dialects were united by Anton Thor Helle in a form based on northern Estonian. Writings in Estonian became more significant in the 19th century during the Estophile Enlightenment Period (1750–1840).

Kersti Merilaas was an Estonian poet and translator. In addition, she wrote poems and prose for children and plays.

The Estonian Writers Union, is a professional association of Estonian writers and literary critics.

Lauri Pilter is an Estonian writer, translator and literary scientist.

Tarmo Teder Estonian writer, poet and critic (born 1958)

Tarmo Teder is an Estonian writer, poet and critic.

Looming is the oldest literary magazine in Estonia. The headquarters is in Tallinn.

Maarja Kangro

Maarja Kangro is an Estonian poet, short story writer, novelist, essayist, nonfiction writer and librettist.

Marie Heiberg Estonian poet

Marie Heiberg was an Estonian poet. When she was only about 15 years old she wrote her first poems which were acclaimed for their youthful freshness. Heiberg spent the last twenty years of her life in a mental institution. There is a memorial to her memory in Urvaste.

Eeva Park Estonian writer (born 1950)

Eeva Park is an Estonian writer.

Under and Tuglas Literature Centre is an scientific institution, which deals with Estonian literature. The Centre is located in Tallinn, Estonia. The Centre subordinates to Estonian Academy of Sciences. The Centre is named after Estonian writers Marie Under and Friedebert Tuglas.

Jaan Undusk

Jaan Undusk is an Estonian writer, playwright and literary scholar.

Mari Saat Estonian writer

Mari Saat is an Estonian writer.

Jüri Tuulik was an Estonian writer and playwright.

Asta Põldmäe is an Estonian writer and translator.

Mait Vaik Estonian writer and musician

Mait Vaik is an Estonian writer and musician, a member of Estonian Writers' Union since 2016.


  1. Estonian literature at Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. Friedebert Tuglas, Database of Estonian Writers, retrieved 19 February 2015
  3. 1 2 "Remembrance". Estonian Academy of Sciences Year Book, 12(39), 2006, ISSN 1406-1503, p. 164.