|Died||15 January [ O.S. 3 January] 1841 (aged 49)|
|Nationality||Baltic German (French descent)|
|Alma mater||Imperial University of Dorpat|
|Known for||First recorded ascent of Mount Ararat|
|Fields||Natural history, Physics|
|Institutions||Imperial University of Dorpat|
Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (14 October 1791 –15 January [ O.S. 3 January] 1841) was a Baltic German naturalist, explorer, and mountaineer, who lived and worked in Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. A pioneer of Russian and Estonian scientific mountaineering, Parrot is best known for leading the first expedition to the summit of Mount Ararat in recorded history.
Born in Karlsruhe, in the Margraviate of Baden, Parrot was the son of Georg Friedrich Parrot, the first rector of the University of Dorpat (today the University of Tartu) and a close friend of Tsar Alexander I.He studied medicine and natural science at Dorpat and, in 1811, undertook an expedition to the Crimea and the Caucasus with Moritz von Engelhardt. There he used a barometer to measure the difference in sea level between the Caspian Sea and Black Sea. On his return he was appointed assistant doctor and, in 1815, surgeon in the Imperial Russian Army. In 1816 and 1817, he visited the Alps and Pyrenees. In 1821, he was professor of physiology and pathology, then in 1826 professor of physics at the University of Dorpat.
After the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Mount Ararat came under Russian control by the terms of the Treaty of Turkmenchay. Parrot felt that the conditions were now right to reach the peak of the mountain.With a team of science and medical students, Parrot left Dorpat in April 1829 and traveled south to Russian Transcaucasia and Armenia to climb Ararat. The project received full approval from Tsar Nicholas I, who provided the expedition with a military escort.
On the way to Russian Armenia, Parrot and his team split into two parts. Most of the team traveled to Mozdok, while Parrot, Maximilian Behaghel von Adlerskron, and the military escort Schütz traveled to the Manych River and the Kalmyk Steppe to conduct further research on the levels between the Black and Caspian Seas.The two teams reunited at Mozdok and moved south, first to Georgia, then to the Armenian Oblast. An outbreak of plague in Russian Armenia and the vicinity of Erivan (Yerevan) delayed the expedition and the team visited the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti until it subsided. They then traveled from Tiflis to Etchmaidzin, where Parrot met Khachatur Abovian, the future Armenian writer and national public figure. Parrot required a local guide and a translator for the expedition. The Armenian Catholicos Yeprem I assigned Abovian to these tasks.
Accompanied by Abovian, Parrot and his team crossed the Arax River into the district of Surmali and headed to the Armenian village of Akhuri (modern Yenidoğan) situated on the northern slope of Ararat 4,000 feet (1,200 m) above sea level. Following the advice of Harutiun Alamdarian of Tiflis, they set up base camp at the Monastery of St. Hakob some 2,400 feet (730 m) higher, at an elevation of 6,375 feet (1,943 m). Parrot and Abovian were among the last travelers to visit Akhuri and the monastery before a disastrous earthquake completely buried both in May 1840. Their first attempt to climb the mountain, using the northeast slope, failed as a result of lack of warm clothing.[ citation needed ]
Six days later, on the advice of Stepan Khojiants, the village chief of Akhuri, the ascent was attempted from the northwest side. After reaching an elevation of 16,028 feet (4,885 m), they turned back because they did not reach the summit before sundown. Accompanied by Abovian, two Russian soldiers, and two Armenian villagers, Parrot reached the summit on the third attempt at 3:15 p.m. on 9 October 1829. Abovian dug a hole in the ice and erected a wooden cross facing north. He picked up a chunk of ice from the summit and carried it down with him in a bottle, considering the water holy. On 8 November, Parrot and Abovian climbed up Lesser Ararat. Parrot was impressed with Abovian's thirst for knowledge and, after the expedition, arranged for a Russian state scholarship for Abovian to study at the University of Dorpat in 1830.
In 1837, Parrot went to Tornio in the northern part of the Grand Duchy of Finland to observe oscillations of a pendulum and terrestrial magnetism. He invented a gasometer and a baro-thermometer cm in length and 1.5 cm in diameter.[ citation needed ]. In Livonia, he popularised the Catalan sundial, a small, cylindrical, pocket-sized instrument, approximately 8
Parrot died in Dorpat in January 1841 and was buried at Raadi cemetery. He was survived by his daughter, Anna Magaretha Parrot, who married Conrad Jacob Strauch. Their descendants now reside in Australia. Today Parrot is regarded as a pioneer of Russian and Estonian mountaineering.In Armenia, he is celebrated for his role in the Ararat ascent and for his friendship with Abovian.
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It consists of two major volcanic cones: Greater Ararat and Little Ararat. Greater Ararat is the highest peak in Turkey and the Armenian Highland with an elevation of 5,137 m (16,854 ft); Little Ararat's elevation is 3,896 m (12,782 ft). The Ararat massif is about 35 km (22 mi) wide at ground base. The first recorded efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle Ages, and Friedrich Parrot, Khachatur Abovian, and four others made the first recorded ascent in 1829.
Mount Aragats is an isolated four-peaked volcano massif in Armenia. Its northern summit, at 4,090 m (13,420 ft) above sea level, is the highest point of the Lesser Caucasus and Armenia. It is also one of the highest points in the Armenian Highlands.
Khachatur Abovian is an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was eventually presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization. Reputed as the father of modern Armenian literature, he is best remembered for his novel Wounds of Armenia. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language, using Eastern Armenian based on the Yerevan dialect instead of Classical Armenian.
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Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat, is the sixth tallest peak in Turkey. It is a large satellite cone located on the eastern flank of the massive Mount Ararat, less than 5 mi (8.0 km) west of Turkey's border with Iran. Despite being dwarfed by its higher and far more famous neighbor, Little Ararat is a significant volcano in its own right, with an almost perfectly symmetrical, conical form and smooth constructional slopes. Little Ararat rises about 1,296 m (4,252 ft) above the Serdarbulak lava plateau, which forms a saddle connecting it with the main peak.
The Armenian Oblast or Armenian Province was an oblast (province) of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire that existed from 1828 to 1840. It corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan. Its administrative center was Yerevan, referred to as Erivan in Russian.
Georg Friedrich Parrot was a German scientist, the first rector of the Imperial University of Dorpat in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
Sergey Anatolyevich Kofanov is a Russian mountaineer.
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Saint Hakob of Akori Monastery, was an Armenian monastery located in the southeastern part of the historic region of Surmali. The monastery was located 4.7 kilometers southwest of Akori, a village at the northeastern slope of Mount Ararat. Destroyed by an earthquake and avalanche in 1840, Akori was later rebuilt. It is known today as Yenidoğan and remains a small Kurdish village.
Hakob Manandian was an Armenian historian, philologist, and member of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia (1943) and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1939). Honored Scientist of the Armenian SSR.
Wounds of Armenia is an 1841 historical novel by Khachatur Abovian. Written in the Araratian (Yerevan) dialect, Wounds of Armenia is considered Abovian's chef d'œuvre. It is Abovian's debut novel, the first Armenian novel and the first modern Eastern Armenian literary work. Thanks to Wounds of Armenia, Khachatur Abovian is acknowledged as the founder of the modern Eastern Armenian language.
The Yerevan dialect is an Eastern Armenian dialect spoken in and around Yerevan. Classical Armenian (Grabar) words compose significant part of the Yerevan dialect vocabulary. Throughout the history, the dialect was influenced by several languages, especially Russian and Persian and loan words have significant presence in it today. It is the most widespread Armenian dialect today.
The Surmalin Uyezd or Surmali was a county of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire. It bordered the governorate's Echmiadzinsky and Erivansky Uyezds to the north, the Kars Oblast to the west, Persia to the east, and the Ottoman Empire to the south. It included most of the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey. As part of Russian Transcaucasia, Surmali was significant as the location of Mount Ararat and the salt mines of Kulp. Its administrative center was Igdyr.
Jaan Künnap is an Estonian mountaineer, photographer, and sports coach.
Tartu Ülikool 350 is a mountain peak in Central Pamir. It was first reached in 1982 to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the founding of the University of Tartu. It is located in the Tanimas mountain range in Tajikistan. At the time of first ascent it was considered to be the highest unreached peak in the territory of the former Soviet Union.
Yenidoğan is a village in eastern Turkey, on the northeastern slope of Mount Ararat, adjacent to the point where the borders of Turkey, Iran, and Armenia meet. It was formerly known as Ahora until 1965 and as Akhuri under Russian administration, before the Treaty of Kars. It was also known as Arguri. The village is a part of the Aralık district of Turkey's Iğdır Province, which largely corresponds to the historic region of Surmali. It is nearly 50 kilometers south of Yerevan, the Armenian capital.
Journey to Ararat is a 2011 Estonian documentary film directed, written, and produced by Riho Västrik. In the film, Västrik travels to Armenia and Turkey with Estonian scholar Erki Tammiksaar to retrace the footsteps of Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot and Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian on their historic ascent of Mount Ararat in 1829. The film derives its name from Parrot's account of his expedition, Journey to Ararat. It was screened at the Golden Apricot International Film Festival in Yerevan in 2013.
Riho Västrik is an Estonian filmmaker, producer, screenwriter, journalist, and historian.