Friesland

Last updated
Friesland

Fryslân  (West Frisian)

Frisia
Friesland wapen.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: "De Alde Friezen"
"The Old Frisians"
Friesland in the Netherlands.svg
Location of Friesland in the Netherlands
Friesland by Sentinel-2.jpg
Coordinates: 53°8′N5°49′E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817 Coordinates: 53°8′N5°49′E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817
Country Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Capital
(and largest city)
Leeuwarden  (Ljouwert)
Government
   King's Commissioner Arno Brok (VVD)
Area
 (2017) [1]
  Total5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi)
  Land3,324 km2 (1,283 sq mi)
  Water2,425 km2 (936 sq mi)
Area rank 1st
Population
 (1 January 2020) [2]
  Total649,944
  Rank 8th
  Density196/km2 (510/sq mi)
  Density rank 11th
Languages
  Official Dutch
  Recognised regional West Frisian
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code NL-FR
Religion (2005) Protestant 30%
Roman Catholic 6%
Muslim 2%
HDI (2017)0.904 [3]
very high · 10th
Website www.fryslan.frl

Friesland ( /ˈfrzlənd/ FREEZ-lənd, also US: /-lænd/ -land, Dutch:  [ˈfrislɑnt] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); official West Frisian : Fryslânpronounced [frislɔ̃ːn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country. It is situated west of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of North Holland, and south of the Wadden Sea. As of January 2020, the province had a population of 649,944 [4] and a total area of 5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi).

Contents

The capital and seat of the provincial government is the city of Leeuwarden (West Frisian: Ljouwert), a city with 123,107 [5] inhabitants. Other large municipalities in Friesland are Sneek (pop. 33,512), Heerenveen (pop. 50,257) and Drachten (pop. 55,938). Since 2017, Arno Brok is the King's Commissioner in the province. A coalition of the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Labour Party and the Frisian National Party forms the executive branch. The province is divided into 18 municipalities. The area of the province was once part of the ancient, larger region of Frisia. The official languages of Friesland are West Frisian and Dutch.

Toponymy

In 1996 the States of Friesland resolved that the official name of the province should follow the West Frisian spelling rather than the Dutch spelling, resulting in "Friesland" being replaced by "Fryslân". [6] In 2004 the Dutch government confirmed this resolution, putting in place a three-year scheme to oversee the name change and associated cultural programme. [7]

The province of Friesland is occasionally referred to as "Frisia" by, amongst others, Hanno Brand, head of the history and literature department at the Fryske Akademy since 2009. [8] However, the English-language webpage of the Friesland Provincial Council refers to the province as "Fryslân". [9]

History

Prehistory

Map of the North Sea coast, ca. 150 AD. (erroneously shows late 20th century land masses) Continental.coast.150AD.Germanic.peoples.jpg
Map of the North Sea coast, ca. 150 AD. (erroneously shows late 20th century land masses)

The Frisii were among the migrating Germanic tribes that, following the breakup of Celtic Europe in the 4th century BC, settled along the North Sea. They came to control the area from roughly present-day Bremen to Brugge, and conquered many of the smaller offshore islands. What little is known of the Frisii is provided by a few Roman accounts, most of them military. Pliny the Elder said their lands were forest-covered with tall trees growing up to the edge of the lakes. [10] They lived by agriculture [11] and raising cattle. [12]

In his Germania , Tacitus would describe all the Germanic peoples of the region as having elected kings with limited powers and influential military leaders who led by example rather than by authority. The people lived in spread-out settlements. [13] He specifically noted the weakness of Germanic political hierarchies in reference to the Frisii, when he mentioned the names of two kings of the 1st century Frisii and added that they were kings "as far as the Germans are under kings". [14]

In the 1st century BC, the Frisii halted a Roman advance and thus managed to maintain their independence. [15] Some or all of the Frisii may have joined into the Frankish and Saxon peoples in late Roman times, but they would retain a separate identity in Roman eyes until at least 296, when they were forcibly resettled as laeti [16] (Roman-era serfs) and thereafter disappear from recorded history. Their tentative existence in the 4th century is confirmed by archaeological discovery of a type of earthenware unique to 4th-century Frisia, called terp Tritzum, showing that an unknown number of Frisii were resettled in Flanders and Kent, [17] likely as laeti under the aforementioned Roman coercion. The lands of the Frisii were largely abandoned by c. 400 as a result of the conflicts of the Migration Period, climate deterioration, and the flooding caused by a rise in the sea level.

Early Middle Ages

The Frisian realm in 716 AD Frisia 716-la.svg
The Frisian realm in 716 AD

The area lay empty for one or two centuries, when changing environmental and political conditions made the region habitable again. At that time, during the Migration Period, "new" Frisians (probably descended from a merging of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisii) repopulated the coastal regions. [18] [19] (p792) These Frisians consisted of tribes with loose bonds, centred on war bands but without great power. The earliest Frisian records name four social classes, the ethelings ( nobiles in Latin documents; adel in Dutch and German) and frilings (vrijen in Dutch and Freien in German), who together made up the "Free Frisians" who might bring suit at court, and the laten or liten with the slaves, who were absorbed into the laten during the Early Middle Ages, as slavery was not so much formally abolished, as evaporated. [lower-alpha 1] The laten were tenants of lands they did not own and might be tied to it in the manner of serfs, but in later times might buy their freedom. [20] (p202)

Under the rule of King Aldgisl, the Frisians came in conflict with the Frankish mayor of the palace Ebroin, over the old Roman border fortifications. Aldgisl could keep the Franks at a distance with his army. During the reign of Redbad, however, the tide turned in favour of the Franks; in 690, the Franks were victorious in the Battle of Dorestad. [21] In 733, Charles Martel sent an army against the Frisians. The Frisian army was pushed back to Eastergoa. The next year the Battle of the Boarn took place. Charles ferried an army across the Almere with a fleet that enabled him to sail up to De Boarn. The Frisians were defeated in the ensuing battle, [19] (p795) and their last king Poppo was killed. [22] The victors began plundering and burning heathen sanctuaries. Charles Martel returned with much loot, and broke the power of the Frisian kings for good. The Franks annexed the Frisian lands between the Vlie and the Lauwers. They conquered the area east of the Lauwers in 785, when Charlemagne defeated Widukind. The Carolingians laid Frisia under the rule of grewan, a title that has been loosely related to count in its early sense of "governor" rather than "feudal overlord". [20] (p205) About 100,000 Dutch drowned in a flood in 1228. [23]

Frisian freedom

Pier Gerlofs Donia in 1516 as depicted in a 19th-century painting by Johannes Hinderikus Egenberger Dapperheidgrotepier.jpg
Pier Gerlofs Donia in 1516 as depicted in a 19th-century painting by Johannes Hinderikus Egenberger

When, around 800, the Scandinavian Vikings first attacked Frisia, which was still under Carolingian rule, the Frisians were released from military service on foreign territory in order to be able to defend themselves against the heathen Vikings. With their victory in the Battle of Norditi in 884 they were able to drive the Vikings permanently out of East Frisia, although it remained under constant threat. Over the centuries, whilst feudal lords reigned in the rest of Europe, no aristocratic structures emerged in Frisia. This 'Frisian freedom' was represented abroad by redjeven who were elected from among the wealthier farmers or from elected representatives of the autonomous rural municipalities. Originally the redjeven were all judges, so-called Asega, who were appointed by the territorial lords. [24]

After significant territories were lost to Holland in the Friso-Hollandic Wars, Frisia saw an economic downturn in the mid-14th century. Accompanied by a decline in monasteries and other communal institutions, social discord led to the emergence of untitled nobles called haadlingen ("headmen"), wealthy landowners possessing large tracts of land and fortified homes [25] who took over the role of the judiciary as well offering protection to their local inhabitants. Internal struggles between regional leaders resulted in bloody conflicts and the alignment of regions along two opposing parties: the Fetkeapers and Skieringers. On 21 March 1498, [26] a small group of Skieringers from Westergo secretly met with Albert III, Duke of Saxony, the Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, in Medemblik requesting his help. [27] Albrecht, who had gained a reputation as a formidable military commander, accepted and soon conquered all Friesland. Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg appointed Albrecht hereditary potestate and gubernator of Friesland in 1499. [28]

In 1515, an army of peasant rebels and mercenaries known as the Arumer Zwarte Hoop started a peasants' revolt against the Habsburg authorities. [29] The leader was the farmer Pier Gerlofs Donia, whose farm had been burned down and whose kinfolk had been killed by a marauding Landsknecht regiment. Since the regiment had been employed by the Habsburg authorities to suppress the civil war of the Fetkeapers and Skieringers, Donia put the blame on the authorities. After this he gathered angry peasants and some petty noblemen from Frisia and Gelderland and formed the Arumer Zwarte Hoop.The rebels received financial support from Charles II, Duke of Guelders, who claimed the Duchy of Guelders in opposition to the House of Habsburg. Charles also employed mercenaries under command of his military commander Maarten van Rossum in their support. However, when the tides turned against the rebels after the Donia's death in 1520, Charles withdrew his support, without which the rebels could no longer afford to pay their mercenary army. [30] The revolt was put to an end in 1523 and Frisia was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands, bringing an end to the Frisian freedom. [29]

Modern times

The Frisian representative refusing to kneel before Philip II at his coronation Gemme van Burmania voor Philips II.jpg
The Frisian representative refusing to kneel before Philip II at his coronation

Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, became the first lord of the Lordship of Frisia. He appointed Georg Schenck van Toutenburg, who had crushed the peasants' revolt, as Stadtholder to rule over the province in his stead. When Charles abdicated in 1556, Frisia was inherited by Philip II of Spain along with the rest of the Netherlands. In 1566, Frisia joined the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule.

In 1577, George de Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg was appointed Stadtholder of Frisia and other provinces. A moderate, trusted by both sides, he tried to reconcile the rebels with the Crown. But in 1580, Rennenburg declared for Spain. The States of Frisia raised troops and took his strongholds of Leeuwarden, Harlingen and Stavoren. Rennenburg was deposed and Frisia became the fifth Lordship to join the rebels' Union of Utrecht. From 1580 onward, all stadtholders were members of the House of Orange-Nassau. With the Peace of Münster in 1648, Frisia became a full member of the independent Dutch Republic, a federation of provincies. In economic and therefore also political importance, Friesland was next in rank to the provinces of Holland and Zeeland.

In 1798, three years after the Batavian Revolution, the provincial lordship of Frisia was abolished and its territory was divided between the Eems and Oude IJssel departments. This was short-lived, however, as Frisia was revived, however as a department in 1802. When the Netherlands were annexed by the First French Empire in 1810, the department was in French renamed Frise. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813 and a new constitution was introduced in 1814, Friesland became a province of the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands, then of the unitary Kingdom of the Netherlands a year later.

Geography

De Alde Feanen National Park De Alde Feanen bij avond.JPG
De Alde Feanen National Park
De Fryske Marren Eerste zonnestralen strijken over een winters landschap. Locatie, Langweerderwielen (Langwarder Wielen) en omgeving 04.jpg
De Fryske Marren
Wadden Sea Uniek door eb en vloed steeds wisselend kweldergebied. Locatie, Noarderleech Provincie Friesland 013.jpg
Wadden Sea
View of the northern coast of Friesland Larus argentatus Fries wad.jpg
View of the northern coast of Friesland

Friesland is situated at 53°8′N5°49′E / 53.133°N 5.817°E / 53.133; 5.817 in the northwest of the Netherlands, west of the province of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of the IJsselmeer and North Holland, and south of the North Sea. It is the largest province of the Netherlands if one includes areas of water; in terms of land area only, it is the third-largest province.

Most of Friesland is on the mainland, but it also includes a number of West Frisian Islands, including Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland and Schiermonnikoog, which are connected to the mainland by ferry. The province's highest point is a dune at 45 metres (148 ft) above sea level, on the island of Vlieland.

There are four national parks of the Netherlands located in Friesland: Schiermonnikoog, De Alde Feanen, Lauwersmeer (partially in Groningen), and Drents-Friese Wold (also partially situated in Drenthe).

Urban areas

The ten urban areas in Friesland with the largest population are: [31]

Dutch nameFrisian namePopulation
Leeuwarden Ljouwert92,235
Drachten Drachten45,080
Sneek Snits33,960
Heerenveen It Hearrenfean30,567
Harlingen Harns14,660
Joure De Jouwer13,070
Wolvega Wolvegea12,830
Franeker Frjentsjer12,810
Dokkum Dokkum12,575
Lemmer De Lemmer10,315

Municipalities

Municipalities of Friesland (2019) Prov-Friesland-OpenTopo.jpg
Municipalities of Friesland (2019)

The province is divided into 18 municipalities, each with local government (municipal council, mayor and aldermen).

MunicipalityPopulation [32] Total area [33] Population density [32] [33] COROP
km2sq mi/km2/sq mi
Achtkarspelen 27,852103.9840.15272700North Friesland
Ameland 3,673268.50103.6762160North Friesland
Dantumadiel 18,92387.5333.80222570North Friesland
De Fryske Marren 51,430559.93216.19142370South West Friesland
Harlingen 15,758387.67149.686301,600North Friesland
Heerenveen 50,257187.7672.49278720South East Friesland
Leeuwarden 123,107255.6298.705161,340North Friesland
Noardeast-Fryslân 45,181516.45199.40120310North Friesland
Ooststellingwerf 25,497226.1187.30114300South East Friesland
Opsterland 29,723227.6487.89132340South East Friesland
Schiermonnikoog 936199.0776.862154North Friesland
Smallingerland 55,938126.1748.714731,230South East Friesland
Súdwest-Fryslân 89,710841.56324.93195510South West Friesland
Terschelling 4,890673.99260.2357150North Friesland
Tytsjerksteradiel 31,780161.4162.32213550North Friesland
Vlieland 1,138315.80121.933180North Friesland
Waadhoeke 46,039315.26121.72162420North Friesland
Weststellingwerf 25,840228.4588.21117300South East Friesland

Climate

The province of Friesland has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb).

Climate data for Leeuwarden
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
20.4
(68.7)
26.0
(78.8)
28.7
(83.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.4
(88.5)
32.8
(91.0)
29.1
(84.4)
23.8
(74.8)
16.4
(61.5)
14.2
(57.6)
32.8
(91.0)
Average high °C (°F)4.9
(40.8)
5.4
(41.7)
8.6
(47.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.2
(61.2)
18.5
(65.3)
21.0
(69.8)
21.1
(70.0)
18.0
(64.4)
13.7
(56.7)
9.0
(48.2)
5.6
(42.1)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.7
(36.9)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
8.2
(46.8)
12.0
(53.6)
14.6
(58.3)
17.0
(62.6)
16.9
(62.4)
14.2
(57.6)
10.5
(50.9)
6.5
(43.7)
3.3
(37.9)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.9
(35.4)
3.8
(38.8)
7.4
(45.3)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
12.5
(54.5)
10.2
(50.4)
7.1
(44.8)
3.6
(38.5)
0.6
(33.1)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F)−19.9
(−3.8)
−16.3
(2.7)
−16.3
(2.7)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.3
(34.3)
5.7
(42.3)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−14.2
(6.4)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−19.9
(−3.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)68.9
(2.71)
51.1
(2.01)
58.1
(2.29)
38.2
(1.50)
57.3
(2.26)
68.2
(2.69)
74.5
(2.93)
82.7
(3.26)
84.3
(3.32)
81.4
(3.20)
82.1
(3.23)
73.0
(2.87)
819.8
(32.28)
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute [34] [35]

Demography

In 2020, Friesland had a population of 649,944 and a population density of 196/km2 (510/sq mi).

The years 1880–1900 show slower population growth due to a farm crisis during which some 20,000 Frisians emigrated to the United States. [36]

Historical population of Friesland [37] [38]
YearPopulation
1714129,243
1748135,195
1796161,513
1811175,366
1830204,909
1840227,859
1850243,191
1860269,701
1870300,863
1880329,877
1890335,558
1900340,263
YearPopulation
1910363,625
1920385,362
1930402,051
1940424,462
1950465,267
1960478,206
1970521,820
1982592,314
1990599,151
1999621,222
2010646,305
2020649,944

Bevolkingsontwikkeling Friesland.jpg

Anthropometry

Since the late Middle Ages, Friesland has been renowned for the exceptional height of its inhabitants, who were deemed among the tallest groups of Indo-Europeans.[ citation needed ] Even early Renaissance poet Dante Alighieri refers to the height of Frisians in his Divine Comedy when, in the canticle about Hell, he talks about the magnitude of an infernal demon by stating that "not even three tall Frieslanders, were they set one upon the other, would have matched his height". [39]

Economy

Friesian horse Friesian Stallion.jpg
Friesian horse

Friesland is mainly an agricultural province. The black and white Frisian cattle, black and white Stabyhoun and the black Frisian horse originated here. Tourism is another important source of income: the principal tourist destinations include the lakes in the southwest of the province and the islands in the Wadden Sea to the north. There are 195 windmills in the province of Friesland, out of a total of about 1200 in the entire country.

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 19.8 billion € in 2018, accounting for 2.6% of the Netherlands economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 26,700 € or 89% of the EU27 average in the same year. [40]

Culture

Languages

Friesland is the only one of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands to have its own language that is recognized as such, West Frisian. Before the 18th century, varieties of Frisian were also spoken in the provinces of North-Holland and Groningen, and together with the Frisian speakers in Ost-Friesland and North-Friesland a continuous linguistic area existed between Amsterdam and the present day Danish-German border.

According to a study carried out in 2007, West Frisian is the native language of the 54.3% of the inhabitants of the province of Friesland, followed by Dutch with 34.7%, and speakers of other regional languages, most of these restricted to Friesland, with 9.7%, and in the end other foreign languages with 1.4%. Frisian speakers are traditionally underrepresented in urban areas, and predominant in the countryside. [41]

West-Frisian is also spoken in a small adjacent part of the province of Groningen. Up to the 18th century Frisian was spoken in the, at that time Prussian and Hannoveran, lordships of Ost-Friesland (East-Friesland). Since then the Ost-Frisian population switched to East Frisian (Ostfriesisch), a Low German dialect. Only in some, formerly remoted, East-Frisian villages (Saterland) a variety of historically East Frisian (Seeltersk) is still in use but by an older generation. A collection of dialects named North Frisian, is or was spoken in North Friesland, alongside the North See Coast and on the islands of Slesvig-Holstein. The named Frisian languages are historically related to Old English which points at the fact that Anglians and Saxons, eventually accompanied by Frisians, came from these areas.

In Stellingwerf, in south-east Friesland, a dialect of Low Saxon is spoken. [42]

The language policy in Friesland is preservation. West Frisian is a mandatory subject in Friesland in primary and secondary schools of the Frisian speaking districts. The bilingual (Dutch-Frisian) and trilingual (Dutch-English-Frisian) schools in the province of Friesland use in some lessons West-Frisian as a language of instruction, besides Dutch in most other lessons and next to them English. Literacy in Frisian however, is not often a core aim and that makes the number of Frisians speakers able to write in Frisian only 12%. [43] The provincial government takes various initiatives to preserve the West Frisian language. All parents in Friesland receive, at their children's birth, information about language and multilingualism (ex. 'taaltaske'). To support the use of Frisian in public and at public events, the province also invests in the development of speech pathology materials and strives to create information technology devices for the West Frisian language. The Frisian government subsidizes the Afûk organization, which offers language courses and actively promotes Frisian in all sectors of society as well as the corporate domain which as a rule is dominated by Dutch and Modern English. [44] The province also promotes a wide range of art and entertainment in Frisian. [45]

Sports

Finish of the Elfstedentocht in 1956 Finish 11-stedentocht 1956.jpg
Finish of the Elfstedentocht in 1956

The province is famous for its speed skaters, with mass participation in cross-country ice skating when weather conditions permit. When winters are cold enough to allow the freshwater canals to freeze hard, the province holds its traditional Elfstedentocht (Eleven cities tour), a 200-kilometre (120 mi) ice skating tour. A traditional sport is Frisian handball. Another Frisian practice is fierljeppen , a sport with some similarities to pole vaulting. A jump consists of an intense sprint to the pole (polsstok), jumping and grabbing it, then climbing to the top while trying to control the pole's forward and lateral movements over a body of water and finishing with a graceful landing on a sand bed opposite to the starting point. Because of all the diverse skills required in fierljeppen, fierljeppers are considered to be very complete athletes with superbly developed strength and coordination. In the warmer months, many Frisians practice wadlopen , the traditional art of wading across designated sections of the Wadden Sea at low tide.

There are currently two top level football clubs playing in Friesland: SC Cambuur from Leeuwarden (home stadium Cambuur Stadion) and SC Heerenveen (home stadium Abe Lenstra Stadion).

Politics

Seat of the provincial government in Leeuwarden Leeuwarden Tweebaksmarkt 52 Provinsjehus.jpg
Seat of the provincial government in Leeuwarden

The King's Commissioner of Friesland is Arno Brok. [46] The States of Friesland have 43 seats. The Provincial Executive is a coalition of the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Labour Party and the Frisian National Party (FNP).

2019 provincial elections [47]
PartyVotesSeats
Christian Democratic Appeal 49.7048
Forum for Democracy 40.0556
Labour Party 39.9766
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 28.0734
Frisian National Party 23.6624
GreenLeft 22.9353
ChristianUnion 19.6733
Party for Freedom 17.2873
Socialist Party 15.4262
Democrats 66 12.2842
Party for the Animals 9.6181
50PLUS 7.5951
Total298.24143

Transport

Leeuwarden railway station is a national heritage site Leeuwarden train station.jpg
Leeuwarden railway station is a national heritage site

The four motorways in the province are A6, A7 (E22), A31, and A32. [49]

The main railway station of Friesland is Leeuwarden, which connects the railways Arnhem–Leeuwarden, Harlingen–Nieuweschans, and Leeuwarden–Stavoren which are all (partially) located in the province.

TrajectoryRailway stations in Friesland
Arnhem–Leeuwarden DrentheWolvegaHeerenveen IJsstadionHeerenveenAkkrumGrou-JirnsumLeeuwarden
Harlingen–Nieuweschans Harlingen HavenHarlingenFranekerDronrypDeinumLeeuwardenLeeuwarden CamminghaburenHurdegarypFeanwâldenDe WestereenBuitenpostGroningen
Leeuwarden–Stavoren LeeuwardenMantgumSneek NoordSneekIJlstWorkumHindeloopenKoudum-MolkwerumStavoren

Ameland Airport near Ballum [50] and Drachten Airfield near Drachten [51] are the two general aviation airports in the province. The Royal Netherlands Air Force uses Vlieland Heliport and the Leeuwarden Air Base.

Literature

Media

Friesch Dagblad [52] and Leeuwarder Courant [53] are daily newspapers mainly written in Dutch. Omrop Fryslân is the public broadcaster with radio and TV programs mainly in Frisian. [54]

Notes

  1. Homans describes Frisian social institutions, based on the summary by Siebs, Benno E. (1933). Grundlagen und Aufbau der altfriesischen Verfassung. Untersuchungen zur deutschen staats- und Rechtsgeschichte (in German). 144. Breslau: Marcus. OCLC   604057407. Siebs' synthesis was extrapolated from survivals detected in later medieval documents. [20]

Related Research Articles

Frisian languages Group of Germanic languages

The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. The Frisian languages are the closest living language group to the Anglic languages; the two groups make up the Anglo-Frisian languages group and together with the Low German dialects these form the North Sea Germanic languages. However, modern English and Frisian are not mutually intelligible, nor are Frisian languages intelligible among themselves, due to independent linguistic innovations and foreign influences.

Frisians ethnic group

The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and, in Germany, East Frisia and North Frisia. The Frisian languages are still spoken by more than 500,000 people; West Frisian is officially recognised in the Netherlands, and North Frisian and Saterland Frisian are recognised as regional languages in Germany.

Leeuwarden City and municipality in Friesland, Netherlands

Leeuwarden is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293.

Groningen (province) The northeasternmost province of the Netherlands

Groningen is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. It borders on Friesland to the west, Drenthe to the south, the German state of Lower Saxony to the east, and the Wadden Sea to the north. As of November 2019, Groningen had a population of 585,881 and a total area of 2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi).

Provinces of the Netherlands first-level administrative division in the Netherlands

There are twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

Frisia coastal region on the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany formerly a historic region with its own language

Frisia is a historical coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, Germanic people who speak Frisian languages, which together with Anglic languages form the Anglo-Frisian language group.

Smallingerland Municipality in Friesland, Netherlands

Smallingerland is a municipality in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands.

West Frisian language West Germanic language spoken in Friesland

West Frisian, or simply Frisian, is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry. It is the most widely spoken of the Frisian languages.

West Frisia or West Friesland is along with East Frisia and North Frisia one of the most commonly used subdivisions of Frisia.

Frisii Germanic tribe

The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.

Vetkopers and Schieringers

The Vetkopers and Schieringers were two opposing Frisian factional parties from the medieval period. They were responsible for a civil war that lasted for over a century (1350–1498) and which eventually led to the end of the so-called "Frisian freedom".

Frisian history

Frisia has changed dramatically over time, both through floods and through a change in identity. It is part of the Nordwestblock which is a hypothetical historic region linked by language and culture.

Frisian Kingdom former country

The Frisian Kingdom, also known as Magna Frisia, is a modern name for the Frisian realm in the period when it was at its largest (650-734). This empire was ruled by kings and emerged in the mid-7th century and probably ended with the Battle of the Boarn in 734 when the Frisians were defeated by the Frankish Empire. It lay mainly in what is now the Netherlands and – according to some 19th century authors – extended from the Zwin near Bruges in Belgium to the Weser in Germany. The center of power was the city of Utrecht. In medieval writings, the region is designated by the Latin term Frisia. There is a dispute among historians about the extent of this realm; There is no documentary evidence for the existence of a permanent central authority. Possibly Frisia consisted of multiple petty kingdoms, which transformed in time of war to a unit to resist invading powers, and then headed by an elected leader, the primus inter pares. It is possible that Redbad established an administrative unit. Among the Frisians at that time there was no feudal system.

Lordship of Frisia

The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands. It was formed in 1524 when Emperor Charles V finally conquered Frisia.

De Fryske Marren Municipality in Friesland, Netherlands

De Fryske Marren is a municipality of Friesland in the northern Netherlands. It was established 1 January 2014 and consists of the former municipalities of Gaasterlân-Sleat, Lemsterland, Skarsterlân and parts of Boarnsterhim, all four of which were dissolved on the same day. The municipality is located in the province of Friesland, in the north of the Netherlands, and has a population of 51,430 and a combined area of 559.93 km2 (216.19 sq mi).

Interfrisian Council council of the total Frisian interests abroad

The Interfrisian Council is a geopolitical organization that represents the common interests of the Frisians. The organization consists of three regional councils or "sections": North Frisia, East Frisia and West Frisia. Every three years, the presidency of the Interfrisian Council is handed over to another section. The council was established in 1956.

Noardeast-Fryslân Municipality in Friesland, Netherlands

Noardeast-Fryslân is a municipality of Friesland in the northern Netherlands. It was established 1 January 2019 and consists of the former municipalities of Dongeradeel, Ferwerderadiel and Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland, all three of which dissolved on the same day.

Groep fan Auwerk is a political activism organization that advocates for an independent Friesland (Frisia) state.

Dairy Campus test farm and research facility of Wageningen University, located in Leeuwarden, Friesland, the Netherlands

The Dairy Campus in the Netherlands is a test farm and centre for scientific research and practical training in the field of dairy farming, located, the capital of the province of Friesland. The decision to launch this centre was made in 2011, and it was opened in 2016. The Campus traces its roots to the test farm Bosma Zathe, founded in Ureterp in 1944; its building complex was formerly called Nij Bosma Zathe. Today, the Dairy Campus is part of Wageningen University & Research (WUR). All activities in the centre are focused on the development of sustainable methods for the production and processing of dairy products.

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