Friuli-Venezia Giulia

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Friuli-Venezia Giulia
CoA of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.png
Coat of arms
Friuli-Venezia Giulia in Italy.svg
Country Italy
Capital Trieste
Government
  President Massimiliano Fedriga (LN)
Area
  Total7,924 km2 (3,059 sq mi)
Population
(31 August 2017)
  Total1,216,524
  Density150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Demonym(s) English: Friuli-Venezia Giulian
Italian: Friulano (man)
Italian: Friulana (woman) or
Italian: Giuliano (man)
Italian: Giuliana (woman)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal €36.2 [1] billion (2008)
GDP per capita €29,200 [2] (2008)
HDI (2017)0.894 [3]
very high · 6th of 21
NUTS Region ITD
Website www.regione.fvg.it

Friuli-Venezia Giulia (pronounced  [friˈuːli veˈnɛttsja ˈdʒuːlja] or Friuli Venezia Giulia; Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Slovene: Furlanija-Julijska krajina; German: Friaul Julisch Venetien) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste. The city of Venice (Venezia) is not in this region, despite the name.

Friulian or Friulan is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin since it shares the same roots as Ladin, but, over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German, Italian, Venetian, and Slovene. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language that has continued to this day.

The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes.

Trieste Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.

Contents

Friuli-Venezia Giulia has an area of 7,924 km2 and about 1.2 million inhabitants. A natural opening to the sea for many Central European countries, the region is traversed by the major transport routes between the east and west of southern Europe. It encompasses the historical-geographical region of Friuli and a small portion of the historical region of Venezia Giulia – also known in English as the Julian March – each with its own distinct history, traditions and identity.

Central Europe region of Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical, social and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as very highly developed.

Southern Europe Geographic region in Europe

Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include Spain, Italy, Malta, Corsica, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Slovenia, East Thrace of European Turkey and Cyprus. Portugal, Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, Serbia, Kosovo, Bulgaria and North Macedonia are also often included despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean. Some definitions may also include mainland Southern France and Monaco, which are otherwise considered parts of Western Europe.

Julian March Region

The Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino had a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.

History

Roman ruins in Aquileia Foro romano di Aquileia.jpg
Roman ruins in Aquileia

In Roman times, modern Friuli-Venezia Giulia was located within Regio X Venetia et Histria of Roman Italy. The traces of its Roman origin are visible over all the territory. In fact, the city of Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, served as capital of the region and rose to prominence in the Augustan period.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Aquileia Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Aquileia is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the sea, on the river Natiso, the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. Today, the city is small, but it was large and prominent in Antiquity as one of the world's largest cities with a population of 100,000 in the 2nd century AD. and is one of the main archeological sites of Northern Italy.

Starting from the Lombard settlements (6th century), the historical paths of Friuli and Venezia Giulia begin to diverge. In 568, Cividale del Friuli (the Roman Forum Iulii (from which the name Friuli comes)) became the capital of the first Lombard dukedom in Italy. In 774, the Franks, favoured the growth of the church of Aquileia and established Cividale as a March. In 1077, Patriarchate of Aquileia was given temporal power by the Holy Roman Emperors and this power was extended temporarily even to the east. But already in the 12th century Gorizia had actually become independent and Trieste, along with other coastal towns, organized itself as a free city-state.

Lombards Historical ethnical group

The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

Cividale del Friuli Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Cividale del Friuli is a town and comune in the Province of Udine, part of the North-Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia regione. The town 135 metres (443 ft) above sea-level in the foothills of the eastern Alps, 15 kilometres (9 mi) by rail from the city of Udine and close to the Slovenian border. It is situated on the river Natisone, which forms a picturesque ravine here. Formerly an important regional power, it is today a quiet, small town that attracts tourists thanks to its medieval center.

Franks people

The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

In the 6th century, the Alpine Slavs, ancestors of present-day Slovenes, settled the eastern areas of the region. They settled in the easternmost mountainous areas of Friuli, known as the Friulian Slavia, as well as the Kras Plateau and the area north and south from Gorizia. In the 12th and 13th century, they also moved closer to Trieste.

Slovenes South Slavic ethnic group living in historical Slovene lands

The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians, are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovene as their native language.

The settlement of the Eastern Alps region by early Slavs took place during the 6th to 8th centuries. It is part of the southward expansion of the early Slavs which would result in the characterization of the South Slavic group, and would ultimately result in the ethnogenesis of the modern Slovene people. The Eastern Alpine territories concerned comprise modern-day Slovenia, Eastern Friul and large parts of modern Austria.

Gorizia Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Gorizia is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia. It is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism, industry, and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border. The entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which also includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.

Miramare Castle, built by Archduke Maximilian of Austria in Trieste Miramare2.jpg
Miramare Castle, built by Archduke Maximilian of Austria in Trieste

Friuli became Venetian territory in 1420, while Trieste and Gorizia remained under the Austrian Empire. Pordenone was a "corpus separatum", under Austrian influence until 1515, when it also fell under the Venetian rule. With the peace treaty of Campoformido in 1797, Venetian domination came to an end and Friuli was ceded to Austria. After the period of domination by Napoleon, which affected also Trieste and Gorizia, it again became part of the Austrian Empire and was included in the Lombard-Veneto Kingdom, while Gorizia was merged with the Illyrian Kingdom and Trieste, together with Istria, became part of the Austrian Coastal Region. The enlightened policy of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries encouraged an extraordinary economic flourishing, making Trieste the empire's port. The outcome of the war of independence brought Friuli alone into the Kingdom of Italy.

Republic of Venice Former state in Northeastern Italy

The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867

The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Pordenone Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Pordenone[pordeˈnoːne]listen  is the main comune of Pordenone province of northeast Italy in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region.

After the First World War, in which this region was a main theatre of operations and suffered serious damage and loss of lives, the fates of these border lands were again united, although Venezia Giulia, in particular, was the subject of contradictions regarding the borders.

The Second World War led to the Anglo-American Administration in Trieste until the border was fixed with the Memorandum of London in 1954.[ citation needed ] When Trieste was taken back by Italy, the Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia could finally be established.[ citation needed ] [4]

The name of the region was spelled Friuli-Venezia Giulia (hyphenated) until 2001, when, in connection with a modification of article nr. 116 of the Italian constitution, the official spelling Friuli Venezia Giulia (without hyphen) was adopted. [5] [6] [7] The term "Venezia Giulia" was coined by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli.

Geography

Friuli-Venezia Giulia is Italy's north-easternmost region. It covers an area of 7,858 km2 and is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to the north and Slovenia to the east. To the south it faces the Adriatic Sea and to the west its internal border is with the Veneto region.

The region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes from the mild Oceanic in the south to Alpine continental in the north. The total area is subdivided into a 42.5% mountainous-alpine terrain in the north, 19.3% is hilly, mostly to the south-east, while the remaining 38.2% comprises the central and coastal plains.

A view of the Carnia highlands Culino, part of the Forni Avoltri municipality, in Friuli, Italy.jpg
A view of the Carnia highlands

Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas. The mountainous area in the north: this part of the region includes Carnia and the ending section of the Alps (Carnic Alps and Julian Alps), of which the highest peaks exceed 2,700 m above sea level (Jôf di Montasio 2,754 m). Its landscapes are characterised by vast pine forests and pastures, mountain lakes (e.g. Sauris, Fusine and Barcis) and numerous streams and small rivers descending from the mountains.

The area is also known for its tourist destinations, especially during the winter season (Monte Zoncolan, Tarvisio, Sella Nevea, Forni di Sopra and Piancavallo). The hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia. The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality, especially the white, is known worldwide. The easternmost part of the hilly area is also known as Slavia Friulana, as it is mostly inhabited by ethnic Slovenes.

The central plains are characterised by poor, arid and permeable soil. The soil has been made fertile with an extensive irrigation system and through the adoption of modern intensive farming techniques. In this part of the region most of the agricultural activities are concentrated. The coastal area can be further subdivided in two, western-eastern, subsections separated by the river Isonzo's estuary.

To the west, the coast is shallow and sandy, with numerous tourist resorts and the lagoons of Grado and Marano Lagunare. To the east, the coastline rises into cliffs, where the Kras plateau meets the Adriatic, all the way to Trieste and Muggia on the border with Slovenia. The Carso has geological features and phenomena such as hollows, cave networks and underground rivers, which extend inland in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, with an altitude ranging between 300m and 600m.

The bay of Portopiccolo, Sistiana Portopiccolo - Borgo.jpg
The bay of Portopiccolo, Sistiana

The rivers of the region flow from the North and from Slovenia into the Adriatic. The two main rivers are the Tagliamento, which flows west-east in its upper part in the Carnic Alps and then bends into a north-south flow that separates the Julian Alps from Alpine foothills and the Isonzo (Soča slo.) which flows from Slovenia into Italy. The Timavo is an underground river that flows for 38 km from Slovenia and resurfaces near its mouth north-west of Duino.

The region Friuli-Venezia Giulia has a temperate climate. However, due to the terrain's diversity, it varies considerably from one area to another. Walled by the Alps on its northern flank, the region is exposed to air masses from the East and the West. The region receives also the southerly Sirocco from the Adriatic sea, which brings in heavy rainfall. Along the coast the climate is mild and pleasant.

Trieste records the smallest temperature differences between winter and summer and between day and night. The climate is Alpine-continental in the mountainous areas, where, in some locations, the coldest winter temperatures in Italy can often be found. The Kras plateau has its own weather and climate, influenced, mostly during autumn and winter, by masses of cold air coming from the north-east. These generate a very special feature of the local climate: the north-easterly wind Bora, which descends onto the Gulf of Trieste with gusts occasionally exceeding speeds of 150 km/h.

Economy

The sandy beach of Lignano Sabbiadoro Lignano faro.jpg
The sandy beach of Lignano Sabbiadoro

The economy of Friuli-Venezia Giulia is one of the most developed in the country. Its core is based on small- and middle-size enterprises (the so-called 'North-East model'), on specialized farming and on high-quality tourism with a significant inclination towards exports. [8]

Agriculture and farming maintain an essential role in the economy of the region and employed in 2001 around 95,000 persons. Its high quality products are exported not only within the country and Europe (fruit and vegetable, cheese) but have become known worldwide for their quality (cured ham and wines, especially white ones). Noteworthy is also the production of soy (third producer in Italy with more than 37,000 hectares cultivated in 2000) and timber production in Carnia. [8]

As mentioned above, the economy of the region is based on a widespread mosaic of small and medium-size enterprises; of particular importance are the four industrial districts where a multitude of such highly specialised enterprises are concentrated. These districts are centred around the towns of Manzano, San Daniele del Friuli (cured ham), Maniago (knives) and Brugnera (furniture). A number of large enterprises are also present in the region in both the industry and services sector. Some of these companies are world-leaders in their relevant sectors; such are Fincantieri (headquarters in Trieste with shipyards in Monfalcone) for the construction of the world's largest cruise ships, Zanussi-Electrolux (Pordenone) in the production of electrical appliances, Danieli, Eurotech, Illy, Rizzani de Eccher, Solari Udine, TBS Group, Banca Generali, Genertellife, Italia Marittima, Telit, Wärtsilä, Allianz Italia and Assicurazioni Generali in Trieste, a leading insurance company in the world. [8]

The port of Trieste Porttrieste old.jpg
The port of Trieste

Local craftsmanship boasts products of the highest quality, such as fabrics, carved furniture, wooden sculptures, artistic ceramics, mosaic, wrought iron and copper, string instruments and typical traditional costumes.

The tourist industry is developing thanks to a combination of sea (Lignano, Grado, Monfalcone and Trieste beaches), mountains (ski resorts in the Friulan Dolomites, the Carnic Prealps and Alps, and the Julian Alps) and gastronomy routes.

Again, in the services sector the city of Trieste plays a leading role (with knock-on effects on the other provincial capitals); it is in fact here that activities such as the regional government, large banking and insurance companies are concentrated. With its commercial Free Port, Trieste also plays an essential role in the trade sector: special custom regulations ensure exclusive financial conditions to operators. The Port of Trieste is today the most important centre worldwide for the trade of coffee and plays a strategic key role in trade with northern and eastern Europe- [8]

New subdivisions since January 2018 Unioni territoriali intercomunali del Friuli-Venezia Giulia.png
New subdivisions since January 2018

Although small in size, Friuli-Venezia Giulia has always been 'in the centre of Europe' and has played an important role in connecting Italy (and the Mediterranean) to Central and Eastern Europe. Its role will become even more strategic as a logistical platform with the imminent enlargement of the European Union. Hence the importance of the infrastructure network of the region, which can today be considered first rate in quality and diversity. The motorway network consists of more than 200 km that run from North to South and from West to East, perfectly connecting the region to Austria and Slovenia. [8]

The railway network consists of around 500 km of track, with the two twin-line 'backbones' Venice-Trieste and Trieste-Udine-Tarvisio-Austria. The motorway and railway networks are linked to the ports of Trieste, Monfalcone and Porto Nogaro, the three most northerly ports of the Mediterranean. Trieste, in particular, has a free port for goods since 1719. It is the Italian port with the greatest capacity for covered storage, with a surface area of more than 2 million square meters and 70 km of rail tracks. Intermodality is guaranteed by the Cervignano terminal, in operation since 1988, to serve the increasing commercial traffic between Italy and Eastern European countries. [8]

The regional airport of Ronchi dei Legionari is situated 30 km from Trieste and 40 km from Udine and is closely connected to the motorway and railway networks. The airport offers regular national and international flights including destinations in Eastern Europe. The region is now placing much of its hopes for future economic development in the construction of a high speed European Transport Corridor n° V connecting Lyon, Turin, Venice, Trieste, Ljubljana, Budapest and Kiev, so as to improve the traffic of goods and services with new EU partners. [8]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1871 508,000    
1881 530,000+4.3%
1901 615,000+16.0%
1911 728,000+18.4%
1921 1,178,000+61.8%
1931 1,176,000−0.2%
1936 1,108,000−5.8%
1951 1,226,000+10.6%
1961 1,204,000−1.8%
1971 1,214,000+0.8%
1981 1,234,000+1.6%
1991 1,198,000−2.9%
2001 1,184,000−1.2%
2011 1,235,000+4.3%
2017 1,217,872−1.4%
Source: ISTAT 2001

Population density is lower than the national average: In 1978 there were in total only 1,224,611 inhabitants; [9] in 2008 it was in fact equal to 157.5 inhabitants per km2 (compared to 198.8 for Italy as a whole). However, density varies from a minimum of 106 inhabitants per km2 in the province of Udine to a maximum of 1,144 inhabitants per km2 in the province of Trieste.

The negative natural balance in the region is partly made up by the positive net migration. To some extent the migratory surplus has in fact offset the downward trend in the population since 1975. In 2008, the resident population with foreign nationality registered in the region accounted to 83,306 persons (6.7% of the total population).

Government and politics

A special Italian statute of 31 January 1963 effective 16 February 1963 constituted Friuli-Venezia Giulia as an autonomous region within the Italian Republic.

The President of Regional Government is the region's head of government. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government of Friuli-Venezia Giulia  [ it ] and legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. In the latest regional election, which took place on 4 March 2018, Massimiliano Fedriga of the Lega Nord Friuli-Venezia Giulia was elected president by a landslide.

Administrative divisions

Friuli-Venezia Giulia is subdivided into 18 unioni territoriali intercomunali  [ it ] (UTI; "inter-comune unions"), [10] a type of administrative unit unique to the region, and 215 comuni . Regional statute also allows for the establishment of a metropolitan city of Trieste.

Like most of the rest of Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia was previously divided into four provinces: Gorizia, Pordenone, Trieste and Udine. The first three were abolished on 30 September 2017, [11] while the Province of Udine remained active until 22 April 2018. [12]

Unione territoriale intercomunale

UTI nameSeatFormer provinceConstituent comuniNumber of comuniArea (km2)Population
a UTI Giuliana Trieste TS Duino-Aurisina, Monrupino, Muggia, San Dorligo della Valle, Sgonico, Trieste 6212.5232,601
b UTI Carso Isonzo Adriatico Monfalcone GO Doberdò del Lago, Grado, Fogliano Redipuglia*, Monfalcone, Ronchi dei Legionari, Sagrado, San Canzian d'Isonzo, San Pier d'Isonzo, Staranzano, Turriaco 10264.872,499
c UTI Collio - Alto Isonzo Gorizia GO Capriva del Friuli, Cormons, Dolegna del Collio*, Farra d'Isonzo, Gorizia, Gradisca d'Isonzo, Mariano del Friuli, Medea, Moraro, Mossa, Romans d'Isonzo, San Floriano del Collio*, San Lorenzo Isontino, Savogna d'Isonzo*, Villesse 15202.367,644
d UTI del Canal del Ferro - Val Canale Tarvisio UD Chiusaforte*, Dogna, Malborghetto-Valbruna, Moggio Udinese*, Pontebba, Resia*, Resiutta, Tarvisio*8885.011,164
e UTI del Gemonese Gemona del Friuli UD Artegna, Bordano, Gemona del Friuli*, Montenars, Trasaghis, Venzone 6235.319,893
f UTI della Carnia Tolmezzo UD Amaro, Ampezzo*, Arta Terme, Cavazzo Carnico, Cercivento*, Comeglians, Enemonzo, Forni Avoltri, Forni di Sopra, Forni di Sotto*, Lauco, Ovaro, Paluzza, Paularo, Prato Carnico, Preone, Ravascletto, Raveo, Rigolato, Sappada*, Sauris, Socchieve, Sutrio, Tolmezzo, Treppo Ligosullo, Verzegnis, Villa Santina, Zuglio*281,28639,882
g UTI del Friuli Centrale Udine UD Campoformido, Martignacco*, Pagnacco*, Pasian di Prato*, Pavia di Udine*, Pozzuolo del Friuli, Pradamano, Reana del Rojale*, Tavagnacco, Tricesimo, Udine 11274.1170,123
h UTI del Torre Tarcento UD Attimis, Cassacco, Faedis, Lusevera, Magnano in Riviera*, Nimis, Povoletto, Taipana, Tarcento 9326.436,651
i UTI Mediofriuli Codroipo UD Basiliano, Bertiolo, Camino al Tagliamento*, Castions di Strada*, Codroipo*, Lestizza*, Mereto di Tomba, Mortegliano*, Sedegliano, Talmassons*, Varmo 11419.651,812
j UTI Collinare San Daniele del Friuli UD Buja*, Colloredo di Monte Albano*, Coseano, Dignano*, Fagagna, Flaibano, Forgaria nel Friuli*, Majano, Moruzzo, Osoppo*, Ragogna*, Rive d'Arcano, San Daniele del Friuli*, San Vito di Fagagna*, Treppo Grande 15349.851,241
k UTI del Natisone Cividale del Friuli UD Buttrio, Cividale del Friuli, Corno di Rosazzo*, Drenchia, Grimacco, Manzano, Moimacco, Premariacco, Prepotto, Pulfero, Remanzacco, San Giovanni al Natisone, San Leonardo, San Pietro al Natisone, Savogna, Stregna, Torreano*17456.552,112
l UTI Riviera - Bassa Friulana Latisana UD Carlino, Latisana, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Marano Lagunare, Muzzana del Turgnano, Palazzolo dello Stella, Pocenia, Porpetto, Precenicco, Rivignano Teor*, Ronchis*, San Giorgio di Nogaro 12438.456,332
m UTI Agro Aquileiese Cervignano del Friuli UD Aiello del Friuli, Aquileia, Bagnaria Arsa, Bicinicco, Campolongo Tapogliano, Cervignano del Friuli, Chiopris-Viscone, Fiumicello Villa Vicentina, Gonars*, Palmanova, Ruda, San Vito al Torre*, Santa Maria la Longa*, Torviscosa, Terzo di Aquileia, Trivignano Udinese*, Visco*17298.755,148
n UTI del Tagliamento San Vito al Tagliamento PN Casarsa della Delizia, Cordovado, Morsano al Tagliamento, San Giorgio della Richinvelda, San Martino al Tagliamento, San Vito al Tagliamento, Sesto al Reghena, Spilimbergo*, Valvasone Arzene 9334.357,278
o UTI delle Valli e delle Dolomiti Friulane Maniago PN Andreis, Arba, Barcis, Castelnovo del Friuli, Cavasso Nuovo*, Cimolais, Claut, Clauzetto, Erto e Casso, Fanna*, Frisanco, Maniago, Meduno, Montereale Valcellina, Pinzano al Tagliamento, Sequals, Tramonti di Sopra, Tramonti di Sotto, Travesio, Vajont, Vito d'Asio, Vivaro 221,148.137,086
p UTI Livenza - Cansiglio - Cavallo Sacile PN Aviano, Brugnera*, Budoia, Caneva, Polcenigo*, Sacile*6304.050,408
q UTI Sile e Meduna Azzano Decimo PN Azzano Decimo, Chions, Fiume Veneto, Pasiano di Pordenone*, Prata di Pordenone*, Pravisdomini 6205.351,993
r UTI del Noncello Pordenone PN Cordenons*, Fontanafredda, Porcia, Pordenone, Roveredo in Piano, San Quirino*, Zoppola 7283.6114,046

(*) These municipalities have not yet[ when? ] signed the statute of the UTI to which they belong.

Map of the Unione territoriale intercomunale of Friuli-Venezia Giulia; letters correspond to those in leftmost column of the table above Map of municipalities and UTI of Friuli-Venezia Giulia - Italy.svg
Map of the Unione territoriale intercomunale of Friuli-Venezia Giulia; letters correspond to those in leftmost column of the table above

Former provinces

Until 2017–18, Friuli-Venezia Giulia was divided into four provinces:

Map of region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, with provinces-it.svg

Province
(listed west
to east)
Area (km2)PopulationDensity (inh./km2)
Province of Pordenone 2,273311,931137.2
Province of Udine 4,905539,224109.9
Province of Gorizia 466142,392305.5
Province of Trieste 212236,4451,115.3

Culture

A traffic sign in Italian, Friulan, German and Slovene Quadrilingual traffic sign.jpg
A traffic sign in Italian, Friulan, German and Slovene

Language

Italian is the official national language. Friulian language is also spoken in most of the region — with a few exceptions, most notably Trieste and the area around Monfalcone and Grado, where a version of the Venetian language and Triestine dialect is spoken instead.

Venetian is also spoken in western part of the Province of Pordenone, and in the city of Pordenone itself, due to its proximity with the Veneto region. Friulian and Venetian are more common in the countryside, while standard Italian is the predominant language in the larger towns (Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia). The region is also home to Italy's Slovene-speaking minority.

Related Research Articles

Udine Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area.

Northeast Italy geographic region of Italy

Northeast Italy is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency. Northeast encompasses four of the country's 20 regions:

Province of Pordenone Province in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

The province of Pordenone was a province in the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in Italy. Its capital was the city of Pordenone. The province was subdivided from the province of Udine in 1968. It had a total population of 312,794 inhabitants. The province was abolished on 30 September 2017.

Province of Trieste Former Province in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

The Province of Trieste was a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste. It had an area of 212 square kilometres (82 sq mi) and a total population of 234,668. It had a coastal length of 48.1 kilometres (29.9 mi). There were 6 communes in the province.

Province of Udine Province in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

The province of Udine was a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital was the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,242 inhabitants. It had a total population of 530,849 inhabitants over an area of 4,907.24 square kilometres (1,894.70 sq mi). The province was abolished on 30 September 2017.

Goriška historical region in western Slovenia

Goriška is a historical region in western Slovenia on the border with Italy. It comprises the northern part of the wider traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral (Primorska). The name Goriška is an adjective referring to the city of Gorizia, its historical and cultural centre.

Monfalcone Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Monfalcone is a town and comune of the province of Gorizia in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northern Italy, located on the Gulf of Trieste. Monfalcone means "Mount of Falcon" in Italian.

Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca Crown land of the empire of Austria

The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia. It was named for its two major urban centers, Gorizia and Gradisca d'Isonzo.

Triveneto

The Triveneto, or Tre Venezie[ˈtre vveˈnɛttsje], locally [ˈtrɛ veˈnɛtsje], is a historical region of Italy. The area included what would become the three Italian regions of Venezia Euganea, Venezia Giulia and Venezia Tridentina. This territory was named after the Roman region of Venetia et Histria.

Prepotto Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Prepotto is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 894 and an area of 33.2 square kilometres (12.8 sq mi).

Sauris Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Sauris is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. At an elevation of 1,212 m (3,976 ft), it is the highest municipality in the region and one of the German language islands in Northeast Italy. Sauris is part of the Alpine pearls cooperation for sustainable tourism.

Torreano Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Torreano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,301 and an area of 34.9 square kilometres (13.5 sq mi). According to the census 1971 24,5% of the population are Slovenes.

Venzone Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Venzone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Lega Nord Friuli-Venezia Giulia regionalist political party in Italy

Lega Nord Friuli-Venezia Giulia is a regionalist political party in Italy which functions as the "national" section of Lega Nord in Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

The Slovene Union is a centrist political party in Italy representing the Slovene minority in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. Its Slovenian language name means literally "Slovene Community", but the denomination "Slovene Union" is used in other languages.

Monfalcone railway station railway station in Italy

Monfalcone railway station serves the town and comune of Monfalcone, in the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northeastern Italy.

Slovene minority in Italy, also known as Slovenes in Italy is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia. The vast majority of members of the Slovene ethnic minority live in the Provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, and Udine. Estimates of their number vary significantly; the official figures show 24.706 Slovenian speakers in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, as per the 1971 Census, but Slovenian estimates speak of 83,000 to 100,000 people.

Cassa di Risparmio del Friuli Venezia Giulia S.p.A. known as CariFVG in short, was an Italian savings bank based in Gorizia, Friuli – Venezia Giulia region.

References

  1. "Regional gross domestic product (million EUR) by NUTS 2 regions". Eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  2. "Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London". Eurostat. European Union. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. "Sito Ufficale della Regione Autonoma Friuli–Venezia Giulia – Versione Inglese". Regione.fvg.it. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  5. ""Modifiche al titolo V della parte seconda della Costituzione"". parlamento.it. 18 October 2001.
  6. "Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana" (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  7. Sarti, Gianpaolo: La Lega lancia la regione "Friuli e Trieste", in: Il Piccolo, 9 September 2014, p. 14.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2010-04-18. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  9. Prost, Brigitte: Le Frioul.Région d#affrontements, Géneve 1973.
  10. "Enti locali: Approvata la proposta del piano di riordino territoriale del FVG." 4 February 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2019. (in Italian)
  11. "Soppressione delle Province del Friuli Venezia Giulia." Consiglio regionale del Friuli Venezia Giulia. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2019. (in Italian)
  12. "Nomina del commissario liquidatore." Provincia di Udine. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2019. (in Italian)
  13. "Unioni Territoriali intercomunali (UTI)" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2017.

Notes

    Coordinates: 45°38′10″N13°48′15″E / 45.63611°N 13.80417°E / 45.63611; 13.80417