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|1st President of Uruguay|
6 November 1830 –24 October 1834
|Preceded by||Luis Eduardo Pérez|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Anaya|
|Born||17 October 1784|
|Died||13 January 1854 69) (aged|
|Political party||Colorado Party|
José Fructuoso Rivera y Toscana (17 October 1784 – 13 January 1854) was a Uruguayan general and patriot who fought for the liberation of Banda Oriental from Brazilian rule, twice served as Uruguay's President and was one of the instigators of the long Uruguayan Civil War.He is also considered to be the founder of the Colorado Party, which ruled Uruguay without interruption from 1865 until 1958. He made a controversial decision to almost completely eliminate the native Charrúa during the 1831 Massacre of Salsipuedes.
Rivera was a rancher who joined the army of José Gervasio Artigas in 1810. Eventually he rose to the rank of general. When Banda Oriental was occupied by Portuguese and the defeated Artigas forced into exile in 1820, Rivera stayed in the newly created Cisplatina province.
Rivera first met with Juan Antonio Lavalleja in 1825, during an event that would become known as the Abrazo del Monzón (Embrace of the Monsoon).In the same year, the Thirty-Three Orientals led by Juan Lavalleja and their Argentine supporters, began their fight against the Empire of Brazil, Rivera joined the Argentinians. It's not clear if he joined voluntarily or was forced to join. He soon became important military commander during the Cisplatine War and participated in the Battle of Rincón and Battle of Sarandí. Due to arguments with other leaders, Rivera left the country for a year and did not participate in the Battle of Ituzaingó in 1827.
After Uruguayan independence was proclaimed in 1828, arguments between Rivera and Lavalleja turned into fighting, and Argentine general José Rondeau became the first provisional Governor. Rivera finally assumed Presidency for a term from 6 November 1830 until 24 October 1834. Rivera then supported General Manuel Oribe as his successor to Presidency. Once again, Rivera become involved in conflict with Lavalleja and also with Oribe. In October 1838 Rivera defeated Oribe and forced him to flee into exile to Buenos Aires. During this conflict the political division between Colorados and Blancos began, as Rivera's supporters wore red armbands, but Oribe's wore white. Later these factions form their political parties. Rivera assumes Presidency for the second time between 1 March 1839 and 1 March 1843.
Oribe, with the support of Buenos Aires strongman Juan Manuel de Rosas, organized a new army and invaded Uruguay, thus starting the Uruguayan Civil War. In December 1842 Oribe defeated Rivera at the Battle of Arroyo Grande and started the Great Siege of Montevideo. Rivera's power was limited to the capital city, while Oribe ruled the rest of the country. In 1847 Rivera was forced to leave for exile in Brazil, where he stayed until 1853.
After President Juan Francisco Giró was overthrown, a ruling triumvirate was created on 25 September 1853 consisting of Venancio Flores, Juan Antonio Lavalleja and Rivera. However, Lavalleja died on 22 October and Rivera died on 13 January 1854 en route to Montevideo, leaving only Flores in power.
Rivera's legacy in Uruguayan political history, and particularly among the members of the Colorado Party, is one of strong personal leadership. A 'Riverista' tendency (among others, represented by Jorge Pacheco Areco and the Bordaberry family) in the Colorado Party has long existed as a counterpoint to the 'Batllista' and other factions.
Luis Eduardo Pérez (interim)
| President of Uruguay |
1830 – 1834
Gabriel Antonio Pereira (interim)
| President of Uruguay|
1838 – 1839
Gabriel Antonio Pereira
Gabriel Antonio Pereira (interim)
| President of Uruguay|
1839 – 1843
Joaquín Suárez de Rondelo
Juan Francisco Giró
| President of Uruguay|
1853 - 1854
The history of Uruguay comprises different periods: the pre-Columbian time or early history, the colonial period (1516–1811), the period of nation-building (1811–1830), and the history of Uruguay as an independent country.
José Gervasio Artigas Arnal is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".
The Colorado Party is a centrist political party in Uruguay.
Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana was the 2nd Constitutional president of Uruguay.
Juan Antonio Lavalleja was a Uruguayan revolutionary and political figure. He was born in Minas, nowadays being located in the Lavalleja Department, which was named after him.
The Cisplatine War, also known as the Argentine-Brazilian War or in the Argentine and Uruguayan historiography as the Brazil War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Bank" in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain.
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure.
The Treinta y Tres Orientales was a militant revolutionary group led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja and Manuel Oribe against the Empire of Brazil. Their actions culminated in the foundation of modern Uruguay. They became famous by the name of the Treinta y Tres Orientales when, in 1825, they began an insurrection for the independence of Oriental Province, a historical territory encompassing modern Uruguay and part of modern Brazilian Rio Grande do Sul State, from Brazilian control.
19 April is the anniversary of the Landing of the 33 Patriots in Uruguay, also known as the Thirty-Three Orientals, called 'Orientals' because Uruguay was known as the Banda Oriental, or the "Eastern Bank" of the Río de la Plata, the western shore being Argentina.
Venancio Flores Barrios was a Uruguayan political leader and general. Flores was President of Uruguay from 1854 to 1855 (interim) and from 1865 to 1868.
The Uruguayan Civil War, also known in Spanish as the Guerra Grande, was a series of armed conflicts between the leaders of Uruguayan independence. While officially the war lasted from 1839 until 1851, it was a part of armed conflicts that started in 1832 and continued until the final military defeat of the Blancos faction in 1904. Out of supporters of presidents Rivera and Oribe grew the Colorado Party and the National Party, both of which received backing and support from foreign sources, including neighboring Empire of Brazil, the Argentine Confederation, Buenos Aires Province as well as European powers, primarily the British Empire and the Kingdom of France, but also a legion of Italian volunteers including Giuseppe Garibaldi. The great diversity of nationalities among the military forces supporting the Colorado Party posed a difficulty when coming to express their struggle in terms of a "national liberation", instead the Colorado Party side put forward a rhethoric on them defending "humanity" and "civilization" against "tyranny".
Brazil–Uruguay relations encompass many complex relations over the span of three centuries, beginning in 1680 with the establishment of the Colónia do Sacramento, to the present day, between the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Brazil and Uruguay are neighbouring countries in South America, and share close political, economic and cultural ties. The singularity of the bilateral relationship between the two countries originates from a strong historical connection – marked by important events, such as the establishment of the Colónia do Sacramento in 1680, the invasion of the Banda Oriental by Brazil in 1815 and the subsequent creation of the Província Cisplatina, and Uruguay's independence from Brazil in 1828. The bilateral relationship was further defined by the Uruguayan Civil War (1839–1851) and the Paraguayan War (1864–1870).
Ariel Riani was a Uruguayan politician and business figure.
Argentina–Uruguay relations are foreign relations between the Argentine Republic and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Both countries were part of the Spanish Empire until the early 19th century.
Spain–Uruguay refers to the current and historical relations between Spain and Uruguay. Both nations are members of the Association of Spanish Language Academies and the Organization of Ibero-American States.
The dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the independence and breaking up of the Spanish colony in South America. Most of the viceroyalty is now part of Argentina, and other regions belong to Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
The Battle of Sarandí was fought on October 12 of 1825, in the vicinity of the Arroyo Sarandí in Uruguay, between troops of the Banda Oriental and the Empire of Brazil. It resulted in a decisive victory for the Orientals.
Ramón de Amaya was an Argentine-Uruguayan military man and politician, who fought against the English during the British invasions of the River Plate, and who participated in the Uruguayan Civil War.
José Brito del Pino (1797–1877) was an Uruguayan soldier and patriot, who participated in the War of Independence, Brazilian War and Guerra Grande. He was one of the members founders of the Partido Nacional Uruguayo.
Ana Micaela Monterroso de Lavalleja was an Uruguayan woman who was the wife of Juan Antonio Lavalleja and traveled with Lavalleja and participating in the politics of the world around her. Whether or not Lavallejas was present in the household, Monterroso ran the family's affairs and would actively aid the resistance to the Portuguese and the government of Fructuoso Rivera. She and Lavalleja would have ten children, some of whom died young. She, along with Melchora Cuenca and Cayetana Leguizamón, represent the involvement of women in the early history of modern Uruguay.