|Country of origin||Germany|
|Frequency||525–575 MHz/57.1-52.1 cm (low UHF-band)|
|Range||• 10 km (6.2 mi) Submarines|
• 70 km (43 mi) Surface Ships
• 150 km (93 mi) Land
|Azimuth||left 30°, middle, right 30°|
|Power||24V 30A, Synchronous inverter|
|Country of origin||Germany|
|Type||U-boat surface search|
|Frequency||556 MHz/53.9 cm|
|Range||• 10 km (6.2 mi) Surface Ships|
* 25 km (16 mi) Aircraft
The FuG 200 Hohentwiel was a low-UHF band frequency maritime patrol radar system of the Luftwaffe in World War II. It was developed by C. Lorenz AG of Berlin starting in 1938 under the code name "Hohentwiel", an extinct volcano in the region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The device had originally been entered into a design contest held by the Luftwaffe for the new FuMG 40L (ground-based fire-control radar). When competitor Telefunken won that contract with its "Würzburg radar" in 1939, the device was shelved.[ citation needed ]
In 1941, Lorenz started to re-design it for another design contest by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium for an airborne naval search radar. As no special antenna had been specified, initially the simplest possible layout with three transversely-arranged antenna arrays was chosen - the central one for transmitting and two others for receiving, one each to port and starboard of the central transmitting array. Each antenna array possessed sixteen horizontally-oriented dipole elements, in eight sets of two elements each, with each set of four dipole groups vertically stacked comprising each array. For rough guidance, the radio operator had to manually switch the receiving arrays. Later, the device received a motor-driven antenna switch. The received signal strength was displayed on a cathode ray tube so the observer or pilot could roughly gauge the target's heading as 'left', 'right' or 'head on'. The maximum range was 150 km for convoys on the Atlantic. The device was first deployed on Junkers Ju 88, Focke-Wulf Fw 200 and other maritime patrol aircraft and twin-engined torpedo bomber designs, and is known to have been fitted to Heinkel He 111 medium bombers for training purposes, and experimented with on the Heinkel He 177A. In order to avoid capture after a crash, it was fitted with several small self-destruct explosive charges in each of the system's electronics cabinets, which could be triggered by the pilot.[ citation needed ]
This section needs additional citations for verification .(January 2021)
In 1943, Lorenz was instructed to adapt Hohentwiel for naval use, and soon the Hohentwiel appeared on U-boats, small surface ships, and coastal installations.
There are two U-boat versions of the FuG 200 Hohentwiel used during World War II; FuMO 61 Hohentwiel U and the FuMO 65 Hohentwiel U1. The U-boat versions were easier to maintain and more reliable compared with the other versions. However, the U-boat versions had several disadvantages: the smaller antenna and the height of the antenna. The antenna was smaller as it had to fit within a small area on the port side of the conning tower. In addition, the reduced height of the antenna installation impaired the range. Both U-boat versions had ranges of between 8 and 10 kilometres (5.0 and 6.2 mi) for naval targets and between 15 and 25 kilometres (9.3 and 15.5 mi) at an altitude of 200 metres (660 ft). Resolution was about 3 degrees, and at short range its range accuracy was 100 metres (330 ft). Both U-boat versions operated at a frequency 556 MHz and had four rows of six dipoles. Before the U-boat could dive, the antenna needed to be retracted into a well on the conning tower. Both U-boat antenna versions were 1,400 mm (4 ft 7 in) wide by 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 in) in height, and total overall dimensions of the antenna frame was 1,540 by 1,022 mm (5 ft 0.6 in by 3 ft 4.2 in).
There are two types of radar transmitter for the FuMO-61 Hohentwiel U and FuMO-65 Hohentwiel U1, the Type F431 C1 and the Type F432 D2. The Type F431 C1 was used on the Type VII, Type IX and the Type F432 D2 on the Type XXI.
The FuMO 61 Hohentwiel U was the marine version of the FuG 200 Hohentwiel used by the Kriegsmarine on Type VII, Type IX and Type XXI U-boats. Beginning March 1944, it began to be installed on Type VII and Type IX.
The FuMO 63 Hohentwiel K became available at the beginning of 1944. It was fitted to the foremast and mainmast of surface warships.
The FuMO 65 Hohentwiel U1 was the marine version of the FuG 200 Hohentwiel used by the Kriegsmarine only on Type XXI U-boats. The FuMO 65 Hohentwiel U1 had an updated radar display over the older FuMO 61 Hohentwiel U, it had a Plan position indicator display, known to the Germans as Drauf.
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot submarines designed during the Second World War. One hundred and eighteen were completed, with four being combat-ready. During the war only two were put into active service and went on patrols, but these were not used in combat.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 154 Moskito was a fast twin-engined German night fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank and produced by Focke-Wulf during late World War II. Only a few were produced, proving to have less impressive performance than the prototypes.
Super high frequency (SHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). This band of frequencies is also known as the centimetre band or centimetre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten centimetres. These frequencies fall within the microwave band, so radio waves with these frequencies are called microwaves. The small wavelength of microwaves allows them to be directed in narrow beams by aperture antennas such as parabolic dishes and horn antennas, so they are used for point-to-point communication and data links and for radar. This frequency range is used for most radar transmitters, wireless LANs, satellite communication, microwave radio relay links, and numerous short range terrestrial data links. They are also used for heating in industrial microwave heating, medical diathermy, microwave hyperthermy to treat cancer, and to cook food in microwave ovens.
The Lichtenstein radar was among the earliest airborne radars available to the Luftwaffe in World War II and the first one used exclusively for air interception. Developed by Telefunken, it was available in at least four major revisions, called FuG 202 Lichtenstein B/C, FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1, FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 and the very rarely used FuG 228 Lichtenstein SN-3.. The Lichtenstein series remained the only widely deployed airborne interception radar used by the Germans on their night fighters during the war — the competing FuG 216 through 218 Neptun mid-VHF band radar systems were meant as a potentially more versatile stop-gap system through 1944, until the microwave-based FuG 240 "Berlin" could be mass-produced; the Berlin system was still being tested when the war ended.
Freya was an early warning radar deployed by Germany during World War II; it was named after the Norse goddess Freyja. During the war, over a thousand stations were built. A naval version operating on a slightly different wavelength was also developed as the Seetakt.
The low-UHF band Würzburg radar was the primary ground-based gun laying radar for the Wehrmacht's Luftwaffe and Heer during World War II. Initial development took place before the war and the apparatus entered service in 1940. Eventually, over 4,000 Würzburgs of various models were produced. It took its name from the city of Würzburg.
The history of radar started with experiments by Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century that showed that radio waves were reflected by metallic objects. This possibility was suggested in James Clerk Maxwell's seminal work on electromagnetism. However, it was not until the early 20th century that systems able to use these principles were becoming widely available, and it was German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer who first used them to build a simple ship detection device intended to help avoid collisions in fog. True radar, such as the British Chain Home early warning system provided directional information to objects over short ranges, were developed over the next two decades.
German submarine U-530 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down at the Deutsche Werft in Hamburg on 8 December 1941 as yard number 345, launched on 28 July 1942 and commissioned on 14 October 1942 with Kapitänleutnant Kurt Lange in command, who led her in six patrols. Lange was replaced in January 1945 by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Wermuth, who led her escape to Argentina after Germany's surrender. The submarine's voyage to Argentina led to legends, apocryphal stories, and conspiracy theories that she and U-977 had transported escaping Nazi leaders and/or Nazi gold to South America, or even that it sank the Brazilian cruiser Bahia as the last act of the Battle of the Atlantic.
During World War II, the German Luftwaffe relied on an increasingly diverse array of electronic communications, IFF and RDF equipment as avionics in its aircraft and also on the ground. Most of this equipment received the generic prefix FuG for Funkgerät, meaning "radio equipment". Most of the aircraft-mounted Radar equipment also used the FuG prefix. This article is a list and a description of the radio, IFF and RDF equipment.
German submarine U-73 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down by Vegesacker Werft, Germany as yard number 1 on 5 November 1939, launched on 27 July 1940 and commissioned on 30 September of the same year under Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Helmut Rosenbaum.
German submarine U-546 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat operated by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down at the Deutsche Werft in Hamburg as yard number 367 on 6 August 1942, launched on 17 March 1943 and commissioned on 2 June 1943 under Oberleutnant zur See Paul Just. The U-boat was a member of three wolfpacks.
Radar in World War II greatly influenced many important aspects of the conflict. This revolutionary new technology of radio-based detection and tracking was used by both the Allies and Axis powers in World War II, which had evolved independently in a number of nations during the mid 1930s. At the outbreak of war in September 1939, both Great Britain and Germany had functioning radar systems. In Great Britain, it was called RDF, Range and Direction Finding, while in Germany the name Funkmeß (radio-measuring) was used, with apparatuses called Funkmessgerät . By the time of the Battle of Britain in mid-1940, the Royal Air Force (RAF) had fully integrated RDF as part of the national air defence.
The Type 1934A destroyers, also known as the Z5 class, were a group of twelve destroyers built in the mid-1930s for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Five survived the war.
The Wasserman radar was an early-warning radar built by Germany during World War II. The radar was a development of FuMG 80 Freya and was operated during World War II for long range detection. It was developed under the direction of Theodor Schultes, beginning in 1942. Wasserman was based on largely unchanged Freya electronics, but used an entirely new antenna array in order to improve range, height-finding and bearing precision.
Neptun (Neptune) was the code name of a series of low-to-mid-VHF band airborne intercept radar devices developed by Germany in World War II and used as active targeting devices in several types of aircraft. They were usually combined with a "backwards warning device", indicated by the addition of the letters "V/R" Vorwärts/Rückwärt, meaning Forward/Backward). Working in the metre range, Neptun was meant as a stop-gap until scheduled SHF-band devices became available.
The FuG 240 "Berlin" was an airborne interception radar system operating at the "lowest end" of the SHF radio band, which the German Luftwaffe introduced at the very end of World War II. It was the first German radar to be based on the cavity magnetron, which eliminated the need for the large multiple dipole-based antenna arrays seen on earlier radars, thereby greatly increasing the performance of the night fighters. Introduced by Telefunken in April 1945, only about 25 units saw service.
C. Lorenz AG (1880-1958) was a German electrical and electronics firm primarily located in Berlin. It innovated, developed and marketed products for electric lighting, telegraphy, telephony, radar, and radio. It was acquired by ITT in 1930, and became part of the newly founded company Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), Stuttgart in 1958 when it merged with Standard Elektrizitätsgesellschaft and several other smaller companies owned by ITT. In 1987, SEL merged with the French companies Compagnie Générale d'Electricité and Alcatel to form the new Alcatel SEL.
FuG 224 Berlin A was a German airborne radar of World War II. It used rotating antennae and a PPI display to allow its use for ground mapping.
German Luftwaffe and Navy Kriegsmarine Radar Equipment during World War II, relied on an increasingly diverse array of communications, IFF and RDF equipment for its function. Most of this equipment received the generic prefix FuG, meaning "radio equipment". During the war, Germany renumbered their radars. From using the year of introduction as their number they moved to a different numbering scheme.