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Fu (Chinese :府; pinyin :
The term fu is currently also used in Chinese to translate the provinces of Thailand, but not those of mainland China, Taiwan or other countries.
Fu (府) means an office or a command institution. The character appears in the Chinese words for "government" (政府, zhėngfǔ) or "official's residence" (府邸, fǔdǐ), and names of official institutions such as the "Imperial Household Department" (內務府, Nèiwùfǔ) in China or "Office of the President" (總統府, Zǒngtǒngfǔ) in Taiwan.
Japanese language uses the Chinese character: (i) as a part of words, such as government (政府, seifu), shogunate (幕府, bakufu), Cabinet Office (内閣府, naikakufu), and legislature (立法府, rippō-fu), or (ii) as the name of a category of prefectures.
One of the earlier uses of fu as part of the name of an administrative division was the Protectorate of the Western Regions (西域都護府, Xīyù Dūhù Fǔ) of the Han Empire in 60 BC. Duhu Fu, usually translated as "protectorate", literally meant "Office of the Commander-Protector".
In 627, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Taizong (r. 626−649) reorganized political divisions setting up 10 circuits overseeing the Chinese prefectures, including 43 commanderies (都督府, dūdū fǔ, literally "Office of the Commander-Governor"), which were border prefectures with a more powerful governor. Zhou was the more common name for an inland prefecture. Dudu Fu was shortened to Fu and the convention developed that larger prefectures would be named fu, while smaller prefectures would be called zhou. One of the earliest cities to be called a fu was Jingzhao-fu (京兆府), which including the capital city Chang'an and Henan-fu, which including the secondary capital Luoyang during the Tang Dynasty.
By the time of the 14th–century Ming Dynasty, the term had become common across provinces: typically, each prefecture under province was called a fu. Fu of Ming and Qing dynasty are sometimes translated as "Prefectures", Shuntian Prefecture for instance. Sub-prefectures, such as that which administered Macao's inner harbor from Qianshan, were called "military/civil fu" ( t 軍民府 , s 军民府 ,jūnmínfǔ).
After the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the Republic of China abolished fu in order to streamline administrative divisions, recategorizing them into counties or cities. The People's Republic of China inherited these divisions of mainland China in 1949 and did not reinstate the fu. Many former fu have become prefecture-level cities.
As part of the Taika Reform in (645), the capitals of the Provinces of Japan were named kokufu (国府, "province capitals"). The fu character is an element still found in several Japanese city names, such as Dazaifu (太宰府), Fuchū (府中), Hōfu (防府), Kōfu (甲府), Rifu (利府) and the old name for Shizuoka, Sunpu (駿府).
During the Meiji Restoration, the newly formed Meiji government enacted Fuhanken Sanchisei in 1868, splitting the country into three varieties of prefecture. One of these were fu, used for urban prefectures as opposed to rural prefectures (県, ken). The first two urban prefectures (府, fu) were created on 14 June 1868: Kyoto-fu and Hakodate-fu. By the end of 1868, 10 fu had been established: Kyoto, Hakodate, Osaka, Nagasaki, Edo (later Tokyo), Kanagawa, Watarai, Nara, Echigo (later Niigata) and Kōfu. Due to some prefectures gaining non-urban land or being amalgamated into other territories in 1869, three remained: Kyoto-fu, Osaka-fu and Tokyo-fu.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese Government wished to tighten control of the local autonomy of the different areas of Tokyo. metropolis (都, to), but the special wards of Tokyo (35 in 1938) objected to the plan. In 1943 the plan was implemented, and Tokyo-fu and Tokyo-shi were merged to become the current Tokyo Metropolis. This brought the number of fu in Japan to its current number of two: Kyoto-fu and Osaka-fu. There is currently a plan which will turn Osaka to a metropolis, which would leave the amount of urban prefectures to one if successful.The Home Ministry published a plan to rename Tokyo to a
Bu (부, 府) has been used in use in Korea since the Goryeo Dynasty as a suffix designating a city. The city of Kaesong was designated Kaesong-bu in 995. The 1485 code of law Gyeongguk daejeon designates the city of Seoul as Hanseong-bu (漢城府) and Kaesong as Kaesong-bu. In the 17th Century, additional areas were designated bu, including Ganghwa-bu, Suwon-bu and Gwangju-bu.
In 1895 after the Donghak Peasant Revolution and the Treaty of Shimonoseki, a series of wide changes called the Gabo Reform were enacted. One of these changes was to split the Eight Provinces of Korea into 23 bu: Andong, Chuncheon, Chungju, Daegu, Dongnae, Gangneung, Gongju, Haeju, Hamhŭng, Hanseong, Hongju, Incheon, Jeju, Jeonju, Jinju, Kaesŏng, Kanggye, Kapsan, Kyŏngsŏng, Naju, Namwon, P'yŏngyang and Ŭiju. The districts were named after the capitals of each district, and also included rural areas. A year later in August 1896, these districts were replaced by 13 new provinces, using the previous word do (도; 道).
After the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 and the occupation of Korea by Japan, many areas were renamed and local government was reorganised. On 1 April 1914, twelve bu were created: Seoul (then Gyeongseong-bu (京城府, Keijō-fu)), Incheon, Gunsan, Mokpo, Daegu, Busan, Masan, Pyongyang, Chinnampo, Sinuiju, Wonsan and Chongjin. Between 1930 and 1944, 10 more were added by the Japanese government: Kaesong and Hamhung in 1930, followed by Daejeon, Jeonju and Gwangju in 1935, Rason (1936), Haeju (1938), Jinju (1939), Kimchaek (1941) and Hungnam (1944).
After the Potsdam Declaration in 1945 and Japan's defeat in World War II, as well as the Division of Korea, the term has no longer been in use.
The word was borrowed in Sino-Vietnamese as phủ, and used as an administrative unit in 15–19th Century Vietnam.Administrative division of new frontier territories into phủ was particularly used as the Vietnamese expanded southwards and inland. The administrative reorganization by Minh Mạng along Chinese models following the death of his father in 1832, fixed the position of the phủ as an intermediary administrative division between the new larger unit of the tỉnh province, and the existing local huyện sub-prefecture or district, and power was concentrated with provincial governors. The position of local prefects and district heads remained unaffected.
Kyoto, officially Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. As of 2018, the city had a population of 1.47 million.
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international church structures, as well as in antiquity a Roman district
Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper, two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one "metropolis". In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.
Korea's provinces have been the primary administrative division of Korea since the mid Goryeo dynasty in the early 11th century, and were preceded by provincial-level divisions dating back to Unified Silla, in the late 7th century.
Osaka Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of Honshu. Osaka Prefecture has a population of 8,823,358 and has a geographic area of 1,905 square kilometres (736 sq mi). Osaka Prefecture borders Hyōgo Prefecture to the northwest, Kyoto Prefecture to the north, Nara Prefecture to the southeast, and Wakayama Prefecture to the south.
Kyoto Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of Honshu. Kyoto Prefecture has a population of 2,610,353 and has a geographic area of 4,612 square kilometres (1,781 sq mi). Kyoto Prefecture borders Fukui Prefecture to the northeast, Shiga Prefecture to the east, Mie Prefecture to the southeast, Nara Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture to the south, and Hyogo Prefecture to the west.
The district is today a geographical and statistical unit comprising one or several rural municipalities in Japan. It was used as an administrative unit in Japan in antiquity and between 1878 and 1921 and was roughly equivalent to the county of the United States, ranking at the level below prefecture and above town or village, same as city.
Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. There are 333 prefecture-level divisions in China. They include 7 prefectures, 293 prefecture-level cities, 30 autonomous prefectures and 3 leagues. Other than provincial level divisions, prefectural level divisions are not mentioned in the Chinese constitution.
The history of the administrative divisions of the Imperial China is quite complex. Across history, what is called 'China' has taken many shapes, and many political organizations. For various reasons, both the borders and names of political divisions have changed—sometimes to follow topography, sometimes to weaken former states by dividing them, and sometimes to realize a philosophical or historical ideal. For recent times, the number of recorded tiny changes is quite large; by contrast, the lack of clear, trustworthy data for ancient times forces historians and geographers to draw approximate borders for respective divisions. But thanks to imperial records and geographic descriptions, political divisions may often be redrawn with some precision. Natural changes, such as changes in a river's course, or loss of data, still make this issue difficult for ancient times.
Zhou were historical administrative and political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han dynasty, zhou exist continuouslyin 1912—a period of over 2000 years. Zhou were also previously used in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
Japanese place names include names for geographic features, present and former administrative divisions, transportation facilities such as railroad stations, and historic sites in Japan. The article Japanese addressing system contains related information on postal addresses.
The bureaucratic administration of Japan is divided into three basic levels; national, prefectural, and municipal. Below the national government there are 47 prefectures, six of which are further subdivided into subprefectures to better service large geographical areas or remote islands. The municipalities are the lowest level of government; the twenty most-populated cities outside Tokyo Metropolis are known as designated cities and are subdivided into wards.
Gokishichidō was the name for ancient administrative units organized in Japan during the Asuka period, as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese. Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities until the 19th century. The Gokishichidō consisted of five provinces in the Kinai (畿内) or capital region, plus seven dō (道) or circuits, each of which contained provinces of its own.
Districts, also known as rural districts, are one of several types of second-tier administrative subdivisions of Vietnam, the other types being urban districts (quận), provincial cities, municipal city, and district-level towns. The districts are subdivisions of the first-tier divisions, namely the provinces and municipalities. Districts are subdivided into third-tier units, namely townships and communes.
The Fuhanken Sanchisei was the subnational government structure in early Meiji Japan. It lasted from the Boshin War, the start to the Meiji Restoration, in 1868 until the replacement of all remaining feudal domains (-han) with prefectures (-ken) in 1871. During this period, prefectures, urban prefectures and rural prefectures, controlled by the new central government, and daimyō Domains, still under their pre-restoration feudal rulers, formed the primary administrative subdivisions of the country. The exact numbers varied continually as adjustments to the feudal territorial divisions, mergers and splits started to take up pace, but very roughly there were about >250 -han and about <50 -fu/-ken in total during this time.
The Six Provinces of Southern Vietnam is a historical name for the region of Southern Vietnam, which is referred to in French as Basse-Cochinchine. The region was politically defined and established after the inauguration of the Nguyễn dynasty, and called by this name from 1832, when Emperor Minh Mạng introduced administrative reforms, to 1867, which culminated in the eight-year French campaign to conquer the Six Provinces.
The Yuan dynasty was a vast empire founded by Mongol leader Kublai Khan in China. During its existence, its territory was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) governed by the Central Secretariat and places under control of various provinces (行省) or Branch Secretariats (行中書省), as well as the region under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. In addition, the Yuan emperors held nominal suzerainty over the western Mongol khanates, but in reality none of them were governed by the Yuan dynasty due to the division of the Mongol Empire.
Protectorate, also known as Duhu Fu, was a type of administrative division controlling frontier regions in Imperial China, especially in the Han and Tang dynasties. During the Han and Tang dynasties, a protectorate was the highest government agency in frontier zones and was directly responsible to the central court. The protectorate governor was called duhu, who needed to take charge in military operations when necessary, and provide instructions to minority tribes and small dependent states within the region. Sometimes, a protectorate had subdivisions named commendaries, or Dudu Fu. The first protectorate was the Protectorate of the Western Regions established in 60 BCE during Emperor Xuan's reign. It controlled the majority of Tarim Basin and some other parts of Central Asia after the Han dynasty defeated Xiongnu.